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2.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 2020 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33168986

RESUMO

Mitochondrial translation is essential for the biogenesis of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system (OXPHOS) that synthesizes the bulk of ATP for the cell. Hypomorphic and loss-of-function variants in either mitochondrial DNA or in nuclear genes that encode mitochondrial translation factors can result in impaired OXPHOS biogenesis and mitochondrial diseases with variable clinical presentations. Compound heterozygous or homozygous missense and frameshift variants in the FARS2 gene, that encodes the mitochondrial phenylalanyl-tRNA synthetase, are commonly linked to either early-onset epileptic mitochondrial encephalopathy or spastic paraplegia. Here, we expand the genetic spectrum of FARS2-linked disease with three patients carrying novel compound heterozygous variants in the FARS2 gene and presenting with spastic tetraparesis, axial hypotonia and myoclonic epilepsy in two cases.

3.
J Med Genet ; 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33199448

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Biallelic variants in PNPT1 cause a mitochondrial disease of variable severity. PNPT1 (polynucleotide phosphorylase) is a mitochondrial protein involved in RNA processing where it has a dual role in the import of small RNAs into mitochondria and in preventing the formation and release of mitochondrial double-stranded RNA into the cytoplasm. This, in turn, prevents the activation of type I interferon response. Detailed neuroimaging findings in PNPT1-related disease are lacking with only a few patients reported with basal ganglia lesions (Leigh syndrome) or non-specific signs. OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: To document neuroimaging data in six patients with PNPT1 highlighting novel findings. RESULTS: Two patients exhibited striatal lesions compatible with Leigh syndrome; one patient exhibited leukoencephalopathy and one patient had a normal brain MRI. Interestingly, two unrelated patients exhibited cystic leukoencephalopathy resembling RNASET2-deficient patients, patients with Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) or congenital CMV infection. CONCLUSION: We suggest that similar to RNASET2, PNPT1 be searched for in the setting of cystic leukoencephalopathy. These findings are in line with activation of type I interferon response observed in AGS, PNPT1 and RNASET2 deficiencies, suggesting a common pathophysiological pathway and linking mitochondrial diseases, interferonopathies and immune dysregulations.

4.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 2020 Sep 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32929747

RESUMO

TANGO2 disease is a severe inherited disorder associating multiple symptoms such as metabolic crises, encephalopathy, cardiac arrhythmias, and hypothyroidism. The mechanism of action of TANGO2 is currently unknown. Here, we describe a cohort of 20 French patients bearing mutations in the TANGO2 gene. We found that the main clinical presentation was the association of neurodevelopmental delay (n = 17), acute metabolic crises (n = 17) and hypothyroidism (n = 12), with a large intrafamilial clinical variability. Metabolic crises included rhabdomyolysis (15/17), neurological symptoms (14/17), and cardiac features (12/17; long QT (n = 10), Brugada pattern (n = 2), cardiac arrhythmia (n = 6)) that required intensive care. We show previously uncharacterized triggers of metabolic crises in TANGO2 patients, such as some anesthetics and possibly l-carnitine. Unexpectedly, plasma acylcarnitines, plasma FGF-21, muscle histology, and mitochondrial spectrometry were mostly normal. Moreover, in patients' primary myoblasts, palmitate and glutamine oxidation rates, and the mitochondrial network were also normal. Finally, we found variable mitochondrial respiration and defective clearance of oxidized DNA upon cycles of starvation and refeeding. We conclude that TANGO2 disease is a life-threatening disease that needs specific cardiac management and anesthesia protocol. Mechanistically, TANGO2 disease is unlikely to originate from a primary mitochondrial defect. Rather, we suggest that mitochondrial defects are secondary to strong extrinsic triggers in TANGO2 deficient patients.

6.
Clin Neuropathol ; 2020 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32831158

RESUMO

Embryonal tumor with multilayered rosettes, constitutes an aggressive and rare pediatric embryonal tumor of the central nervous system characterized by alterations of the C19MC locus at 19q13.12. Embryonal tumors with multilayered rosettes (ETMRs) span a broad histopathological spectrum with primitive neural features and abundant neuropil. Before the molecular definition of this entity, exceptional cases with heterologous differentiation have been evidenced in the literature. Herein, we report the first case of an ETMR featuring a sarcomatous component with proven C19MC alteration in both components by an in situ hybridization analysis. This data supports the hypothesis of a divergent differentiation of tumoral cells in this case.

