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1.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 58: 126424, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31765934

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No safe blood lead concentration in children has been identified. Lead can affect nearly every system in the body and is especially harmful to the developing central nervous system of children. The aim of this study is to analyze blood lead in a population of children and its association with sociodemographic variables, biochemical parameters, copper, iron, selenium and zinc. METHODS: We recruited 155 children (86 boys and 69 girls) with a mean age of 7.3 (SD:4.1). Blood lead and serum selenium concentrations were measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Serum copper and zinc concentrations were measured by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Serum iron levels were determined by colorimetric assay. A risk exposure questionnaire for lead was administered to the participants. RESULTS: The median blood lead level was 1.1 (IQR 0.7-1.6) µg/dL. Regarding risk exposure factors, the youngest children (<2 years) who played outdoors presented a median blood lead concentration of 1.1 µg/dL IQR: 0.48-1.48, compared to the median of 0.3 µg/dL IQR:0.2-0.48 in the children who stated they played at home (p = 0.024). Significant differences were also found when taking into account those parents who smoked (median 1.3 IQR 0.8-1.9 µg/dL vs 0.9 IQR 0.5-1.4 µg/dL of non-smokers, p = 0.002). Children who drank tap water had higher blood lead levels (median 1.2 IQR 0.7-1.6 µg/dL) than those who drank bottled water (median 0.7 IQR 0.2-1.3 µg/dL p = 0.014). In addition, children whose mothers had not finished school had higher blood lead levels (median 1.7 IQR 1.2-2.3 µg/dL) than those whose mothers had finished school (median 1.2 IQR 0.7-1.7 µg/dL) and those whose mothers had gone to university (median 0.9 IQR 0.5-1.4 µg/dL) p = 0.034. In the multivariate lineal regression analysis we continue to observe the association between mother's higher level of education and lower blood levels (p = 0.04) and the interaction between age and outdoor play (p = 0.0145). CONCLUSIONS: In spite of the decline in blood lead concentrations, associated risk factors continue to exist in vulnerable populations such as children.

2.
Emergencias ; 29(4): 231-236, 2017 07.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28825277

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To develop the INFURG-SEMES scale (based on the emergency infections study of the Spanish Society of Emergency Medicine) using clinical and laboratory data to diagnose acute appendicitis (AA) in patients aged 2 to 20 years who were evaluated in hospital emergency departments and to compare its diagnostic yield to that of the Alvarado score. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective observational cohort study enrolling consecutive patients between the ages of 2 and 20 years who came to 4 hospital emergency departments with abdominal pain suggestive of AA and of less than 72 hours' duration. We collected demographic, clinical, analytic (white blood cell count, differential counts, and C-reactive protein [CRP] levels), and radiographic data (ultrasound and/or computed tomography scans). We also recorded surgical data if pertinent. The main outcome was a diagnosis of AA within 14 days of the index visit. RESULTS: We included 331 patients with a mean (SD) age of 11.8 (3.8) years; 175 (52.9%) were male. The final diagnosis was AA in 116 cases (35.0%). The INFURG-SEMES scale included the following predictors: male sex, right quadrant pain (right iliac fossa) on examination, pain on percussion, pain on walking, and elevated neutrophil count and CRP level. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for the INFURG-SEMES scale and the Alvarado score, respectively, were 0.84 (95% CI, 0.79-0.88) and 0.77 (95% CI, 0.72-0.82). The difference was statistically significant (P=.002). CONCLUSION: The INFURG-SEMES scale may prove useful for diagnosing AA in patients aged between 2 and 20 years evaluated for abdominal pain in hospital emergency departments. The INFURG-SEMES score showed greater discrimination than the Alvarado score.


Assuntos
Apendicite/diagnóstico , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Doença Aguda , Adolescente , Apendicite/sangue , Apendicite/diagnóstico por imagem , Área Sob a Curva , Proteína C-Reativa/análise , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Curva ROC , Espanha , Avaliação de Sintomas , Adulto Jovem
3.
Emergencias (St. Vicenç dels Horts) ; 29(4): 231-236, ago. 2017. graf, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-165027

