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1.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 116(9): 1929-1937, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465695

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Linaclotide improves abdominal pain and constipation in patients with constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C). Patients report additional bothersome abdominal symptoms of bloating and discomfort. The intention of this study was to evaluate linaclotide's efficacy in relieving IBS-C-related abdominal symptoms (bloating, discomfort, and pain) using a novel multi-item Abdominal Score (AS). METHODS: Patients with IBS-C with abdominal pain ≥3 (0-10 scale) were randomized to linaclotide 290 µg or placebo daily for 12 weeks. The AS, derived from the Diary for IBS Symptoms-Constipation, is the average of abdominal bloating, discomfort, and pain at their worst (0 = none, 10 = worst possible). The primary end point was overall change from baseline (CFB) in AS. Secondary end points included CFB in 12-week AS evaluated using cumulative distribution function and 6-week/12-week AS responder (AS improvement ≥2 points for ≥6-week/12-week). RESULTS: Overall, 614 patients (mean age 46.7 years; 81% female) were randomized. All prespecified end points showed significant benefit of linaclotide vs placebo. The mean overall CFB AS reduction for linaclotide was -1.9 vs -1.2 for placebo (P < 0.0001); the 6-week/12-week AS responder rate was 40.5% for linaclotide vs 23.4% for placebo (odds ratio = 2.2 [95% confidence interval, 1.55-3.12; P < 0.0001]). Diarrhea was the most common treatment-emergent adverse event (linaclotide = 4.6%, placebo = 1.6%). DISCUSSION: Linaclotide significantly reduced multiple abdominal symptoms important to patients with IBS-C (bloating, discomfort, and pain) compared with placebo, as measured by a novel multi-item AS. The AS, derived from the Diary for IBS Symptoms-Constipation, should be considered for use in future IBS-C clinical studies to measure clinically meaningful improvements beyond traditional end points.


Assuntos
Dor Abdominal/tratamento farmacológico , Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Agonistas da Guanilil Ciclase C/uso terapêutico , Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 116(2): 354-361, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065589

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Immediate-release (IR) formulation of linaclotide 290 µg improves abdominal pain and constipation (APC) in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with constipation. Delayed-release (DR) formulations were developed on the premise that targeting the ileum (delayed-release formulation 1 [DR1]) or ileocecal junction and cecum (MD-7246, formerly DR2) would modulate linaclotide's secretory effects while preserving pain relief effects. METHODS: This phase 2b study randomized patients with IBS with constipation to placebo or 1 of 7 once-daily linaclotide doses (DR1 30, 100, or 300 µg; MD-7246 30, 100, or 300 µg; or IR 290 µg) for 12 weeks. Key efficacy endpoints were change from baseline in abdominal pain and complete spontaneous bowel movement frequency, and 6/12-week combined APC+1 responder rate. RESULTS: Overall, 532 patients were randomized; mean age was 45.1 years, and most were women (83.3%) and White (64.7%). All linaclotide DR1 and MD-7246 groups experienced greater improvements in abdominal pain from baseline and vs placebo throughout treatment. Linaclotide DR1 and IR led to numerically greater improvements from baseline in complete spontaneous bowel movement frequency and higher APC+1 responder rates compared with placebo; MD-7246 results were similar to placebo. Diarrhea was the most common adverse event with DR1 and IR; rates were similar between MD-7246 and placebo. DISCUSSION: Altering the site of drug delivery in the intestine might uncouple linaclotide's pain relief from secretory effects. Persistent, modest abdominal pain improvement with limited impact on bowel symptom parameters, as seen across MD-7246 doses, warrants further study of MD-7246 as a novel treatment for abdominal pain, regardless of IBS subtype.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Agonistas da Guanilil Ciclase C/administração & dosagem , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Dor Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Constipação Intestinal/fisiopatologia , Defecação , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
3.
Pain ; 161(5): 1027-1036, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32310620