7.
Eur J Med Genet ; 63(11): 104033, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32781272

RESUMO

We describe two sporadic and two familial cases with loss-of-function variants in PRPS1, which is located on the X chromosome and encodes phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate synthetase 1 (PRS-1). We illustrate the clinical variability associated with decreased PRS-1 activity, ranging from mild isolated hearing loss to severe encephalopathy. One of the variants we identified has already been reported with a phenotype similar to our patient's, whereas the other three were unknown. The clinical and biochemical information we provide will hopefully contribute to gain insight into the correlation between genotype and phenotype of this rare condition, both in females and in males. Moreover, our observation of a new family in which hemizygous males display hearing loss without any neurological or ophthalmological symptoms prompts us to suggest analysing PRPS1 in cases of isolated hearing loss. Eventually, PRPS1 variants should be considered as a differential diagnosis of mitochondrial disorders.

9.
Neuromuscul Disord ; 30(7): 593-598, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32654952

RESUMO

Diaphragmatic dysfunction has been reported in congenital myopathies, muscular dystrophies, and occasionally, mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiency. Using a minimally invasive procedure in 3 young girls, 1 with a heteroplasmic MT-CYB mutation and 2 with biallelic pathogenic TK2 variants, we provided functional evidence of diaphragmatic dysfunction with global respiratory muscle weakness in mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiency. Analysis of respiratory muscle performance using esogastric pressures revealed paradoxical breathing and severe global inspiratory and expiratory muscle weakness with a sniff esophageal inspiratory pressure and a gastric pressure during cough averaging 50% and 40% of predicted values, respectively. This diaphragmatic dysfunction was responsible for severe undiagnosed nocturnal hypoventilation, requiring noninvasive ventilation. Our results underline the interest of this minimally invasive procedure for the evaluation of respiratory muscle performance and its potential value for the monitoring of future clinical trials in respiratory chain deficiency.

10.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 113(8-9): 579-586, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32522436

RESUMO

This paper aims to provide a paediatric cardiac computed tomography angiography expert panel consensus based on the opinions of experts from the Société française d'imagerie cardiaque et vasculaire diagnostique et interventionnelle (SFICV) and the Filiale de cardiologie pédiatrique congénitale (FCPC). This expert panel consensus includes recommendations for indications, patient preparation, computed tomography angiography radiation dose reduction techniques and postprocessing techniques. We think that to realize its full potential and to avoid pitfalls, cardiac computed tomography angiography in children with congenital heart disease requires training and experience. Moreover, paediatric cardiac computed tomography angiography protocols should be standardized to acquire optimal images in this population with the lowest radiation dose possible, to prevent unnecessary radiation exposure. We also provide a suggested structured report and a list of acquisition protocols and technical parameters in relation to specific vendors.


Assuntos
Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/normas , Angiografia Coronária/normas , Vasos Coronários/diagnóstico por imagem , Cardiopatias Congênitas/diagnóstico por imagem , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Angiografia por Tomografia Computadorizada/efeitos adversos , Consenso , Angiografia Coronária/efeitos adversos , Cardiopatias Congênitas/terapia , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Doses de Radiação , Exposição à Radiação/efeitos adversos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco
11.
J Neurosurg Pediatr ; : 1-5, 2020 May 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442968

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Hydrocephalus is a strong determinant of poor neurological outcome after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). In children, ruptured brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs) are the dominant cause of ICH. In a large prospective cohort of pediatric patients with ruptured bAVMs, the authors analyzed the rates and predictive factors of hydrocephalus requiring acute external ventricular drainage (EVD) or ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS). METHODS: The authors performed a single-center retrospective analysis of the data from a prospectively maintained database of children admitted for a ruptured bAVM since 2002. Admission clinical and imaging predictors of EVD and VPS placement were analyzed using univariate and multivariate statistical models. RESULTS: Among 114 patients (mean age 9.8 years) with 125 distinct ICHs due to ruptured bAVM, EVD and VPS were placed for 55/125 (44%) hemorrhagic events and 5/114 patients (4.4%), respectively. A multivariate nominal logistic regression model identified low initial Glasgow Coma Scale (iGCS) score, hydrocephalus on initial CT scan, the presence of intraventicular hemorrhage (IVH), and higher modified Graeb Scale (mGS) score as strongly associated with subsequent need for EVD (all p < 0.001). All children who needed a VPS had initial hydrocephalus requiring EVD and tended to have higher mGS scores. CONCLUSIONS: In a large cohort of pediatric patients with ruptured bAVM, almost half of the patients required EVD and 4.4% required permanent VPS. Use of a low iGCS score and a semiquantitative mGS score as indicators of the IVH burden may be helpful for decision making in the emergency setting and thus improve treatment.