RESUMO

Objetivo. Derivar una escala clínico-analítica diagnóstica de apendicitis aguda (AA) en pacientes entre 2 y 20 años atendidos por dolor abdominal con sospecha de AA en servicios de urgencias hospitalarios (SUH), y comparar su capacidad diagnóstica con la Escala de Alvarado (EA). Métodos. Estudio observacional de cohorte prospectivo que incluyó de forma consecutiva pacientes entre 2 y 20 años con dolor abdominal sospechoso de AA de menos de 72 horas de evolución atendidos en 4 SUH españoles entre junio y diciembre de 2014. Se recogieron datos demográficos, clínicos, analíticos (recuento leucocitario, fórmula y proteína C reactiva) y radiológicos (ecografía y/o TC) y, si procedía, quirúrgicos. La variable resultado principal fue el diagnóstico final de AA en los 14 días desde la visita índice. Resultados. Se incluyeron 331 pacientes con edad media de 11,8 (DE 3,8) años, siendo 175 (52,9%) hombres. Ciento dieciséis (35,0%) tuvieron diagnóstico final de AA. La escala INFURG-SEMES incluye sexo masculino, dolor en fosa ilíaca derecha a la exploración, dolor a la percusión, dolor al caminar, presencia de neutrofilia y proteína C reactiva elevada. El área bajo la curva (ABC) de la característica operativa del receptor (COR) de dicha escala fue 0,84 (IC 95% 0,79-0,88) y para la EA 0,77 (IC95% 0,72-0,82) siendo la diferencia estadísticamente significativa (p = 0,002). Conclusiones. La escala INFURG-SEMES podría ser una herramienta de ayuda para el diagnóstico de AA en los pacientes entre 2 y 20 años atendidos con dolor abdominal sospechoso de apendicitis en los SUH, y ha mostrado una mayor capacidad discriminativa que la EA (AU)


Objectives. To develop the INFURG-SEMES scale (based on the emergency infections study of the Spanish Society of Emergency Medicine) using clinical and laboratory data to diagnose acute appendicitis (AA) in patients aged 2 to 20 years who were evaluated in hospital emergency departments and to compare its diagnostic yield to that of the Alvarado score. Methods. Prospective observational cohort study enrolling consecutive patients between the ages of 2 and 20 years who came to 4 hospital emergency departments with abdominal pain suggestive of AA and of less than 72 hours’ duration. We collected demographic, clinical, analytic (white blood cell count, differential counts, and C-reactive protein [CRP] levels), and radiographic data (ultrasound and/or computed tomography scans). We also recorded surgical data if pertinent. The main outcome was a diagnosis of AA within 14 days of the index visit. Results. We included 331 patients with a mean (SD) age of 11.8 (3.8) years; 175 (52.9%) were male. The final diagnosis was AA in 116 cases (35.0%). The INFURG-SEMES scale included the following predictors: male sex, right quadrant pain (right iliac fossa) on examination, pain on percussion, pain on walking, and elevated neutrophil count and CRP level. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves for the INFURG-SEMES scale and the Alvarado score, respectively, were 0.84 (95% CI, 0.79-0.88) and 0.77 (95% CI, 0.72-0.82). The difference was statistically significant (P=.002). Conclusions. The INFURG-SEMES scale may prove useful for diagnosing AA in patients aged between 2 and 20 years evaluated for abdominal pain in hospital emergency departments. The INFURG-SEMES score showed greater discrimination than the Alvarado score (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pré-Escolar , Criança , Adolescente , Adulto Jovem , Apendicite/diagnóstico , Dor Abdominal/etiologia , Tratamento de Emergência/métodos , Doença Aguda/epidemiologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Apendicite/epidemiologia , Apendicectomia/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 43: 93-105, 2017 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28073603

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Several studies have shown an inverse relationship between selenium status and cardiovascular health, although epidemiologic evidence yielded by the randomized trials did not find a beneficial effect of selenium administration. The aim of this study was to analyze the association between serum selenium levels and lipid profile adjusted by age, sex and other associated factors among a general adult population in Spain. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recruited 372 hospital employee volunteers (60 men and 312 women) with a mean age of 47 (SD: 10.9), whom were given a standardized questionnaire. Serum selenium concentration was measured by electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry. Serum copper and zinc concentrations were measured using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. RESULTS: The mean of serum selenium was 79.5µg/L (SD: 11.7) with no sex-dependent differences. In the multivariate linear regression analysis, the associated factors with the mean levels of selenium were: age (ß=0.223; CI 95%: 0.101-0.345), p<0.001; widowhood (ß=-9.668; CI 95%: -17.234 to -2.102), p=0.012; calcium supplements (ß=3.949; CI 95%: 0.059-7.838), p=0.047; zinc (ß=0.126; CI 95%: 0.013-0.238), p=0.028 and glucose (ß=0.172; CI 95%: 0.062- 0.281), p=0.002; Participants with serum selenium≥79.5µg/L were 1.98 (OR=1.98; CI 95% 1.17-3.35; p=0.011) and 2.04 times (OR=2.04; CI 95% 1.06-3.97; p=0.034) more likely to have cholesterol ≥200mg/dL and LDL-c ≥100mg/dL respectively than those with serum selenium <79.5µg/L. CONCLUSIONS: Higher selenium was positively associated with increased total and LDL cholesterol but not with HDL-c and triglycerides. More studies are needed in order to confirm the lower serum selenium findings in widows.