RESUMO

Constipation is the most common adverse event (AE) of opioid therapy. This multicenter, phase 2 study evaluated the efficacy and safety of linaclotide in treating opioid-induced constipation (OIC) in patients with chronic noncancer pain syndromes (NCT02270983). Adults with OIC (<3 spontaneous bowel movements [SBMs]/week) related to chronic noncancer pain were randomized 1:1:1 to receive linaclotide 145 µg, linaclotide 290 µg, or placebo once daily for 8 weeks. The primary endpoint was change from baseline in 8-week SBM frequency rate (SBMs/week). Secondary efficacy endpoints included 6/8-week SBM 3 + 1 responders, time to first SBM, and changes from baseline in 8-week stool consistency, abdominal bloating, and straining. Additional endpoints included treatment satisfaction and adequate relief responders. In total, 254 patients were randomized: 87, 88, and 79 received linaclotide 145 µg, linaclotide 290 µg, and placebo, respectively. The mean changes from baseline in SBMs/week during the treatment period were 2.9 and 3.5 in the linaclotide 145 and 290 µg groups (P < 0.01 for both doses), respectively, vs 1.6 in the placebo group. Diarrhea, the most common AE, was generally mild, resulting in 1.1%, 5.7%, and 1.3% of patients discontinuing in the linaclotide 145 µg, linaclotide 290 µg, and placebo groups, respectively. No serious AEs related to diarrhea were reported in any treatment group. Compared with placebo, linaclotide-treated patients had significant improvements in stool consistency, straining, abdominal bloating, and treatment satisfaction scores (P < 0.05). Linaclotide significantly improved OIC symptoms and was well tolerated in patients with chronic noncancer pain.


Assuntos
Dor Crônica , Constipação Induzida por Opioides , Analgésicos Opioides/efeitos adversos , Dor Crônica/tratamento farmacológico , Constipação Intestinal/induzido quimicamente , Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Método Duplo-Cego , Humanos , Peptídeos , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 13(4): 397-406, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30791771

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Linaclotide is approved for treating irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C; 290 µg QD) and chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC; 145 µg or 72 µg QD). These analyses aimed to assess linaclotide safety in a large, pooled Phase 3 population. METHODS: In six randomized controlled trials (RCTs), patients received linaclotide (72 µg, 145 µg, 290 µg) or placebo daily for 12-26 weeks; in two long-term safety (LTS) studies, patients received open-label linaclotide for ≤78 additional weeks. Laboratory values, vital signs, and treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were assessed. RESULTS: Overall, 3853 patients received ≥1 dose of linaclotide. The most common TEAE was diarrhea (majority [90.5% in RCTs] mild/moderate). Linaclotide patients experienced 1.1 diarrhea TEAE per patient-year in the RCTs (0.2 in placebo), and 0.3 in the LTS studies. In RCTs, 6.9% linaclotide and 3.0% placebo patients discontinued due to any adverse event (AE); 4.0% linaclotide and 0.3% placebo patients discontinued due to diarrhea. In LTS studies, 9.4% patients discontinued due to any AE, and 3.8% due to diarrhea. Serious AEs (SAEs) were rare and similar across treatment groups; there were no SAEs of diarrhea. CONCLUSION: These pooled analyses of patients treated for ≤104 weeks confirm linaclotide's overall safety.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Defecação/efeitos dos fármacos , Agonistas da Guanilil Ciclase C/uso terapêutico , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Doença Crônica , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Constipação Intestinal/diagnóstico , Constipação Intestinal/fisiopatologia , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Diarreia/fisiopatologia , Agonistas da Guanilil Ciclase C/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/diagnóstico , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/fisiopatologia , Peptídeos/efeitos adversos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Recuperação de Função Fisiológica , Fatores de Risco , Resultado do Tratamento
5.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 113(1): 105-114, 2018 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29091082

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Linaclotide is a guanylate cyclase-C agonist approved in the United States, Canada, and Mexico at a once-daily 145-µg dose for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC); a once-daily 72-µg dose for CIC recently received FDA approval. The trial objective was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a 72-µg linaclotide dose in CIC patients. METHODS: This double-blind, placebo-controlled trial randomized patients with CIC (Rome III criteria) to once-daily linaclotide 72 µg or 145 µg, or placebo for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint, 12-week complete spontaneous bowel movement (CSBM) overall responder, required patients to have ≥3 CSBMs and an increase of ≥1 CSBM per week from baseline in the same week for ≥9 of 12 weeks of the treatment period. Secondary endpoints included 12-week change from baseline in bowel (SBM and CSBM frequency, stool consistency, straining) and abdominal (bloating, discomfort) symptoms, monthly CSBM responders, and 12-week CSBM responders among patients who averaged >1 SBM/week at baseline. Sustained response (12-week CSBM overall responders who met weekly criteria for 3 of the 4 final weeks (weeks 9-12) of treatment) was evaluated as an additional endpoint. Adverse events (AEs) were monitored. RESULTS: The intent-to-treat population included 1,223 patients (mean age=46 years, female=77%, white=71%). The primary endpoint was met by 13.4% of linaclotide 72-µg patients vs. 4.7% of placebo patients (P<0.0001, odds ratio=3.0; statistically significant controlling for multiplicity). Sustained response was achieved by 12.4% of linaclotide 72-µg patients vs. 4.2% of placebo patients (nominal P<0.0001). Linaclotide 72-µg patients met 9-of-10 secondary endpoints vs. placebo (P<0.05; abdominal discomfort, P=0.1028). Patients treated with linaclotide 145 µg also improved CIC symptoms for the primary (12.4%) and sustained responder endpoint parameters (11.4%) and for all 10 of the secondary endpoint parameters including abdominal discomfort (P<0.05). Diarrhea, the most common AE, was mild in most instances and resulted in discontinuation of 0, 2.4%, and 3.2% of patients in the placebo, linaclotide 72-µg, and linaclotide 145-µg groups, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Once-daily linaclotide 72 µg significantly improved CIC symptoms in both men and women with a low rate of discontinuation due to diarrhea over 12 weeks of treatment.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Agonistas da Guanilil Ciclase C/administração & dosagem , Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Defecação , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Agonistas da Guanilil Ciclase C/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Helicobacter ; 8(6): 626-42, 2003 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14632678

