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1.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 Nov 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31680380

RESUMO

Pathogenic GFM1 variants have been linked to neurological phenotypes with or without liver involvement, but only a few cases have been reported in the literature. Here, we report clinical, biochemical and neuroimaging findings from nine unrelated children carrying GFM1 variants, 10 of which were not previously reported. All patients presented with neurological involvement-mainly axial hypotonia and dystonia during the neonatal period-with five diagnosed with West syndrome; two children had liver involvement with cytolysis episodes or hepatic failure. While two patients died in infancy, six exhibited a stable clinical course. Brain MRI showed involvement of basal ganglia, brainstem and periventricular white matter. Mutant EFG1 and OXPHOS proteins were decreased in patient fibroblasts consistent with impaired mitochondrial translation. Thus, we expand the genetic spectrum of GFM1-linked disease and provide detailed clinical profiles of the patients that will improve the diagnostic success for other patients carrying GFM1 mutations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 3967, 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481669

RESUMO

N6-threonyl-carbamoylation of adenosine 37 of ANN-type tRNAs (t6A) is a universal modification essential for translational accuracy and efficiency. The t6A pathway uses two sequentially acting enzymes, YRDC and OSGEP, the latter being a subunit of the multiprotein KEOPS complex. We recently identified mutations in genes encoding four out of the five KEOPS subunits in children with Galloway-Mowat syndrome (GAMOS), a clinically heterogeneous autosomal recessive disease characterized by early-onset steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome and microcephaly. Here we show that mutations in YRDC cause an extremely severe form of GAMOS whereas mutations in GON7, encoding the fifth KEOPS subunit, lead to a milder form of the disease. The crystal structure of the GON7/LAGE3/OSGEP subcomplex shows that the intrinsically disordered GON7 protein becomes partially structured upon binding to LAGE3. The structure and cellular characterization of GON7 suggest its involvement in the cellular stability and quaternary arrangement of the KEOPS complex.

3.
Brain ; 142(10): 2948-2964, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501903

RESUMO

Axon pathfinding and synapse formation are essential processes for nervous system development and function. The assembly of myelinated fibres and nodes of Ranvier is mediated by a number of cell adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin superfamily including neurofascin, encoded by the NFASC gene, and its alternative isoforms Nfasc186 and Nfasc140 (located in the axonal membrane at the node of Ranvier) and Nfasc155 (a glial component of the paranodal axoglial junction). We identified 10 individuals from six unrelated families, exhibiting a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized with a spectrum of central (intellectual disability, developmental delay, motor impairment, speech difficulties) and peripheral (early onset demyelinating neuropathy) neurological involvement, who were found by exome or genome sequencing to carry one frameshift and four different homozygous non-synonymous variants in NFASC. Expression studies using immunostaining-based techniques identified absent expression of the Nfasc155 isoform as a consequence of the frameshift variant and a significant reduction of expression was also observed in association with two non-synonymous variants affecting the fibronectin type III domain. Cell aggregation studies revealed a severely impaired Nfasc155-CNTN1/CASPR1 complex interaction as a result of the identified variants. Immunofluorescence staining of myelinated fibres from two affected individuals showed a severe loss of myelinated fibres and abnormalities in the paranodal junction morphology. Our results establish that recessive variants affecting the Nfasc155 isoform can affect the formation of paranodal axoglial junctions at the nodes of Ranvier. The genetic disease caused by biallelic NFASC variants includes neurodevelopmental impairment and a spectrum of central and peripheral demyelination as part of its core clinical phenotype. Our findings support possible overlapping molecular mechanisms of paranodal damage at peripheral nerves in both the immune-mediated and the genetic disease, but the observation of prominent central neurological involvement in NFASC biallelic variant carriers highlights the importance of this gene in human brain development and function.

