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1.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 8(18): e013558, 2019 Sep 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31510823

RESUMO

Background Increased renal resistive index (RRI) has been associated with target organ damage as well as renal and cardiovascular outcomes. Matrix Gla (γ-carboxyglutamate) protein (MGP) is a strong inhibitor of soft tissue calcification. Its inactive form (dephospho-uncarboxylated MGP [dp-ucMGP]) has been associated with vascular stiffness, cardiovascular outcomes, and mortality. In this study, we hypothesized that high levels of dp-ucMGP were associated with increased RRI. Methods and Results We recruited participants via a multicenter family-based cross-sectional study in Switzerland. Levels of dp-ucMGP were measured in plasma by sandwich ELISA. RRI was measured by Doppler ultrasound in 3 segmental arteries in both kidneys. We used mixed regression models to assess the relationship between dp-ucMGP and RRI. We adjusted for common determinants of RRI as well as renal function and cardiovascular risk factors. We included 1006 participants in our analyses: 526 women and 480 men. Mean values were 0.44±0.20 nmol/L for dp-ucMGP and 64±5% for RRI. After multivariable adjustment, dp-ucMGP was positively associated with RRI (P=0.001). In subgroup analysis by age tertiles, this association was not significant in the youngest age group (<38 years; P=0.62), whereas it was significant in older age groups (38-55 and >55 years; P=0.016 and P<0.001, respectively). Conclusions Levels of dp-ucMGP are positively and independently associated with RRI after adjustment for common determinants of RRI, cardiovascular risk factors, and renal function. The stronger association among older adults is probably due, in part, to age-related arterial stiffness. RRI thus seems to reflect the global atherosclerotic burden in a general adult population.

2.
Am J Hypertens ; 2019 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31257412

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Renal sodium handling could be a potential mediator linking adipokines to hypertension. The aim of the study was to assess the relationship of leptin with urinary sodium excretion and proximal sodium reabsorption in humans. METHODS: This crossectional study was conducted on participants of hypertensive families from the Seychelles Island. A split urine (daytime and nighttime) collection and plasma leptin were measured. Endogenous lithium clearance was used to assess proximal sodium reabsorption. Mixed multiple linear regression tests adjusted for confounding factors were used. RESULTS: 365 participants (57% women) were included in this analysis. Leptin and adiponectin were higher in women (p<0.001). Leptin was associated positively with daytime (coefficient (c): 0.16, standard deviation (sd): 0.03, p<0.001), nighttime urinary sodium excretion (c: 017, sd: 0.04), p<0.019), daytime lithium clearance (c: 0.40, sd: 0.08, p<0.001) and nighttime lithium clearance (c: 0.39, sd: 0.10, p<0.001) after adjusting for sex. The association was lost or mitigated only when BMI was introduced in the model. When BMI was categorized in normal vs overweight participant, leptin was associated with daytime and nighttime sodium excretion rates (c: 0.14, sd: 0.05, p=0.011 and c: 0.22, sd: 0.07, p=0.002 respectively) only in overweight participants. CONCLUSION: Leptin is associated positively with daytime and nighttime sodium excretion and lithium clearance suggesting a natriuretic rather than a sodium retaining effect of leptin. Sex and BMI are major confounders in this association. These results highlight the importance of sex and obesity in our understanding of the relationships between leptin, blood pressure and renal sodium handling.

3.
Kidney Int ; 96(4): 890-905, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31301888

RESUMO

Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) regulates phosphate homeostasis, and its early rise in patients with chronic kidney disease is independently associated with all-cause mortality. Since inflammation is characteristic of chronic kidney disease and associates with increased plasma FGF23 we examined whether inflammation directly stimulates FGF23. In a population-based cohort, plasma tumor necrosis factor (TNF) was the only inflammatory cytokine that independently and positively correlated with plasma FGF23. Mouse models of chronic kidney disease showed signs of renal inflammation, renal FGF23 expression and elevated systemic FGF23 levels. Renal FGF23 expression coincided with expression of the orphan nuclear receptor Nurr1 regulating FGF23 in other organs. Antibody-mediated neutralization of TNF normalized plasma FGF23 and suppressed ectopic renal Fgf23 expression. Conversely, TNF administration to control mice increased plasma FGF23 without altering plasma phosphate. Moreover, in Il10-deficient mice with inflammatory bowel disease and normal kidney function, plasma FGF23 was elevated and normalized upon TNF neutralization. Thus, the inflammatory cytokine TNF contributes to elevated systemic FGF23 levels and also triggers ectopic renal Fgf23 expression in animal models of chronic kidney disease.