RESUMO

AIM: To compare the short-term (7-day) safety and efficacy of two triple-therapy regimens using pantoprazole with those of two dual-therapy regimens (one with pantoprazole and one without), for Helicobacter pylori eradication in patients with peptic ulcer disease. METHODS: H. pylori infection was identified by rapid urease (CLOtest), and confirmed by histology and culture. Patients were enrolled into one of two randomized, double-blind, multicenter, parallel-group studies. In study A, patients received oral pantoprazole 40 mg, clarithromycin 500 mg, and metronidazole 500 mg (PCM); pantoprazole, clarithromycin and amoxicillin 1000 mg (PCA); or pantoprazole and clarithromycin (PC). In study B, patients received PCM, PCA, PC, or clarithromycin and metronidazole without pantoprazole (CM). Treatments were given twice daily for 7 days. H. pylori status after therapy was assessed by histology and culture at 4 weeks after completing the course of study treatment. Modified intent-to-treat (MITT; each study: n = 424, n = 512) and per-protocol (PP; each study: n = 371, n = 454) populations were analyzed. The MITT population comprised all patients whose positive H. pylori status was confirmed by culture and histology; the PP population comprised patients who also complied with > or = 85% of study medication doses. RESULTS: A total of 1016 patients were enrolled. Cure rates among patients with clarithromycin-susceptible H. pylori strains were 82 and 86% for PCM, and 72 and 71% for PCA, in studies A and B, respectively. Cure rates among patients with metronidazole-susceptible H. pylori strains were 82 and 87% for PCM, and 71 and 69% for PCA, in studies A and B, respectively. The combined eradication rates observed with the PCM regimen were superior to those of all other regimens tested. Side-effects were infrequent and mild. CONCLUSIONS: PCM had the highest overall eradication rate in these two studies examining 7-day treatment regimens. All regimens were safe and well tolerated.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/administração & dosagem , Anti-Infecciosos/administração & dosagem , Antiulcerosos/administração & dosagem , Benzimidazóis/administração & dosagem , Claritromicina/administração & dosagem , Infecções por Helicobacter/tratamento farmacológico , Helicobacter pylori , Metronidazol/administração & dosagem , Sulfóxidos/administração & dosagem , 2-Piridinilmetilsulfinilbenzimidazóis , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Amoxicilina/administração & dosagem , Amoxicilina/efeitos adversos , Antibacterianos/efeitos adversos , Anti-Infecciosos/efeitos adversos , Antiulcerosos/efeitos adversos , Benzimidazóis/efeitos adversos , Claritromicina/efeitos adversos , Método Duplo-Cego , Resistência a Medicamentos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Metronidazol/efeitos adversos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Omeprazol/análogos & derivados , Pantoprazol , Úlcera Péptica/tratamento farmacológico , Úlcera Péptica/microbiologia , Sulfóxidos/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
7.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 98(2): 301-7, 2003 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12591045

