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1.
Sci Adv ; 7(15)2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837071

RESUMO

Large earthquakes often lead to transient deformation and enhanced seismic activity, with their fastest evolution occurring at the early, ephemeral post-rupture period. Here, we investigate this elusive phase using geophysical observations from the 2004 moment magnitude 6.0 Parkfield, California, earthquake. We image continuously evolving afterslip, along with aftershocks, on the San Andreas fault over a minutes-to-days postseismic time span. Our results reveal a multistage scenario, including immediate onset of afterslip following tens-of-seconds-long coseismic shaking, short-lived slip reversals within minutes, expanding afterslip within hours, and slip migration between subparallel fault strands within days. The early afterslip and associated stress changes appear synchronized with local aftershock rates, with increasing afterslip often preceding larger aftershocks, suggesting the control of afterslip on fine-scale aftershock behavior. We interpret complex shallow processes as dynamic signatures of a three-dimensional fault-zone structure. These findings highlight important roles of aseismic source processes and structural factors in seismicity evolution, offering potential prospects for improving aftershock forecasts.

2.
Science ; 370(6516): 605-608, 2020 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33122385

RESUMO

Contemporary earthquake hazard models hinge on an understanding of how strain is distributed in the crust and the ability to precisely detect millimeter-scale deformation over broad regions of active faulting. Satellite radar observations revealed hundreds of previously unmapped linear strain concentrations (or fractures) surrounding the 2019 Ridgecrest earthquake sequence. We documented and analyzed displacements and widths of 169 of these fractures. Although most fractures are displaced in the direction of the prevailing tectonic stress (prograde), a large number of them are displaced in the opposite (retrograde) direction. We developed a model to explain the existence and behavior of these displacements. A major implication is that much of the prograde tectonic strain is accommodated by frictional slip on many preexisting faults.

3.
J Geophys Res Solid Earth ; 124(11): 12189-12223, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32025457

RESUMO

Our understanding of plate boundary deformation has been enhanced by transient signals observed against the backdrop of time-independent secular motions. We make use of a new analysis of displacement time series from about 1,000 continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) stations in California from 1999 to 2018 to distinguish tectonic and nontectonic transients from secular motion. A primary objective is to define a high-resolution three-dimensional reference frame (datum) for California that can be rapidly maintained with geodetic data to accommodate both secular and time-dependent motions. To this end, we compare the displacements to those predicted by a horizontal secular fault slip model for the region and construct displacement and strain rate fields. Over the past 19 years, California has experienced 19 geodetically detectable earthquakes and widespread postseismic deformation. We observe postseismic strain rate variations as large as 1,000 nstrain/year with moment releases equivalent up to an Mw6.8 earthquake. We find significant secular differences up to 10 mm/year with the fault slip model, from the Mendocino Triple Junction to the southern Cascadia subduction zone, the northern Basin and Range, and the Santa Barbara channel. Secular vertical uplift is observed across the Transverse Ranges, Coastal Ranges, Sierra Nevada, as well as large-scale postseismic uplift after the 1999 Mw7.1 Hector Mine and 2010 Mw7.2 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquakes. We also identify areas of vertical land motions due to anthropogenic, natural, and magmatic processes. Finally, we demonstrate the utility of the kinematic datum by improving the accuracy of high-spatial-resolution 12-day repeat-cycle Sentinel-1 Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar displacement and velocity maps.

4.
Rep Prog Phys ; 79(10): 106801, 2016 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27552205

RESUMO

Geodesy, the oldest science, has become an important discipline in the geosciences, in large part by enhancing Global Positioning System (GPS) capabilities over the last 35 years well beyond the satellite constellation's original design. The ability of GPS geodesy to estimate 3D positions with millimeter-level precision with respect to a global terrestrial reference frame has contributed to significant advances in geophysics, seismology, atmospheric science, hydrology, and natural hazard science. Monitoring the changes in the positions or trajectories of GPS instruments on the Earth's land and water surfaces, in the atmosphere, or in space, is important for both theory and applications, from an improved understanding of tectonic and magmatic processes to developing systems for mitigating the impact of natural hazards on society and the environment. Besides accurate positioning, all disturbances in the propagation of the transmitted GPS radio signals from satellite to receiver are mined for information, from troposphere and ionosphere delays for weather, climate, and natural hazard applications, to disturbances in the signals due to multipath reflections from the solid ground, water, and ice for environmental applications. We review the relevant concepts of geodetic theory, data analysis, and physical modeling for a myriad of processes at multiple spatial and temporal scales, and discuss the extensive global infrastructure that has been built to support GPS geodesy consisting of thousands of continuously operating stations. We also discuss the integration of heterogeneous and complementary data sets from geodesy, seismology, and geology, focusing on crustal deformation applications and early warning systems for natural hazards.