Assuntos
Lipídeos/sangue , Selênio/sangue , Oligoelementos/sangue , Adulto , Colesterol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Espanha , Espectrofotometria Atômica , Inquéritos e Questionários , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Zinco/sangue
5.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 89(5): 487-96, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26650473

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The repercussions on health of public policies are hard to assess from an economic point of view, which is why this is rarely done. The purpose of this study was to financially quantify the benefits of reducing blood lead levels in children aged 7-8 years in the Community of Madrid (Spain) as a result of the ban on the use of lead in gasoline. METHODS: The decrease the intellectual quotient (IQ) points was calculated through two studies on children aged 7-8 years according to their blood lead levels. A geometric mean of 3.8 µg/dl was obtained in the 1995 study and of 0.9 µg/dl in the 2010 study. The net increase in IQ was measured in terms of productivity gained throughout the working life as per the methods of Schwartz and Salkever. RESULTS: The decrease in blood lead levels in these children prevented a loss of between 135,391 and 144,153 IQ points; the current economic valuation of these points in terms of the productivity gained throughout the working life of this cohort of children was estimated to fall within the €626.4m- €865.4m range (2009). CONCLUSIONS: The figures of the economic benefits derived from the decision to ban leaded gasoline are very high.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Poluentes Ambientais , Gasolina , Política de Saúde/economia , Inteligência , Chumbo , Criança , Estudos Transversais , Eficiência , Emprego/economia , Exposição Ambiental/economia , Exposição Ambiental/legislação & jurisprudência , Poluentes Ambientais/sangue , Poluentes Ambientais/toxicidade , Feminino , Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde , Política de Saúde/legislação & jurisprudência , Humanos , Testes de Inteligência , Chumbo/sangue , Chumbo/toxicidade , Masculino , Espanha
6.
Rev. esp. salud pública ; 89(5): 487-496, sept.-oct. 2015. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-145435

RESUMO

Fundamentos: la evaluación económica de las repercusiones sanitarias de las políticas públicas es difícil y escasa. El objetivo del presente estudio fue cuantificar monetariamente los beneficios de la reducción del plomo en la sangre de los niños de 7-8 años en la Comunidad de Madrid (España), derivada de la prohibición del plomo en las gasolinas. Métodos: se calculó la disminución de puntos de cociente intelectual (CI), utilizando dos estudios realizados en niños de 7 a 8 años según los valores de plomo en sangre que presentaban: media geométrica de 3,8 μg/dL en 1995 y 0,9 μg/dL en 2010. La mejoría neta de CI se midió en términos de capacidad de producción ganada a lo largo de la vida laboral, siguiendo los métodos de Schwartz y Salkiver. Resultados: la reducción de los niveles de plomo en sangre de estos niños evitó perder entre 135.391 y 144.153 puntos de CI. La valoración económica actual de estos puntos en términos de capacidad de producción ganada a lo largo de la vida laboral de estos sujetos se estimó en un rango entre 626,4 y 865,4 millones de euros (valor 2009). Conclusiones: las cifras de beneficios económicos encontradas derivadas de la medida de prohibición de uso de plomo en las gasolinas son importantes en términos sociales (AU)


Background: The repercussions on health of public policies are hard to assess from an economic point of view, which is why this is rarely done. The purpose of this study was to financially quantify the benefits of reducing blood lead levels in children aged 7-8 years in the Community of Madrid (Spain) as a result of the ban on the use of lead in gasoline. Methods: the decrease the intellectual quotient (IQ) points was calculated through two studies on children aged 7-8 years according to their blood lead levels. A geometric mean of 3.8 μg/dl was obtained in the 1995 study and of 0.9 μg/dl in the 2010 study. The net increase in IQ was measured in terms of productivity gained throughout the working life as per the methods of Schwartz and Salkever. Results: the decrease in blood lead levels in these children prevented a loss of between 135,391 and 144,153 IQ points; the current economic valuation of these points in terms of the productivity gained throughout the working life of this cohort of children was estimated to fall within the €626.4m-€865.4m range (2009). Conclusions: the figures of the economic benefits derived from the decision to ban leaded gasoline are very high (AU)


Assuntos
Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Gasolina/efeitos adversos , Poluentes Atmosféricos/efeitos adversos , Chumbo/efeitos adversos , Intoxicação por Chumbo/complicações , Gasolina sem Chumbo/economia , Inteligência , Gasolina sem Chumbo/métodos , Gasolina sem Chumbo/prevenção & controle , Gasolina sem Chumbo/políticas , Educação de Pessoa com Deficiência Intelectual/economia , Educação de Pessoa com Deficiência Intelectual/legislação & jurisprudência , Deficiência Intelectual/induzido quimicamente , Deficiência Intelectual/complicações , Deficiência Intelectual/prevenção & controle , /normas , Meio Ambiente/métodos
7.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 32: 122-34, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26302920