4.
Nutrients ; 11(7)2019 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336862

RESUMO

Socioeconomically disadvantaged people are disproportionally more likely to develop obesity and obesity-related diseases. However, it remains unclear to what extent diet quality contributes to socioeconomic inequalities in obesity. We aimed to assess the role of diet quality in the association between socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity. Data originated from the national nutrition survey, a cross-sectional sample of the adult Swiss population (N = 1860). We used education and income as proxies for SES; calculated the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI) as a measure of diet quality; and used body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) as obesity markers. We applied counterfactual mediation modelling to generate odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals, and the proportion mediated by diet quality. Individuals with less than a tertiary education were two to three times more likely to be obese, regardless of the marker (OR (95% CI): 3.36 (2.01, 5.66) using BMI; 2.44 (1.58, 3.75) using WC; 2.48 (1.63, 3.78) using WHR; and 2.04 (1.43, 2.96) using WHtR). The proportion of the association between educational level and obesity that was mediated by diet quality was 22.1% using BMI, 26.6% using WC, 31.4% using WHtR, and 35.8% using WHR. Similar findings were observed for income. Our findings suggest that diet quality substantially contributes to socioeconomic inequalities in obesity while it does not fully explain them. Focusing efforts on improving the diet quality of disadvantaged groups could help reduce social inequalities in obesity.

5.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 149: w20090, 2019 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154659

RESUMO

The objectives were to determine urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in day and night samples collected over a 24-hour period and evaluate the usual dietary iodine intake distribution from this collection. We propose a method by which the prevalence of inadequacy can be calculated from a single 24-hour collection, reducing the burden on participants and the study costs. The samples from 1128 participants were collected between 2009 and 2013 within the framework of the Swiss Kidney Project on Genes observational cohort study; 1024 samples were suitable for statistical evaluation of iodine analysis. Participants were over 18, resident in Switzerland and of European ancestry. Over 24 hours, urine was collected as night-time (bedtime until and including first morning urine) and day-time (the remainder) samples. Associations with variables, in particular to estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), were investigated using mixed models. The 24-hour median UICs were 73 and 96 µg/l for women (n = 542) and men (n = 482), respectively; 24-hour median intakes (derived from the corresponding excretion) were 127 and 156 µg/d, respectively. Day and night excretions were normalised to 24-hour excretion values and the usual intake distribution calculated by the US National Cancer Institute method. The Estimated Average Requirement cut-point method was used to calculate the prevalence of inadequacy, estimated at 14% for women and 4% for men; above the target of 2-3%. We conclude that segregating 24-hour urine into day and night collections is sufficient to determine the prevalence of iodine inadequacy in the population and reduces the burden on participants by sparing a second 24-hour collection. No association between iodine intake and eGFR was found.

6.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31127347

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To identify occupations and socio-economic groups with detrimental or protective effect on suicide mortality. METHODS: For every occupation and economic activity/industry, we computed directly age-standardized mortality rates (DSRs) using the age structure of the European population (2010) and standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) for suicide using national cause-specific mortality rates. We further stratified analyses by socio-economic variables, job-skill level, and by three calendar periods (1990-1998/1999-2006/2007-2014). RESULTS: The study sample comprised 5,834,618 participants (94,918,456 person-years). The highest DSRs were observed among unemployed/job-seeking group, in agricultural, fishery and related male workers, and in health and social activities female workers. The lowest DSRs were observed in real estate and renting, research and development, IT and other business activities in men and in agriculture, hunting and forestry industry in women. A consistent reduction in DSRs across three calendar periods was observed in men. In female corporate managers, DSRs increased over the 2007-2014 period compared with 1999-2006. Compared to general working-age population, unemployed/job-seeking people, manufacturing labourers, personal care and related workers, and motor vehicle drivers of both sexes were identified at risk of suicide. Moreover, an excess of suicide was observed among male material recording and transport clerks; nursing and midwife-associated professionals; and agricultural workers as well as among female writers and performing artists. CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest the detrimental effect of low socioeconomic positions, including unemployment, with respect to suicide mortality and a relationship between suicide and poor psychosocial working conditions in elementary occupations. Sex-specific results need further investigation.