4.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2019 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481512

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPG) are the most severe pediatric brain tumors. Although accepted as the standard therapeutic, radiotherapy is only efficient transiently and not even in every patient. The goal of the study was to identify the underlying molecular determinants of response to radiotherapy in DIPG. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We assessed in vitro response to ionizing radiations in 13 different DIPG cellular models derived from treatment-naïve stereotactic biopsies reflecting the genotype variability encountered in patients at diagnosis and correlated it to their principal molecular alterations. Clinical and radiologic response to radiotherapy of a large cohort of 73 DIPG was analyzed according to their genotype. Using a kinome-wide synthetic lethality RNAi screen, we further identified target genes that can sensitize DIPG cells to ionizing radiations. RESULTS: We uncover TP53 mutation as the main driver of increased radioresistance and validated this finding in four isogenic pairs of TP53WT DIPG cells with or without TP53 knockdown. In an integrated clinical, radiological, and molecular study, we show that TP53MUT DIPG patients respond less to irradiation, relapse earlier after radiotherapy, and have a worse prognosis than their TP53WT counterparts. Finally, a kinome-wide synthetic lethality RNAi screen identifies CHK1 as a potential target, whose inhibition increases response to radiation specifically in TP53MUT cells. CONCLUSIONS: Here, we demonstrate that TP53 mutations are driving DIPG radioresistance both in patients and corresponding cellular models. We suggest alternative treatment strategies to mitigate radioresistance with CHK1 inhibitors. These findings will allow to consequently refine radiotherapy schedules in DIPG.

5.
J Med Genet ; 2019 Aug 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31439720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Autistic spectrum disorders (ASDs) with developmental delay and seizures are a genetically heterogeneous group of diseases caused by at least 700 different genes. Still, a number of cases remain genetically undiagnosed. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to identify and characterise pathogenic variants in two individuals from unrelated families, both of whom presented a similar clinical phenotype that included an ASD, intellectual disability (ID) and seizures. METHODS: Whole-exome sequencing was used to identify pathogenic variants in the two individuals. Functional studies performed in the Drosophila melanogaster model was used to assess the protein function in vivo. RESULTS: Probands shared a heterozygous de novo secretory carrier membrane protein (SCAMP5) variant (NM_001178111.1:c.538G>T) resulting in a p.Gly180Trp missense variant. SCAMP5 belongs to a family of tetraspanin membrane proteins found in secretory and endocytic compartments of neuronal synapses. In the fly SCAMP orthologue, the p.Gly302Trp genotype corresponds to human p.Gly180Trp. Western blot analysis of proteins overexpressed in the Drosophila fat body showed strongly reduced levels of the SCAMP p.Gly302Trp protein compared with the wild-type protein, indicating that the mutant either reduced expression or increased turnover of the protein. The expression of the fly homologue of the human SCAMP5 p.Gly180Trp mutation caused similar eye and neuronal phenotypes as the expression of SCAMP RNAi, suggesting a dominant-negative effect. CONCLUSION: Our study identifies SCAMP5 deficiency as a cause for ASD and ID and underscores the importance of synaptic vesicular trafficking in neurodevelopmental disorders.

6.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 2019 Aug 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31444911

RESUMO

Little is known about the long-term progression of adult nephropathic cystinosis patients. Our objective was to study central nervous system complications in cystinosis patients in the era of early cysteamine treatment, using advanced neuroimaging techniques. Neurological examination and multimodal brain 3 Tesla MRI were performed in 21 adult cystinosis patients, including 18 infantile cystinosis patients, 20 controls matched for age and renal function, and 12 healthy controls. Differences in gray matter volume and rest cerebral blood flow (CBF) using arterial spin labeling sequence were investigated using whole-brain voxel-based approach. Median age was 33.8 years (18.7-65.8). Seven patients (38.9%) presented with at least one central nervous system clinical abnormality: two (11.1%) with seizures, three (16.7%) with memory defects, five (27.8%) with cognitive defect, and one (5.5%) with stroke-like episode. These patients had a worse compliance to treatment (compliance score 2 vs 1, P = .03) and received a lower median cysteamine dose (0.9 g/day vs 2.1 g/day, P = .02). Among patients with infantile cystinosis, 13 (72.2%) showed cortical atrophy, which was absent in controls, but it was not correlated with symptoms. Cystinosis patients showed a significant gray matter decrease in the middle frontal gyrus compared with healthy controls and a significant negative correlation between the cystine blood level and rest CBF was observed in the right superior frontal gyrus, a region associated with executive function. Compliance to cysteamine treatment is a major concern in these adult patients and could have an impact on the development of neurological and cognitive complications.