12.
Am J Hum Genet ; 106(6): 859-871, 2020 06 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32470375

RESUMO

Congenital cone-rod synaptic disorder (CRSD), also known as incomplete congenital stationary night blindness (iCSNB), is a non-progressive inherited retinal disease (IRD) characterized by night blindness, photophobia, and nystagmus, and distinctive electroretinographic features. Here, we report bi-allelic RIMS2 variants in seven CRSD-affected individuals from four unrelated families. Apart from CRSD, neurodevelopmental disease was observed in all affected individuals, and abnormal glucose homeostasis was observed in the eldest affected individual. RIMS2 regulates synaptic membrane exocytosis. Data mining of human adult bulk and single-cell retinal transcriptional datasets revealed predominant expression in rod photoreceptors, and immunostaining demonstrated RIMS2 localization in the human retinal outer plexiform layer, Purkinje cells, and pancreatic islets. Additionally, nonsense variants were shown to result in truncated RIMS2 and decreased insulin secretion in mammalian cells. The identification of a syndromic stationary congenital IRD has a major impact on the differential diagnosis of syndromic congenital IRD, which has previously been exclusively linked with degenerative IRD.


Assuntos
Oftalmopatias Hereditárias/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/genética , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/genética , Mutação com Perda de Função , Miopia/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Cegueira Noturna/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Processamento Alternativo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Saúde da Família , Feminino , França , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/química , Proteínas de Ligação ao GTP/metabolismo , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Secreção de Insulina , Masculino , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/química , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/metabolismo , Pâncreas/metabolismo , Linhagem , Retina/metabolismo , Arábia Saudita , Senegal
13.
Mol Genet Metab ; 130(2): 110-117, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32273051

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We aimed to identify prognostic factors for survival and long-term intellectual and developmental outcome in neonatal patients with early-onset urea cycle disorders (UCD) experiencing hyperammonaemic coma. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed ammonia (NH3) and glutamine levels, electroencephalogram and brain images obtained during neonatal coma of UCD patients born between 1995 and 2011 and managed at a single centre and correlated them to survival and intellectual and developmental outcome. RESULTS: We included 38 neonates suffering from deficiencies of argininosuccinate synthetase (ASSD, N = 12), ornithine transcarbamylase (OTCD, N = 10), carbamoylphosphate synthetase 1 (CPSD, N = 7), argininosuccinate lyase (ASLD, N = 7), N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS, N = 1) or arginase (ARGD, N = 1). Symptoms occurred earlier in mitochondrial than in cytosolic UCD. Sixty-eight percent of patients survived, with a mean (standard deviation-SD) follow-up of 10.4 (5.3) years. Mortality was mostly observed in OTCD (N = 7/10) and CPSD (N = 4/7) patients. Plasma NH3 level during the neonatal period, expressed as area under the curve, but not glutamine level was associated with mortality (p = .044 and p = .610). 62.1% of the patients had normal intellectual and developmental outcome. Intellectual and developmental outcome tended to correlate with UCD subtype (p = .052). No difference in plasma NH3 or glutamine level during the neonatal period among developmental outcomes was identified. EEG severity was linked to UCD subtypes (p = .004), ammonia levels (p = .037), duration of coma (p = .043), and mortality during the neonatal period (p = .020). Status epilepticus was recorded in 6 patients, 3 of whom died neonatally, 1 developed a severe intellectual disability while the 2 last patients had a normal development. CONCLUSION: UCD subtypes differed by survival rate, intellectual and developmental outcome and EEG features in the neonatal period. Hyperammonaemia expressed as area under the curve was associated with survival but not with intellectual and developmental outcome whereas glutamine was not associated with one of these outcomes. Prognostic value of video-EEG monitoring and the association between status epilepticus and mortality should be assessed in neonatal hyperammonaemic coma in further studies.