7.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(19): 19697-19704, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31079306

RESUMO

The effect of particulate matter (PM) on health increases with exposure duration but the change from short to longer term is not well studied. We examined the exposure to PM smaller 10 µm (PM10) from short to longer duration and their associations with levels of inflammatory markers in the population-based CoLaus cohort in Lausanne, Switzerland. Baseline and follow-up CoLaus data were used to study the associations between PM10 exposure and inflammatory markers, including the high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), as well as interleukin 1-beta (IL-1ß), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor-necrosis-factor alpha (TNF-α) using mixed models. Exposure was determined for each participant's home address from hourly air quality simulations at a 5-m resolution. Short-term exposure intervals were 1 day, 1 week, and 1 month prior to the hospital visit (blood withdrawal); long-term exposure intervals were 3 and 6 months prior to the visit. In most time windows, IL-6, IL-1ß, and TNF-α were positively associated with PM10. No significant associations were identified for CRP. Adjusted associations with long-term exposures were stronger and more significant than those for short-term exposures. In stratified models, gender, age, smoking status, and hypertension only led to small modifications in effect estimates, though a few of the estimates for IL-6 and TNF-α became non-significant. In this general adult cohort exposed to relatively low average PM10 levels, clear associations with markers of systemic inflammation were observed. Longer duration of elevated exposure was associated with an exacerbated inflammatory response. This may partially explain the elevated disease risk observed with chronic PM10 exposure. It also suggests that reducing prolonged episodes of high PM exposure may be a strategy to reduce inflammatory risk.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Inflamação/sangue , Material Particulado/análise , Adulto , Idoso , Poluentes Atmosféricos/toxicidade , Biomarcadores/sangue , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Estudos de Coortes , Exposição Ambiental/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Humanos , Inflamação/induzido quimicamente , Interleucina-6/sangue , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Material Particulado/toxicidade , Fatores de Risco , Suíça , Fatores de Tempo , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue
8.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 11(7): 2045-2070, 2019 Apr 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009935

RESUMO

Differences in health status by socioeconomic position (SEP) tend to be more evident at older ages, suggesting the involvement of a biological mechanism responsive to the accumulation of deleterious exposures across the lifespan. DNA methylation (DNAm) has been proposed as a biomarker of biological aging that conserves memory of endogenous and exogenous stress during life.We examined the association of education level, as an indicator of SEP, and lifestyle-related variables with four biomarkers of age-dependent DNAm dysregulation: the total number of stochastic epigenetic mutations (SEMs) and three epigenetic clocks (Horvath, Hannum and Levine), in 18 cohorts spanning 12 countries.The four biological aging biomarkers were associated with education and different sets of risk factors independently, and the magnitude of the effects differed depending on the biomarker and the predictor. On average, the effect of low education on epigenetic aging was comparable with those of other lifestyle-related risk factors (obesity, alcohol intake), with the exception of smoking, which had a significantly stronger effect.Our study shows that low education is an independent predictor of accelerated biological (epigenetic) aging and that epigenetic clocks appear to be good candidates for disentangling the biological pathways underlying social inequalities in healthy aging and longevity.

9.
J Hypertens ; 37(9): 1853-1860, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30964826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) is increasing worldwide in part due to population ageing. Identifying risk factors for age-related kidney function decline could help in understanding mechanisms for kidney ageing. Sodium and potassium intakes are associated with CKD progression in the renal population, but little is known on their role in renal function decline [mean estimated glomerular filtration rate variation (ΔeGFR)] in the general adult population. METHOD: We therefore explored the association of urinary sodium and potassium excretions with ΔeGFR in a longitudinal population-based cohort. We estimated 24-h urinary sodium (eUNa), potassium (eUK) and sodium-to-potassium ratio (eUNa/K) from spot urine using Kawasaki formulae. We performed multivariate linear regression models studying the association of eUNa, eUK and eUNa/K with yearly ΔeGFR, taking several covariates into account, including baseline eGFR and albuminuria. RESULTS: There were 4141 white participants from which 54.3% were women. Median age was 51.5 [43.6-60.6] years and mean baseline eGFR 88 (SD 15) ml/min per 1.73 m. During a median follow-up of 5.4 years, mean ΔeGFR was -0.59 (SD 1.68) ml/min per 1.73 m per year. In the fully adjusted model, high eUNa and eUNa/K were associated with faster renal function decline with standardized coefficients ß = -0.07 (95% confidence interval: -0.11 to -0.04) and ß = -0.05 (95% confidence interval: -0.08 to -0.02), respectively. By contrast, eUK, taken alone, showed no association. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that dietary sodium and potassium intakes may play a role in kidney function decline in the general adult population. Whether lowering sodium and increasing potassium in the diet may help in CKD prevention needs further exploration.