7.
Mol Autism ; 10: 33, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31406558

RESUMO

Background: Neurogenetics investigations and diagnostic yield in patients with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have significantly improved over the last few years. Yet, many patients still fail to be systematically investigated. Methods: To improve access to services, an ambulatory team has been established since 1998, delivering on-site clinical genetics consultations and gradually upgrading services to 502 children and young adults with ASD in their standard environment across 26 day-care hospitals and specialized institutions within the Greater Paris region. The evaluation included a clinical genetics consultation, screening for fragile X syndrome, metabolic workup, chromosomal microarray analysis, and, in a proportion of patients, next-generation sequencing of genes reported in ASD and other neurodevelopmental disorders. Results: Fragile X syndrome and pathogenic copy number variants (CNVs) accounted for the disease in 10% of cases, including 4/312 (1.3%) with fragile X syndrome and 34/388 (8.8%) with pathogenic CNVs (19 de novo and 4 inherited). Importantly, adding high-throughput resequencing of reported intellectual disability/ASD genes to the screening procedure had a major impact on diagnostic yield in the 141 patients examined most recently. Pathogenic or likely pathogenic sequence variants in 27 disease genes were identified in 33/141 patients (23.4%; 23 were de novo and 10 inherited, including five X-linked and five recessive compound heterozygous variants). Diagnosed cases presented atypical and/or syndromic ASD with moderate to severe intellectual disability. The diagnostic yield of fragile X syndrome and array CGH testing combined with next-generation sequencing was significantly higher than fragile X syndrome and array CGH alone (p value 0.009). No inborn errors of metabolism were detected with the metabolic screening. Conclusion: Based on the diagnostic rate observed in this cohort, we suggest that a stepwise procedure be considered, first screening pathogenic CNVs and a limited number of disease genes in a much larger number of patients, especially those with syndromic ASD and intellectual disability.

8.
J Thromb Haemost ; 17(11): 1798-1807, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31271700

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Congenital disorders of glycosylation are rare inherited diseases affecting many different proteins. The lack of glycosylation notably affects the hemostatic system and leads to deficiencies of both procoagulant and anticoagulant factors. OBJECTIVE: To assess the hemostatic balance in patients with multiple coagulation disorders by using a thrombin generation assay. METHOD: We performed conventional coagulation assays and a thrombin generation assay on samples from patients with congenital disorder of glycosylation. The thrombin generation assay was performed before and after activation of the protein C system by the addition of soluble thrombomodulin. RESULTS: A total of 35 patients were included: 71% and 57% had low antithrombin and factor XI levels, respectively. Protein C and protein S levels were abnormally low in 29% and 26% of the patients, respectively, whereas only 11% displayed low factor IX levels. Under baseline conditions, the thrombin generation assay revealed a significantly higher endogenous thrombin potential and thrombin peak in patients, relative to controls. After spiking with thrombomodulin, we observed impaired involvement of the protein C system. Hence, 54% of patients displayed a hypercoagulant phenotype in vitro. All the patients with a history of stroke-like episodes or thrombosis displayed this hypercoagulant phenotype. CONCLUSION: A thrombin generation assay revealed a hypercoagulant in vitro phenotype under baseline condition; this was accentuated by impaired involvement of the protein C system. This procoagulant phenotype may thus reflect the risk of severe vascular complications. Further research will have to determine whether the thrombin generation assay is predictive of vascular events.