RESUMO

The beneficial effects of fish consumption in both children and adults are well known. However, the intake of methylmercury, mainly from contaminated fish and shellfish, can have adverse health effects. The study group on the prevention of exposure to methylmercury (GEPREM-Hg), made up of representatives from different Spanish scientific societies, has prepared a consensus document in a question and answer format, containing the group's main conclusions, recommendations and proposals. The objective of the document is to provide broader knowledge of factors associated with methylmercury exposure, its possible effects on health amongst the Spanish population, methods of analysis, interpretation of the results and economic costs, and to then set recommendations for fish and shellfish consumption. The group sees the merit of all initiatives aimed at reducing or prohibiting the use of mercury as well as the need to be aware of the results of contaminant analyses performed on fish and shellfish marketed in Spain. In addition, the group believes that biomonitoring systems should be set up in order to follow the evolution of methylmercury exposure in children and adults and perform studies designed to learn more about the possible health effects of concentrations found in the Spanish population, taking into account the lifestyle, eating patterns and the Mediterranean diet.


Assuntos
Consenso , Exposição Ambiental/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/efeitos adversos , Animais , Dieta , Peixes , Embalagem de Alimentos , Humanos , Espanha
8.
Rev Esp Enferm Dig ; 107(2): 113-5, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25659394

RESUMO

Oropharyngeal dysphagia is a rather frequent clinical entity in patients with neurological problems that can lead to serious complications such as aspiration pneumonia and other disorders like dehydration or malnutrition due to feeding difficulties. It should be suspected in children with splitting of food intake or prolonged feeding, coughing or choking during feeding, continuous drooling or repeated respiratory symptoms. For the diagnosis, apart from the examination of swallowing, additional tests can be run like the water-swallowing test, the viscosity-volume test (which determines what kind of texture and how much volume the patient is able to tolerate), a fiberoptic endoscopy of swallowing or a videofluoroscopic swallow study, which is the gold standard for the study of swallowing disorders.It requires a multidisciplinary approach to guarantee an adequate intake of fluids and nutrients with minimal risk of aspiration. If these two conditions cannot be met, a gastrostomy feeding may be necessary.


Assuntos
Transtornos de Deglutição/diagnóstico , Doenças Mitocondriais/complicações , Criança , Transtornos de Deglutição/etiologia , Humanos , Masculino
9.
Rev. esp. enferm. dig ; 107(2): 113-115, feb. 2015. ilus
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-133099

RESUMO

La disfagia orofaríngea es una entidad clínica bastante frecuente en pacientes con problemas neurológicos, que puede conllevar complicaciones graves como las neumonías aspirativas y otras alteraciones como deshidratación o desnutrición por dificultades para la alimentación. Debe sospecharse en niños con fraccionamiento de la toma o ingestas prolongadas, tos o atragantamientos asociados a la alimentación, babeo continuo o sintomatología respiratoria de repetición. Para su diagnóstico, además de la exploración de la deglución, pueden hacerse pruebas complementarias como la prueba de deglución del agua, la de viscosidad-volumen (determina qué tipo de textura y cuánto volumen puede tolerar el paciente), la fibroendoscopia de la deglución y la videofluoroscopia (el gold estándar para el estudio de los trastornos de la deglución). Requiere un abordaje multidisciplinar para asegurar un adecuado aporte oral de líquido y nutrientes, con mínimo riesgo de aspiración. Si estas dos condiciones no son posibles puede ser necesaria la alimentación por gastrostomía (AU)


Oropharyngeal dysphagia is a rather frequent clinical entity in patients with neurological problems that can lead to serious complications such as aspiration pneumonia and other disorders like dehydration or malnutrition due to feeding difficulties. It should be suspected in children with splitting of food intake or prolonged feeding, coughing or choking during feeding, continuous drooling or repeated respiratory symptoms. For the diagnosis, apart from the examination of swallowing, additional tests can be run like the water-swallowing test, the viscosity-volume test (which determines what kind of texture and how much volume the patient is able to tolerate), a fiberoptic endoscopy of swallowing or a videofluoroscopic swallow study, which is the gold standard for the study of swallowing disorders. It requires a multidisciplinary approach to guarantee an adequate intake of fluids and nutrients with minimal risk of aspiration. If these two conditions cannot be met, a gastrostomy feeding may be necessary (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Criança , Transtornos de Deglutição/terapia , Transtornos de Deglutição , Pneumonia Aspirativa/complicações , Pneumonia Aspirativa/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Aspirativa/terapia , Fluoroscopia/instrumentação , Fluoroscopia/métodos , Fluoroscopia , Manometria/instrumentação , Manometria/métodos , Manometria , Diagnóstico Precoce
10.
Nutr. hosp ; 31(1): 1-15, ene. 2015. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-132578