5.
Nature ; 456(7222): 631-5, 2008 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19052626

RESUMO

The great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake and tsunami of 2004 was a dramatic reminder of the importance of understanding the seismic and tsunami hazards of subduction zones. In March 2005, the Sunda megathrust ruptured again, producing an event of moment magnitude (M(w)) 8.6 south of the 2004 rupture area, which was the site of a similar event in 1861 (ref. 6). Concern was then focused on the Mentawai area, where large earthquakes had occurred in 1797 (M(w) = 8.8) and 1833 (M(w) = 9.0). Two earthquakes, one of M(w) = 8.4 and, twelve hours later, one of M(w) = 7.9, indeed occurred there on 12 September 2007. Here we show that these earthquakes ruptured only a fraction of the area ruptured in 1833 and consist of distinct asperities within a patch of the megathrust that had remained locked in the interseismic period. This indicates that the same portion of a megathrust can rupture in different patterns depending on whether asperities break as isolated seismic events or cooperate to produce a larger rupture. This variability probably arises from the influence of non-permanent barriers, zones with locally lower pre-stress due to the past earthquakes. The stress state of the portion of the Sunda megathrust that had ruptured in 1833 and 1797 was probably not adequate for the development of a single large rupture in 2007. The moment released in 2007 amounts to only a fraction both of that released in 1833 and of the deficit of moment that had accumulated as a result of interseismic strain since 1833. The potential for a large megathrust event in the Mentawai area thus remains large.

6.
Science ; 312(5782): 1921-6, 2006 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16809533

RESUMO

Continuously recording Global Positioning System stations near the 28 March 2005 rupture of the Sunda megathrust [moment magnitude (Mw) 8.7] show that the earthquake triggered aseismic frictional afterslip on the subduction megathrust, with a major fraction of this slip in the up-dip direction from the main rupture. Eleven months after the main shock, afterslip continues at rates several times the average interseismic rate, resulting in deformation equivalent to at least a M(w) 8.2 earthquake. In general, along-strike variations in frictional behavior appear to persist over multiple earthquake cycles. Aftershocks cluster along the boundary between the region of coseismic slip and the up-dip creeping zone. We observe that the cumulative number of aftershocks increases linearly with postseismic displacements; this finding suggests that the temporal evolution of aftershocks is governed by afterslip.

7.
Science ; 311(5769): 1897-901, 2006 Mar 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16574861

RESUMO

Seismic rupture produced spectacular tectonic deformation above a 400-kilometer strip of the Sunda megathrust, offshore northern Sumatra, in March 2005. Measurements from coral microatolls and Global Positioning System stations reveal trench-parallel belts of uplift up to 3 meters high on the outer-arc islands above the rupture and a 1-meter-deep subsidence trough farther from the trench. Surface deformation reflects more than 11 meters of fault slip under the islands and a pronounced lessening of slip trenchward. A saddle in megathrust slip separates the northwestern edge of the 2005 rupture from the great 2004 Sumatra-Andaman rupture. The southeastern edge abuts a predominantly aseismic section of the megathrust near the equator.

8.
Nature ; 440(7080): 46-51, 2006 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16511486

RESUMO

The Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of 26 December 2004 is the first giant earthquake (moment magnitude M(w) > 9.0) to have occurred since the advent of modern space-based geodesy and broadband seismology. It therefore provides an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the characteristics of one of these enormous and rare events. Here we report estimates of the ground displacement associated with this event, using near-field Global Positioning System (GPS) surveys in northwestern Sumatra combined with in situ and remote observations of the vertical motion of coral reefs. These data show that the earthquake was generated by rupture of the Sunda subduction megathrust over a distance of >1,500 kilometres and a width of <150 kilometres. Megathrust slip exceeded 20 metres offshore northern Sumatra, mostly at depths shallower than 30 kilometres. Comparison of the geodetically and seismically inferred slip distribution indicates that approximately 30 per cent additional fault slip accrued in the 1.5 months following the 500-second-long seismic rupture. Both seismic and aseismic slip before our re-occupation of GPS sites occurred on the shallow portion of the megathrust, where the large Aceh tsunami originated. Slip tapers off abruptly along strike beneath Simeulue Island at the southeastern edge of the rupture, where the earthquake nucleated and where an M(w) = 7.2 earthquake occurred in late 2002. This edge also abuts the northern limit of slip in the 28 March 2005 M(w) = 8.7 Nias-Simeulue earthquake.

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