10.
Econ Hum Biol ; 33: 201-210, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30959348

RESUMO

Data from the National Nutrition Survey for adults (menuCH) allow for the assessment of recent trends in measured height by year of birth for adult men and women from a population-based sample. The aim of the present study was to test if - similarly to conscripts and schoolchildren - the Swiss adult population stopped growing taller in recent birth cohorts, and if so, when the change occurred. We found that - when self-reported - height was overestimated on average by about 1 cm in both men and women, with an increasing tendency with older age and with shorter height. Average measured height increased by 4.5-5.0 cm for adult men and women between the birth years 1937-1949 and 1990-1995. However, this increase was not linear, and starting with the 1970s birth years, average height plateaued on a level of about 178 cm for men and 166 cm for women. Being born outside of Switzerland or adjustment for potential shrinkage with increasing age did not change this temporal pattern. We also found shorter average height among participants from the Italian part of Switzerland and those with lower educational level. It remains unclear if the phenomenon of stabilisation affects all subgroups of the Swiss population. Future studies should combine a larger number of population-based surveys to enhance the sample size, for example, for people with a migration background or with different educational levels. Continuing growth monitoring needs to be performed to assess if environmental and demographic changes with an impact on body growth (adverse trends in nutrition, increasing social inequality in health, ethnic composition of the population) positively or negatively influence future trends in average height.

11.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0214549, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30925175

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Urinary steroid metabolomics by GC-MS is an established method in both clinical and research settings to describe steroidogenic disorders. However, population-based reference intervals for adults do not exist. METHODS: We measured daytime and night time urinary excretion of 40 steroid metabolites by GC-MS in 1128 adult participants of European ancestry, aged 18 to 90 years, within a large population-based, multicentric, cross-sectional study. Age and sex-related patterns in adjacent daytime and night time urine collections over 24 hours were modelled for each steroid metabolite by multivariable linear mixed regression. We compared our results with those obtained through a systematic literature review on reference intervals of urinary steroid excretion. RESULTS: Flexible models were created for all urinary steroid metabolites thereby estimating sex- and age-related changes of the urinary steroid metabolome. Most urinary steroid metabolites showed an age-dependence with the exception of 6ß-OH-cortisol, 18-OH-cortisol, and ß-cortol. Reference intervals for all metabolites excreted during 24 hours were derived from the 2.5th and 97.5th percentile of modelled reference curves. The excretion rate per period of metabolites predominantly derived from the adrenals was mainly higher during the day than at night and the correlation between day and night time metabolite excretion was highly positive for most androgens and moderately positive for glucocorticoids. CONCLUSIONS: This study gives unprecedented new insights into sex- and age-specificity of the human adult steroid metabolome and provides further information on the day/night variation of urinary steroid hormone excretion. The population-based reference ranges for 40 GC-MS-measured metabolites will facilitate the interpretation of steroid profiles in clinical practice.

12.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 773, 2019 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30770820

RESUMO

Chronic inflammation has been proposed as having a prominent role in the construction of social inequalities in health. Disentangling the effects of early life and adulthood social disadvantage on inflammation is key in elucidating biological mechanisms underlying socioeconomic disparities. Here we explore the relationship between socioeconomic position (SEP) across the life course and inflammation (as measured by CRP levels) in up to 23,008 participants from six European cohort studies from three countries conducted between 1958 and 2013. We find a consistent inverse association between SEP and CRP across cohorts, where participants with a less advantaged SEP have higher levels of inflammation. Educational attainment is most strongly related to inflammation, after adjusting for health behaviours, body mass index and later-in-life SEP. These findings suggest socioeconomic disadvantage in young adulthood is independently associated with later life inflammation calling for further studies of the pathways operating through educational processes.