RESUMO

Los efectos beneficiosos del consumo de pescado son bien reconocidos. Sin embargo, existe preocupación a nivel mundial sobre los niveles de metilmercurio en el pescado, por lo que muchos países como Estados Unidos, Australia, Nueza Zelanda, Canadá y muchos países europeos han realizado recomendaciones de consumo de pescado a la población , especialmente a los grupos vulnerables con el fin de reducir la ingesta de metilmercurio. La sangre y el pelo son las mejores muestras biológicas para medir el metilmercurio. El método de análisis más empleado ha sido la espectroscopia de absorción atómica con la técnica del vapor frío, aunque existen también métodos directos que se basan en la descomposición térmica de la muestra. En los últimos años han aumentado los laboratorios que miden el mercurio por espectrometría de masas con plasma acoplado por inducción. Además, se puede diferenciar las distintas especies de mercurio acoplando métodos de separación cromatográficos. Es necesario que los laboratorios que analizan mercurio en muestras biológicas participen en programas de garantía externa de la calidad. Aunque se logre reducir las emisiones de mercurio, el mercurio del medio ambiente altodavía puede permanecer muchos años, por lo que es fundamental el consejo dietético para disminuir la exposición. No es aconsejable el uso de terapia quelante con fines diagnósticos o en pacientes asintomáticos. Es preciso proponer medidas de salud pública encaminadas a la disminución de la exposición al mercurio y que se evalúe también los beneficios de las mismas desde el punto de vista económico y social (AU)


The beneficial effects of fish consumption are well-known. Nevertheless, there is worldwide concern regard methylmercury concentrations in fish, which is why many countries such as the United States, Australia, New Zealand, Canada and numerous European countries have made fish consumption recommendations for their populations, particularly vulnerable groups, in order to México methylmercury intake. Blood and hair are the best biological samples for measuring methylmercury. The most widely-used method to analyse ethylmercury is cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, although there are also direct methods based on the thermal decomposition of the sample. In recent years, the number of laboratories that measure mercury by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry has increased. In addition, the different kinds of mercury can be distinguished by coupling chromatography methods of separation. Laboratories that analyse mercury in biological samples need to participate in external quality control programmes. Even if mercury emissions are reduced, mercury may remain in the environment for many years, so dietary recommendations are fundamental in order to reduce exposure. It is necessary to propose public health measures aimed at decreasing mercury exposure and to evaluate the benefits of such measures from the economic and social standpoints (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/economia , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/economia , Peixes , Análise Custo-Benefício
11.
Nutr. hosp ; 31(1): 16-31, ene. 2015. tab, graf
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-132579

RESUMO

Los efectos beneficiosos del consumo de pescado tanto en niños como en adultos han sido bien reconocidos. Sin embargo, la ingesta de metilmercurio principalmente a través del pescado y marisco contaminado puede producir efectos adversos en la salud. El grupo de estudio para la prevención de la exposición al metilmercurio (GEPREM-Hg), constituido por representantes de diferentessociedades científicas españolas, ha elaborado un documento de consenso donde se recogen en forma de preguntas y respuestas las principales conclusiones, recomendaciones y propuestas planteadas en el grupo. El objetivo del documento es profundizar en el conocimiento de los factores asociados a la exposición al metilmercurio, los posibles efectos sobre la salud en la población española, los métodos de análisis, la interpretación de los resultados, el coste económico y establecer finalmente recomendaciones de consumo de pescados y mariscos. El grupo considera acertadas todas las iniciativas encaminadas a reducir o prohibir el uso del mercurio y la necesidad de conocer los resultados de los análisis de contaminantes que se realizan en los pescados y mariscos que se comercializan en España. Además, opina que se deberían establecer sistemas de biomonitorización para conocer la evolución de la exposición al metilmercurio en niños y adultos y realizar estudios diseñados para conocer los posibles efectos sobre la salud de las concentraciones halladas en la población española, teniendo en cuenta el estilo de vida, los patrones de consumo alimentarios y la dieta mediterránea (AU)


The beneficial effects of fish consumption in both children and adults are well known. However, the intake of methylmercury, mainly from contaminated fish and shellfish, can have adverse health effects. The study group on the prevention of exposure to methylmercury (GEPREM-Hg), made up of representatives from different Spanish scientific societies, has prepared a consensus document in a question and answer format, containing the group’s main conclusions, recommendations and proposals. The objective of the document is to provide broader knowledge of factors associated with methylmercury exposure, its possible effects on health among the Spanish population, methods of analysis, interpretation of the results and economic costs, and to then set recommendations for fish and shellfish consumption. The group sees the merit of all initiatives aimed at reducing or prohibiting the use of mercury as well as the need to be aware of the results of contaminant analyses performed on fish and shellfish marketed in Spain. In addition, the group believes that biomonitoring systems should be set up in order to follow the evolution of methylmercury exposure in children and adults and perform studies designed to learn more about the possible health effects of concentrations found in the Spanish population, ta combusking into account the lifestyle, eating patterns and the Mediterranean diet (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Adulto , Criança , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Frutos do Mar/efeitos adversos , Frutos do Mar/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Espanha/epidemiologia , Consenso , Dieta Mediterrânea
13.
Nutr. clín. diet. hosp ; 34(3): 105-123, sept.-dic. 2014. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-131757