15.
Pediatr Nephrol ; 35(6): 1033-1040, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040628

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While typical ultrasound patterns of ciliopathy-related cystic kidney diseases have been described in children, ultrasound findings can overlap between different diseases and atypical patterns exist. In this study, we assessed the presence of the "salt and pepper" pattern in different renal ciliopathies and looked for additional ultrasound features. METHODS: This single-center, retrospective study included all patients with a molecular-proven diagnosis of renal ciliopathy, referred to our center between 2007 and 2017. Images from the first and follow-up ultrasound exams were reviewed. Basic ultrasound features were grouped into patterns and compared to genetic diagnoses. The "salt and pepper" aspect was described as enlarged kidneys with heterogeneous, increased parenchymal echogenicity. RESULTS: A total of 41 children with 5 different renal ciliopathies were included (61% male; median age, 6 years [range, 3 days to 17 years]). The "salt and pepper" pattern was present in 14/15 patients with an autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease (ARPKD). A similar pattern was found in 1/4 patients with an autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease and in 1/11 patients with HNF1B mutation. Additional signs found were areas of cortical sparing, comet-tail artifacts, and color comet-tail artifacts. CONCLUSION: Although the "salt and pepper" ultrasound pattern is predominantly found in ARPKD, it may be detected in other ciliopathies. The color comet-tail artifact is an interesting sign when suspecting a renal ciliopathy in case of enlarged hyperechoic kidneys with no detectable microcysts on B-mode grayscale ultrasound.

16.
Neuro Oncol ; 22(8): 1190-1202, 2020 08 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32025728

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Considering that pediatric high-grade gliomas (HGGs) are biologically distinct from their adult counterparts, the objective of this study was to define the landscape of HGGs in adolescents and young adults (AYAs). METHODS: We performed a multicentric retrospective study of 112 AYAs from adult and pediatric Ile-de-France neurosurgical units, treated between 1998 and 2013 to analyze their clinicoradiological and histomolecular profiles. The inclusion criteria were age between 15 and 25 years, histopathological HGG diagnosis, available clinical data, and preoperative and follow-up MRI. MRI and tumoral samples were centrally reviewed. Immunohistochemistry and complementary molecular techniques such as targeted/next-generation sequencing, whole exome sequencing, and DNA-methylation analyses were performed to achieve an integrated diagnosis according to the 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification. RESULTS: Based on 80 documented AYA patients, HGGs constitute heterogeneous clinicopathological and molecular groups, with a predominant representation of pediatric subtypes (histone H3-mutants, 40%) but also adult subtypes (isocitrate dehydrogenase [IDH] mutants, 28%) characterized by the rarity of oligodendrogliomas, IDH mutants, and 1p/19q codeletion and the relative high frequency of "rare adult IDH mutations" (20%). H3G34-mutants (14%) represent the most specific subgroup in AYAs. In the H3K27-mutant subgroup, non-brainstem diffuse midline gliomas are more frequent (66.7%) than diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (23.8%), contrary to what is observed in children. We found that WHO grade has no prognostic value, but molecular subgrouping has major prognostic importance. CONCLUSIONS: HGGs in AYAs could benefit from a specific classification, driven by molecular subtyping rather than age group. Collaborative efforts are needed from pediatric and adult neuro-oncology teams to improve the management of HGGs in AYAs.

17.
Clin Neuropathol ; 39(4): 171-178, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31983386

RESUMO

AIMS: Meningeal chondromas constitute a small fraction of central nervous system tumors, with only 61 cases reported in the literature. Somatic mutations of IDH1/2 genes have been described in enchondromas, and, in soft-tissue chondromas, rearrangements of the HMGA2 gene have been reported. The aim of our study was to perform molecular analyses of 3 additional cases and to do a complete review of the literature to better characterize this rare entity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Here, we report 3 cases of primitive meningeal chondromas in children and young adults. Immunohistochemical analyses for HMGA2 and IDH1R132H, molecular analyses of IDH1/2 mutations, and FISH analysis of the HMGA2 locus were performed. RESULTS: Immunohistochemical analyses of all cases were negative for IDH1R132H and HMGA2 proteins. Molecular analyses failed to reveal IDH1/2 mutations, and FISH analyses did not evidence any HMGA2 rearrangements. Similarly to what is reported in the literature, the 3 meningeal chondromas in this study were benign tumors with no recurrence after complete resection with a follow-up of 85, 46, and 89 months. CONCLUSION: Meningeal chondroma is rare. It affects predominantly young adults and has a good outcome. No molecular alterations have currently been described in this entity.