Assuntos
Inflamação/imunologia , Inflamação/metabolismo , Índice de Massa Corporal , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Regressão , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
13.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 109(2): 276-287, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30721968

RESUMO

Background: Lean body mass (LM) plays an important role in mobility and metabolic function. We previously identified five loci associated with LM adjusted for fat mass in kilograms. Such an adjustment may reduce the power to identify genetic signals having an association with both lean mass and fat mass. Objectives: To determine the impact of different fat mass adjustments on genetic architecture of LM and identify additional LM loci. Methods: We performed genome-wide association analyses for whole-body LM (20 cohorts of European ancestry with n = 38,292) measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) or bioelectrical impedance analysis, adjusted for sex, age, age2, and height with or without fat mass adjustments (Model 1 no fat adjustment; Model 2 adjustment for fat mass as a percentage of body mass; Model 3 adjustment for fat mass in kilograms). Results: Seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in separate loci, including one novel LM locus (TNRC6B), were successfully replicated in an additional 47,227 individuals from 29 cohorts. Based on the strengths of the associations in Model 1 vs Model 3, we divided the LM loci into those with an effect on both lean mass and fat mass in the same direction and refer to those as "sumo wrestler" loci (FTO and MC4R). In contrast, loci with an impact specifically on LM were termed "body builder" loci (VCAN and ADAMTSL3). Using existing available genome-wide association study databases, LM increasing alleles of SNPs in sumo wrestler loci were associated with an adverse metabolic profile, whereas LM increasing alleles of SNPs in "body builder" loci were associated with metabolic protection. Conclusions: In conclusion, we identified one novel LM locus (TNRC6B). Our results suggest that a genetically determined increase in lean mass might exert either harmful or protective effects on metabolic traits, depending on its relation to fat mass.

14.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 104(6): 2195-2215, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30690465

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Sex steroid hormones exhibit anabolic effects whereas a deficiency engenders sarcopenia. Moreover, supraphysiological levels of glucocorticoids promote skeletal muscle atrophy, whereas physiologic levels of glucocorticoids may improve muscle performance. OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between both groups of steroid hormones at a physiological range with skeletal muscle mass and function in the general population. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of the associations between urinary excreted androgens, estrogens, glucocorticoids, and steroid hormone metabolite ratios with lean mass and handgrip strength in a population-based cohort. SETTING: Three centers in Switzerland including 1128 participants. MEASURES: Urinary steroid hormone metabolite excretion by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, lean mass by bioimpedance analysis, and isometric handgrip strength by dynamometry. RESULTS: For lean mass a strong positive association was found with 11ß-OH-androsterone and with most glucocorticoids. Androsterone showed a positive association in middle-aged and older adults. Estriol showed a positive association only in men. For handgrip strength, strong positive associations with androgens were found in middle-aged and older adults, whereas positive associations were found with cortisol metabolites in young to middle-aged adults. CONCLUSIONS: Sex steroids and glucocorticoids are strongly positively associated with skeletal muscle mass and strength in the upper limbs. The associations with muscle strength appear to be independent of muscle mass. Steroid hormones exert age-specific anabolic effects on lean mass and handgrip strength. Deficits in physical performance of aged muscles may be attenuated by androgens, whereas glucocorticoids in a physiological range increase skeletal muscle mass at all ages, as well as muscle strength in particular in younger adults.

15.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(2): 332-342, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30544190

RESUMO

High-income countries are experiencing an obesity epidemic that follows a socioeconomic gradient, affecting groups of lower socioeconomic status disproportionately. Recent clinical findings have suggested new perspectives for the prevention and treatment of obesity, using personalized dietary approaches. Precision nutrition (PN), also called personalized nutrition, has been developed to deliver more preventive and practical dietary advice than 'one-size-fits-all' guidelines. With interventions becoming increasingly plausible at a large scale thanks to artificial intelligence and smartphone applications, some have begun to view PN as a novel way to deliver the right dietary intervention to the right population. We argue that large-scale PN, if taken alone, might be of limited interest from a public health perspective. Building on Geoffrey Rose's theory regarding the differences in individual and population causes of disease, we show that large-scale PN can only address some individual causes of obesity (causes of cases). This individual-centred approach is likely to have a small impact on the distribution of obesity at a population level because it ignores the population causes of obesity (causes of incidence). The latter are embedded in the populations' social, cultural, economic and political contexts that make environments obesogenic. Additionally, the most socially privileged groups in the population are the most likely to respond to large-scale PN interventions. This could have the undesirable effect of widening social inequalities in obesity. We caution public health actors that interventions based only on large-scale PN are unlikely, despite current expectations, to improve dietary intake or reduce obesity at a population level.