RESUMO

Los efectos beneficiosos del consumo de pescado tanto en niños como en adultos han sido bien reconocidos. Sin embargo, la ingesta de metilmercurio principalmente a través del pescado y marisco contaminado puede producir efectos adversos en la salud. El grupo de estudio para la prevención de la exposición al metilmercurio (GEPREM-Hg), constituido por representantes de diferentes sociedades científicas españolas, ha elaborado un documento de consenso donde se recogen en forma de preguntas y respuestas las principales conclusiones, recomendaciones y propuestas planteadas en el grupo. El objetivo del documento es profundizar en el conocimiento de los factores asociados a la exposición almetilmercurio, los posibles efectos sobre la salud en la población española, los métodos de análisis, la interpretación de los resultados, el coste económico y establecer finalmente recomendaciones de consumo de pescados y mariscos. El grupo considera acertadas todas las iniciativas encaminadas a reducir o prohibir el uso del mercurio y la necesidad de conocer los resultados de los análisis de contaminantes que se realizan en los pescados y mariscos que se comercializan en España. Además, opina que se deberían establecer sistemas de biomonitorización para conocer la evolución de la exposicional metilmercurio en niños y adultos y realizar estudios diseñados para conocer los posibles efectos sobre la salud de las concentraciones halladas en la población española, teniendo en cuenta el estilo de vida, los patrones de consumo alimentarios y la dieta mediterránea (AU)


The beneficial effects of fish consumption in both children and adults are well known. However, the intake of methyl mercury, mainly from contaminated fish and shellfish, can have adverse health effects. The study group on the prevention of exposure to methyl mercury (GEPREM-Hg), made up of representatives from different Spanish scientific societies, has prepared a consensus document in a question and answer format, containing the group's main conclusions, recommendations and proposals. The objective of the document is to provide broader knowledge of factors associated with methyl mercury exposure, its possible effects on health among the Spanish population, methods of analysis, interpretation of the results and economic costs, and to then set recommendations for fish and shellfish consumption. The group sees the merit of all initiatives aimed at reducing or prohibiting the use of mercury as well as the need to be aware of the results of contaminant analyses performed on fish and shellfish marketed in Spain. In addition, the group believes that biomonitoring systems should be set up in order to follow the evolution of methyl mercury exposure in children and adults and perform studies designed to learn more about the possible health effects of concentrations found in the Spanish population, taking into account the lifestyle, eating patterns and the Mediterranean diet (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/envenenamento , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Fatores de Risco , Frutos do Mar/efeitos adversos , Produtos Pesqueiros/efeitos adversos
14.
Nutr Hosp ; 30(5): 969-88, 2014 Nov 01.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25365001

RESUMO

Mercury is an environmental toxicant that causes numerous adverse effects on human health and natural ecosystems. The factors that determine the existance of adverse effects, as well as their severity are, among others: the chemical form of mercury (elemental, inorganic, organic), dosis, age, period of exposure, pathways of exposure and environmental, nutritional and genetic factors. In the aquatic cycle of mercury, once it has been deposited, it is transformed into methylmercury due to the action of certain sulphate-reducing bacteria, which bioaccumulates in the aquatic organisms and moves into the food chain. The methylmercury content of large, long-lived fish such as swordfish, shark, tuna or marlin, is higher. Methylmercury binds to protein in fish and is therefore not eliminated by cleaning or cooking the fish. Fetuses and small children are more vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of methylmercury from the consumption of contaminated fish. Methylmercury is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and crosses the blood-brain barrier and the placenta. The intake of certain dietary components such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, selenium, fiber, thiol compounds, certain phytochemicals and other nutrients can modify methylmercury bioaccesibility and its toxicity. Apart from environmental factors, genetic factors can influence mercury toxicity and explain part of the individual vulnerability.


Assuntos
Intoxicação por Mercúrio/genética , Intoxicação por Mercúrio/patologia , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/farmacocinética , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade , Estado Nutricional , Envelhecimento , Animais , Feminino , Peixes , Humanos , Masculino , Mercúrio/metabolismo , Mercúrio/farmacocinética , Alimentos Marinhos , Caracteres Sexuais , Toxicocinética
15.
Nutr Hosp ; 30(5): 989-1007, 2014 Nov 01.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25365002

RESUMO

The benefit of fish consumption in children and adults is well-known. However, it has been pointed out that excessive methylmercury intake due to consumption of contaminated fish leads to neurological toxicity in children, affecting cognitive function, memory, visual-motor function and language. After the intoxications in Minamata and Iraq, wide-ranging epidemiological studies were carried out in New Zealand, the Faroe Islands and the Seychelles and international recommendations were established for fish consumption in pregnant women and small children. In Spain, the Childhood and Environmental project (INMA, its Spanish acronym) has studied the effects of diet and the environment on fetal and childhood development in different geographic areas of Spain. National and international sudies have demonstrated that mercury concentrations are mainly dependent on fish consumption, although there are variations among countries which can be explained not only by the levels of fish consumption, but also by the type or species of fish that is consumed, as well as other factors. Although the best documented adverse effects of methylmercury are the effects on nervous sytem development in fetuses and newborns, an increasing number of studies indicate that cognitive function, reproduction and, especially, cardiovascular risk in the adult population can also be affected. However, more studies are necessary in order to confirm this and establish the existance of a causal relationship.