18.
Neurosurgery ; 86(4): 517-523, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No link has been demonstrated between diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma and developmental venous anomaly in pediatric patients. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of developmental venous anomaly in a pediatric cohort of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study (1998-2017) of consecutive pediatric patients harboring a diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (experimental set, n = 162) or a craniopharyngioma (control set, n = 142) in a tertiary pediatric neurosurgical center. The inclusion criteria were the following: age <18 yr at diagnosis; histopathological diagnosis of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma or craniopharyngioma according to the 2016 World Health Organization classification of tumors of the central nervous system; no previous oncological treatment; and available preoperative magnetic resonance imaging performed with similar acquisition protocol. RESULTS: We found a significantly higher prevalence of developmental venous anomaly in the experimental set of 162 diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (24.1%) than in the control set of 142 craniopharyngiomas (10.6%; P = .001). The prevalence of developmental venous anomalies was not significantly impacted by demographic data (sex, age at diagnosis, and underlying pathological condition), biomolecular analysis (H3-K27M-mutant subgroup, H3.1-K27M-mutant subgroup, and H3.3-K27M-mutant subgroup), or imaging findings (anatomic location, anatomic extension, side, and obstructive hydrocephalus) of the studied diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas. CONCLUSION: We report a higher prevalence of developmental venous anomaly in pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma patients than in control patients, which suggests a potential underlying common predisposition or a causal relationship that will require deeper investigations.

19.
J Med Genet ; 57(2): 138-144, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) with developmental delay and seizures are a genetically heterogeneous group of diseases caused by at least 700 different genes. Still, a number of cases remain genetically undiagnosed. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify and characterise pathogenic variants in two individuals from unrelated families, both of whom presented a similar clinical phenotype that included an ASD, intellectual disability (ID) and seizures. METHODS: Whole-exome sequencing was used to identify pathogenic variants in the two individuals. Functional studies performed in the Drosophila melanogaster model was used to assess the protein function in vivo. RESULTS: Probands shared a heterozygous de novo secretory carrier membrane protein (SCAMP5) variant (NM_001178111.1:c.538G>T) resulting in a p.Gly180Trp missense variant. SCAMP5 belongs to a family of tetraspanin membrane proteins found in secretory and endocytic compartments of neuronal synapses. In the fly SCAMP orthologue, the p.Gly302Trp genotype corresponds to human p.Gly180Trp. Western blot analysis of proteins overexpressed in the Drosophila fat body showed strongly reduced levels of the SCAMP p.Gly302Trp protein compared with the wild-type protein, indicating that the mutant either reduced expression or increased turnover of the protein. The expression of the fly homologue of the human SCAMP5 p.Gly180Trp mutation caused similar eye and neuronal phenotypes as the expression of SCAMP RNAi, suggesting a dominant-negative effect. CONCLUSION: Our study identifies SCAMP5 deficiency as a cause for ASD and ID and underscores the importance of synaptic vesicular trafficking in neurodevelopmental disorders.

20.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 43(2): 348-356, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444911

RESUMO

Little is known about the long-term progression of adult nephropathic cystinosis patients. Our objective was to study central nervous system complications in cystinosis patients in the era of early cysteamine treatment, using advanced neuroimaging techniques. Neurological examination and multimodal brain 3 Tesla MRI were performed in 21 adult cystinosis patients, including 18 infantile cystinosis patients, 20 controls matched for age and renal function, and 12 healthy controls. Differences in gray matter volume and rest cerebral blood flow (CBF) using arterial spin labeling sequence were investigated using whole-brain voxel-based approach. Median age was 33.8 years (18.7-65.8). Seven patients (38.9%) presented with at least one central nervous system clinical abnormality: two (11.1%) with seizures, three (16.7%) with memory defects, five (27.8%) with cognitive defect, and one (5.5%) with stroke-like episode. These patients had a worse compliance to treatment (compliance score 2 vs 1, P = .03) and received a lower median cysteamine dose (0.9 g/day vs 2.1 g/day, P = .02). Among patients with infantile cystinosis, 13 (72.2%) showed cortical atrophy, which was absent in controls, but it was not correlated with symptoms. Cystinosis patients showed a significant gray matter decrease in the middle frontal gyrus compared with healthy controls and a significant negative correlation between the cystine blood level and rest CBF was observed in the right superior frontal gyrus, a region associated with executive function. Compliance to cysteamine treatment is a major concern in these adult patients and could have an impact on the development of neurological and cognitive complications.

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