16.
J Nutr ; 148(12): 1946-1953, 2018 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517722

RESUMO

Background: The gold standard to assess salt intake is 24-h urine collections. Use of a urine spot sample can be a simpler alternative, especially when the goal is to assess sodium intake at the population level. Several equations to estimate 24-h urinary sodium excretion from urine spot samples have been tested in adults, but not in children. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the ability of several equations and urine spot samples to estimate 24-h urinary sodium excretion in children. Methods: A cross-sectional study of children between 6 and 16 y of age was conducted. Each child collected one 24-h urine sample and 3 timed urine spot samples, i.e., evening (last void before going to bed), overnight (first void in the morning), and morning (second void in the morning). Eight equations (i.e., Kawasaki, Tanaka, Remer, Mage, Brown with and without potassium, Toft, and Meng) were used to estimate 24-h urinary sodium excretion. The estimates from the different spot samples and equations were compared with the measured excretion through the use of several statistics. Results: Among the 101 children recruited, 86 had a complete 24-h urine collection and were included in the analysis (mean age: 10.5 y). The mean measured 24-h urinary sodium excretion was 2.5 g (range: 0.8-6.4 g). The different spot samples and equations provided highly heterogeneous estimates of the 24-h urinary sodium excretion. The overnight spot samples with the Tanaka and Brown equations provided the most accurate estimates (mean bias: -0.20 to -0.12 g; correlation: 0.48-0.53; precision: 69.7-76.5%; sensitivity: 76.9-81.6%; specificity: 66.7%; and misclassification: 23.0-27.7%). The other equations, irrespective of the timing of the spot, provided less accurate estimates. Conclusions: Urine spot samples, with selected equations, might provide accurate estimates of the 24-h sodium excretion in children at a population level. At an individual level, they could be used to identify children with high sodium excretion. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02900261.

17.
Front Psychiatry ; 9: 573, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30473668

RESUMO

Importance: Multiple studies conducted in the general population identified an association between self-reported coffee consumption and plasma lipid levels. To date, no study assessed whether and which plasma methylxanthines (caffeine and/or its metabolites, i.e., paraxanthine, theophylline, and theobromine) are associated with plasma lipids. In psychiatric patients, an important coffee consumption is often reported and many psychotropic drugs can induce a rapid and substantial increase of plasma lipid levels. Objective: To determine whether plasma methylxanthines are associated with metabolic parameters in psychiatric patients receiving treatments known to induce metabolic disturbances. Design, Setting, and Participants: Data were obtained from a prospective study including 630 patients with metabolic parameters [i.e., body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), and fasting triglycerides (TG)] monitored routinely during psychotropic treatment. Exposures: Plasma methylxanthines levels. Main Outcomes and Measures: Metabolic variables including BMI and plasma lipid levels. Results: Multivariate analyses indicated that BMI, TC, HDL-C, and non-HDL-C increased significantly with increasing total methylxanthines (p corrected ≤ 0.05). In addition, compared to patients with plasma caffeine concentration in the lowest quartile, those with caffeine concentration in the highest quartile were twice more prone to suffer from non-HDL hypercholesterolemia (p corrected = 0.05), five times more likely to suffer from hypertriglyceridemia (p corrected = 0.01) and four times more susceptible to be overweight (p corrected = 0.01). Conclusions and Relevance: This study showed that plasma caffeine and other methylxanthines are associated with worsening of metabolic parameters in patients receiving psychotropic treatments known to induce metabolic disturbances. It emphasizes that important caffeine consumption could be considered as an additional environmental risk factor for metabolic worsening in patients receiving such treatments.