Assuntos
Peixes , Intoxicação por Mercúrio/epidemiologia , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade , Alimentos Marinhos/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Intoxicação por Mercúrio/etiologia , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/envenenamento , Gravidez , Alimentos Marinhos/análise
16.
Nutr. hosp ; 30(5): 969-988, nov. 2014. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-132303

RESUMO

El mercurio es un tóxico ambiental que causa numerosos efectos adversos en la salud humana y en los ecosistemas naturales. Los factores que determinan la aparición de efectos adversos y su severidad son entre otros: la forma química del mercurio (elemental, inorgánico, orgánico), la dosis, la edad, la duración de la exposición, la vía de exposición y los factores ambientales, nutricionales y genéticos. En el ciclo acuático del mercurio, una vez que se ha depositado, se transforma en metilmercurio por la acción de determinadas bacterias sulfato reductoras y se bioacumula en los organismos acuáticos incorporándose a la cadena trófica de alimentos. El contenido de metilmercurio es mayor en las especies depredadoras de mayor tamaño y que viven más años como el emperador, pez espada, tiburón, atún o marlín. El metilmercurio se halla unido a las proteínas del pescado por lo que no se elimina mediante la limpieza ni el cocinado del mismo. El feto en desarrollo y los niños pequeños son los más vulnerables a los efectos neurotóxicos del metilmercurio procedente de la ingesta de pescado contaminado. El metilmercurio se absorbe en el tracto gastrointestinal y atraviesa la barrera hematoencefálica y la placenta. Algunos componentes de la dieta como los ácidos grasos poliinsaturados, el selenio, la fibra, los compuestos tiol, algunos fitoquímicos y otros nutrientes pueden modificar la bioaccesibilidad del mercurio y su toxicidad. Además de los factores ambientales, los factores genéticos pueden influir en la toxicidad del mercurio y explicar parte de la vulnerabilidad individual (AU)


Mercury is an environmental toxicant that causes numerous adverse effects on human health and natural ecosystems. The factors that determine the existance of adverse effects, as well as their severity are, among others: the chemical form of mercury (elemental, inorganic, organic), dosis, age, period of exposure, pathways of exposure and environmental, nutritional and genetic factors. In the aquatic cycle of mercury, once it has been deposited, it is transformed into methylmercury due to the action of certain sulphate-reducing bacteria, which bioaccumulates in the aquatic organisms and moves into the food chain. The methylmercury content of large, long-lived fish such as swordfish, shark, tuna or marlin, is higher. Methylmercury binds to protein in fish and is therefore not eliminated by cleaning or cooking the fish. Fetuses and small children are more vulnerable to the neurotoxic effects of methylmercury from the consumption of contaminated fish. Methylmercury is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and crosses the blood-brain barrier and the placenta. The intake of certain dietary components such as polyunsaturated fatty acids, selenium, fiber, thiol compounds, certain phytochemicals and other nutrients can modify methylmercury bioaccesibility and its toxicity. Apart from environmental factors, genetic factors can influence mercury toxicity and explain part of the individual vulnerability (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/síntese química , Compostos de Metilmercúrio , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/uso terapêutico , Farmacocinética , Análise do Polimorfismo de Comprimento de Fragmentos Amplificados/métodos , Selênio/administração & dosagem , Selênio/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/administração & dosagem , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/farmacologia , Análise do Polimorfismo de Comprimento de Fragmentos Amplificados/instrumentação , Selênio , Selênio
17.
Nutr. hosp ; 30(5): 989-1007, nov. 2014. tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-132304