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Maintenance proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy is effective for gastric acid hypersecretory states, although data with pantoprazole are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of long term p.o. pantoprazole in individuals with hypersecretion. METHODS: All subjects had Zollinger-Ellison syndrome or idiopathic hypersecretion. Baseline acid output was measured in the presence of prior maintenance antisecretory therapy before pantoprazole exposure. The starting dose was 40 mg b.i.d. in most cases, and the dose was adjusted to document control within the first 2 wk of therapy. The maximal allowable dose was 240 mg daily. Acid output was measured on day 28 and then quarterly from month 3. The primary efficacy endpoint was documented control of acid secretion at 6 months, i.e., acid output in the last 1 h before the next dose of therapy of <10 mEq/h (<5 mEq/h in subjects with prior acid-reducing surgery). RESULTS: A total of 26 subjects had Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (six with multiple endocrine neoplasia syndrome type 1) and nine had idiopathic hypersecretion. Pre-enrollment therapy included omeprazole in 27 subjects and lansoprazole in eight, and 82.4% of subjects were controlled on their prior regimens. With upward dose titration, acid output was controlled in all subjects by day 10 and in all but two (6%) at the 6-month time point. Median acid secretion on therapy at 6 months was <2 mEq/h (mean 2.2 mEq/h; range 0-10.5 mEq/h) at a dose of 40 mg b.i.d. for 24 subjects, 80 mg b.i.d. for seven subjects, and 120 mg b.i.d. for two subjects. During the course of the study, five subjects required doses of 240 mg daily. Pantoprazole was generally well tolerated. No cases of anterior optic ischemic neuropathy occurred. Five subjects died during follow-up, all because of events unrelated to the study drug. CONCLUSIONS: Maintenance p.o. pantoprazole therapy at a dose of 80-240 mg/day in divided doses was both effective and generally well tolerated for patients with Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and idiopathic hypersecretion.


Assuntos
Benzimidazóis/uso terapêutico , Ácido Gástrico/metabolismo , Inibidores da Bomba de Prótons , Sulfóxidos/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de Zollinger-Ellison/tratamento farmacológico , 2-Piridinilmetilsulfinilbenzimidazóis , Administração Oral , Benzimidazóis/administração & dosagem , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Omeprazol/análogos & derivados , Pantoprazol , Segurança , Sulfóxidos/administração & dosagem , Fatores de Tempo
8.
J Clin Pharmacol ; 42(5): 512-9, 2002 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12017345

RESUMO

Under normal physiological conditions, gastric acid production is controlled by a negative feedback mechanism. Proton pump inhibitors, such as pantoprazole, inhibit gastric acid secretion by irreversibly binding and inactivating luminally active hydrogen potassium ATPase. Recovery of acid production after treatment with a proton pump inhibitor is driven by new pump synthesis, activation of existing cytoplasmic pumps, or reversal of proton pump inhibition. The authors measured the time course of the inhibition and recovery of acid secretion in healthy volunteers following intravenous administration of pantoprazole to determine the rate of proton pump activation under maximally stimulated conditions. Gastric acid production was measured in 27 Helicobacter pylori negative healthy volunteers (mean age = 31 +/- 7 years; 17 men, 10 women) who received single doses of intravenous pantoprazole (20, 40, 80, or 120 mg) in the presence of a continuous intravenous infusion of 1 ug/kg/h of pentagastrin. From the time profile of acid secretion, the authors described the rate of change of acid output using an irreversible pharmacodynamic response model represented by the equation dR/dt = -k x R x Cpanto + Ln2/PPR x (Ro-R) and correlated the parameter values with demographic factors and gastric acid measurements. Mean stimulated acid output secretion was 21.6 +/- 18.4 mEq/h (range: 1.6-90.5) prior to the administration of pantoprazole and remained steady for 25 hours after placebo administration. Intravenous pantoprazole inhibited acid output in a dose-response fashion, with maximal inhibition (99.9%) occurring after an 80 mg dose. Mean proton pump recovery time was 37.1 +/- 21.0 hours (range: 6.7-75), and recovery was independent of the dose of pantoprazole. There was no association noted between proton pump recovery time and gender, age, race, body weight, or pantoprazole dose. However, there was an inverse correlation between acid output during baseline stimulation and recovery of acid secretion. Mean proton pump recovery time in stimulated normal human volunteers was 37.1 +/- 21.0 hours, with a range of 6.7 to 75 hours. The authors hypothesize that there may be a normal homeostatic mechanism that maintains acid secretory capability within a normal range by altering the rate of proton pump activation dependent on the individual's parietal cell mass. Abnormalities of this process may be responsible for the development of acid peptic disease in susceptible individuals.


Assuntos
Ácido Gástrico/metabolismo , Células Parietais Gástricas/metabolismo , Bombas de Próton/metabolismo , 2-Piridinilmetilsulfinilbenzimidazóis , Adulto , Antiulcerosos/farmacologia , Benzimidazóis/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Omeprazol/análogos & derivados , Pantoprazol , Células Parietais Gástricas/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Parietais Gástricas/enzimologia , Pentagastrina/farmacologia , Sulfóxidos/farmacologia , Fatores de Tempo
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