18.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 15(1): 115, 2018 Nov 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30458811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence from experimental and observational studies is limited regarding the most favorable breakfast composition to prevent abdominal fat accumulation. We explored the association between breakfast composition (a posteriori derived dietary patterns) and abdominal obesity among regular breakfast eaters from a Swiss population-based sample. METHODS: The cross-sectional survey assessed diet using two 24-h dietary recalls in a nationally representative sample of adults aged 18 to 75 years. We derived dietary patterns using principal component analysis based on the intake of 22 breakfast-specific food groups. All regular breakfast eaters were predicted an individual score for each identified pattern, and then classified into tertiles (T1, T2, T3). We defined abdominal obesity as waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) ≥ 0.9 in men and ≥ 0.85 in women. Logistic models were adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, relevant nutrition- and health-related behaviors, and diet quality during the rest of the day. RESULTS: Of the 2019 included survey participants, 1351 (67%) were regular breakfast eaters. Among them, we identified three breakfast types: 1) 'traditional' - white bread, butter, sweet spread, 2) 'prudent' - fruit, unprocessed and unsweetened cereal flakes, nuts/seeds, yogurt, and 3) 'western' - processed breakfast cereals, and milk. The 'prudent' breakfast was negatively associated with abdominal obesity. After full adjustment, including diet quality during the rest of the day, the association was weaker (T3 vs. T1: OR 0.72, 95% CI: 0.47 to 1.08). People taking a 'prudent' breakfast (in T3) had 1.2% lower WHR compared to people taking a breakfast distant from 'prudent' (in T1) (P = 0.02, fully adjusted model with continuous log-WHR). We found no association between 'traditional' or 'western' breakfasts and WHR (OR 1.00, 95% CI: 0.67 to 1.50 and OR 1.16, 95% CI: 0.79 to 1.71, respectively). Findings were in the same directions for the three breakfast types when defining obesity with waist circumference, waist-to-height ratio, or body mass index (≥ 30 kg/m2, for 'prudent' breakfast: OR 0.51, 95% CI: 0.31 to 0.85). CONCLUSIONS: Regular breakfast consumers had less abdominal obesity if their breakfast was composed of fruit, natural cereal flakes, nuts/seeds and yogurt. This association was partly explained by their healthier diet during the rest of the day. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN16778734 .

19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30489016

RESUMO

Little is known on the effect of sodium intake on BP of children with clinical conditions. Our objective was therefore to review systematically studies that have assessed the association between sodium intake and BP in children with various clinical conditions. A systematic search of several databases was conducted and supplemented by a manual search of bibliographies and unpublished studies. Experimental and observational studies assessing the association between sodium intake and BP and involving children or adolescents between 0 and 18 years of age with any clinical condition were included. Out of the 6861 records identified, 51 full texts were reviewed, and 16 studies (10 experimental and 6 observational), involving overall 2902 children and adolescents, were included. Ten studies were conducted in children with elevated BP without identifiable cause, two in children with familial hypertension, one in children with at least one cardiovascular risk factor, one in children with chronic renal insufficiency, one in children with urolithiasis, and one in premature infants. A positive association between sodium intake and BP was found in all studies, except one. The meta-analysis of six studies among children with elevated BP without identifiable cause revealed a difference of 6.3 mm Hg (95% CI 2.9-9.6) and 3.5 mm Hg (95% CI 1.2-5.7) in systolic and diastolic BP, respectively, for every additional gram of sodium intake per day. In conclusion, our results indicate that the BP response to salt is greater in children with clinical conditions, mainly hypertension, than in those without associated clinical conditions.

20.
Eur J Nutr ; 2018 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30341681

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Salt intake among children in Switzerland is unknown. The objectives of this study were to determine salt excretion and to identify the main dietary sources of salt intake among children in one region of Switzerland. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study using a convenient sample of children 6-16 years of age in Valais, Switzerland, between 2016 and 2018. All children visiting several regional health care providers and without any clinical condition that could affect sodium intake or excretion were eligible. Each child completed a 24-h urine collection to assess salt excretion and two dietary questionnaires to assess dietary sources of salt intake. Weight and height were measured. RESULTS: Data were available on 94 children (55 boys and 39 girls; mean age 10.5 years; age range 6-16 years). The mean 24-h salt urinary excretion was 5.9 g [SD 2.8; range 0.8-16.0; 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.3-6.5]. Two-thirds (62%) of the children had salt excretions above recommendations of maximum intake (i.e., ≥ 2 g per day for children up to 6 years of age and ≥ 5 g per day for children 7-16 years of age). The salt excretion tended to be higher during the week-end (6.0 g, 95% CI 5.4-6.6) than during the week (5.4 g, 95% CI 4.3-6.7). The main sources of salt intake were pastas, potatoes, and rice (23% of total salt intake), pastries (16%), bread (16%), and cured meats (10%). One child out of three (34%) added salt to their plate at the table. CONCLUSIONS: Salt intake in children in one region of Switzerland was high. Our findings suggest that salt intake in children could be reduced by lowering salt content in commonly eaten foods. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT02900261.

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