RESUMO

Los efectos beneficiosos del consumo de pescado tanto en niños como en adultos han sido bien reconocidos. Sin embargo, se ha referido que la ingesta excesiva de metilmercurio procedente del pescado contaminado produce toxicidad neurológica en los niños afectando a la función cognitiva, la memoria, la función visual-motora y al lenguaje. Después de las intoxicaciones de Minamata e Iraq, se realizaron grandes estudios epidemiológicos en Nueva Zelanda, las islas Féroe y las islas Seychelles y se establecieron recomendaciones internacionales sobre el consumo de pescado y marisco en las mujeres embarazadas y niños pequeños. En España, el proyecto Infancia y Medio Ambiente (INMA) ha estudiado los efectos del medio ambiente y de la dieta sobre el desarrollo fetal e infantil en diversas zonas geográficas de España. Los estudios realizados nacionales e internacionales muestran que la concentración de mercurio depende principalmente del consumo de pescado, aunque existe una variabilidad entre los países que podría explicarse no solo por la cantidad de pescado consumida, sino también por el tipo o especies de pescados que se consumen, así como por otro tipo de factores. Aunque los efectos perjudiciales del metilmercurio mejor documentados son los que se producen sobre el desarrollo del sistema nervioso en el feto y en el recién nacido, cada vez hay más estudios que indican que también puede afectar a la función cognitiva, reproducción y especialmente al riesgo cardiovascular en la población adulta. Sin embargo, son necesarios más estudios para confirmarlo y establecer la existencia de una relación causal (AU)


The benefit of fish consumption in children and adults is well-known. However, it has been pointed out that excessive methylmercury intake due to consumption of contaminated fish leads to neurological toxicity in children, affecting cognitive function, memory, visual-motor function and language. After the intoxications in Minamata and Iraq, wide-ranging epidemiological studies were carried out in New Zealand, the Faroe Islands and the Seychelles andinternational recommendations were established for fish consumption in pregnant women and small children. In Spain, the Childhood and Environmental project (INMA, its Spanish acronym) has studied the effects of diet and the environment on fetal and childhood development in different geographic areas of Spain. National and international sudies have demonstrated that mercury concentrations are mainly dependent on fish consumption, although there are variations among countries which can be explained not only by the levels of fish consumption, but also by the type or species of fish that is consumed, as well as other factors. Although the best documented adverse effects of methylmercury are the effects on nervous sytem development in fetuses and newborns, an increasing number of studies indicate that cognitive function, reproduction and, especially, cardiovascular risk in the adult population can also be affected. However, more studies are necessary in order to confirm this and establish the existance of a causal relationship (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Criança , Adulto , Animais , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade , Peixes , Intoxicação por Mercúrio , Alimentos Marinhos , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/envenenamento , Intoxicação por Mercúrio/etiologia , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Alimentação
18.
Nutr Hosp ; 31(1): 1-15, 2014 Nov 04.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25561094

RESUMO

The beneficial effects of fish consumption are well- known. Nevertheless, there is worldwide concern regard methylmercury concentrations in fish, which is why many countries such as the United States, Australia, New Zealand, Canada and numerous European countries have made fish consumption recommendations for their populations, particularly vulnerable groups, in order to México methylmercury intake. Blood and hair are the best biological samples for measuring methylmercury. The most widely-used method to analyse methylmercury is cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry, although there are also direct methods based on the thermal decomposition of the sample. In recent years, the number of laboratories that measure mercury by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry has increased. In addition, the different kinds of mercury can be distinguished by coupling chromatography methods of separation. Laboratories that analyse mercury in biological samples need to participate in external quality control programmes. Even if mercury emissions are reduced, mercury may remain in the environment for many years, so dietary recommendations are fundamental in order to reduce exposure. It is necessary to propose public health measures aimed at decreasing mercury exposure and to evaluate the benefits of such measures from the economic and social standpoints.


Assuntos
Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/toxicidade , Animais , Análise Custo-Benefício , Peixes , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Contaminação de Alimentos/economia , Humanos , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/economia
19.
Nutr Hosp ; 31(1): 16-31, 2014 Nov 21.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25561095

RESUMO

The beneficial effects of fish consumption in both children and adults are well known. However, the intake of methylmercury, mainly from contaminated fish and shellfish, can have adverse health effects. The study group on the prevention of exposure to methylmercury (GEPREM-Hg), made up of representatives from different Spanish scientific societies, has prepared a consensus document in a question and answer format, containing the group's main conclusions, recommendations and proposals. The objective of the document is to provide broader knowledge of factors associated with methylmercury exposure, its possible effects on health among the Spanish population, methods of analysis, interpretation of the results and economic costs, and to then set recommendations for fish and shellfish consumption. The group sees the merit of all initiatives aimed at reducing or prohibiting the use of mercury as well as the need to be aware of the results of contaminant analyses performed on fish and shellfish marketed in Spain. In addition, the group believes that biomonitoring systems should be set up in order to follow the evolution of methylmercury exposure in children and adults and perform studies designed to learn more about the possible health effects of concentrations found in the Spanish population, ta king into account the lifestyle, eating patterns and the Mediterranean diet.


Assuntos
Compostos de Metilmercúrio/efeitos adversos , Compostos de Metilmercúrio/análise , Alimentos Marinhos/efeitos adversos , Alimentos Marinhos/análise , Adulto , Criança , Consenso , Dieta Mediterrânea , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Humanos , Espanha/epidemiologia
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