9.
Neurosurgery ; 2019 07 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31342064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: No link has been demonstrated between diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma and developmental venous anomaly in pediatric patients. OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of developmental venous anomaly in a pediatric cohort of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study (1998-2017) of consecutive pediatric patients harboring a diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (experimental set, n = 162) or a craniopharyngioma (control set, n = 142) in a tertiary pediatric neurosurgical center. The inclusion criteria were the following: age <18 yr at diagnosis; histopathological diagnosis of diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma or craniopharyngioma according to the 2016 World Health Organization classification of tumors of the central nervous system; no previous oncological treatment; and available preoperative magnetic resonance imaging performed with similar acquisition protocol. RESULTS: We found a significantly higher prevalence of developmental venous anomaly in the experimental set of 162 diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (24.1%) than in the control set of 142 craniopharyngiomas (10.6%; P = .001). The prevalence of developmental venous anomalies was not significantly impacted by demographic data (sex, age at diagnosis, and underlying pathological condition), biomolecular analysis (H3-K27M-mutant subgroup, H3.1-K27M-mutant subgroup, and H3.3-K27M-mutant subgroup), or imaging findings (anatomic location, anatomic extension, side, and obstructive hydrocephalus) of the studied diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas. CONCLUSION: We report a higher prevalence of developmental venous anomaly in pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma patients than in control patients, which suggests a potential underlying common predisposition or a causal relationship that will require deeper investigations.

10.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 9252, 2019 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31239453

RESUMO

Social behavior is extremely variable among individuals, and the neural basis of this variability is still poorly understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate the neural basis of interindividual variability in the first step of social behavior, that is, social perception. For that purpose, we first used eye-tracking to measure social perception during the passive visualization of socially relevant movie clips. Second, we correlated eye-tracking data with measures of rest cerebral blood flow (CBF) obtained using arterial spin-labeling (ASL) MRI, an index of local rest brain function. The results showed a large interindividual variability in the number of fixations to the eyes of characters during passive visualization of movie clips displaying social interactions. Moreover, individual patterns remained stable across time, suggesting an individual signature of social behavior. Whole-brain analyses showed significant positive correlation between the number of fixations to the eyes and rest CBF: individuals who looked more to the eyes were those with higher rest CBF levels within the right superior temporal regions. Our results indicate the existence of a neural and behavioral signature associated with the interindividual variability in social perception.

11.
J Digit Imaging ; 2019 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31236743

RESUMO

Patient-specific 3D modeling is the first step towards image-guided surgery, the actual revolution in surgical care. Pediatric and adolescent patients with rare tumors and malformations should highly benefit from these latest technological innovations, allowing personalized tailored surgery. This study focused on the pelvic region, located at the crossroads of the urinary, digestive, and genital channels with important vascular and nervous structures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performances of different software tools to obtain patient-specific 3D models, through segmentation of magnetic resonance images (MRI), the reference for pediatric pelvis examination. Twelve software tools freely available on the Internet and two commercial software tools were evaluated using T2-w MRI and diffusion-weighted MRI images. The software tools were rated according to eight criteria, evaluated by three different users: automatization degree, segmentation time, usability, 3D visualization, presence of image registration tools, tractography tools, supported OS, and potential extension (i.e., plugins). A ranking of software tools for 3D modeling of MRI medical images, according to the set of predefined criteria, was given. This ranking allowed us to elaborate guidelines for the choice of software tools for pelvic surgical planning in pediatric patients. The best-ranked software tools were Myrian Studio, ITK-SNAP, and 3D Slicer, the latter being especially appropriate if nerve fibers should be included in the 3D patient model. To conclude, this study proposed a comprehensive review of software tools for 3D modeling of the pelvis according to a set of eight criteria and delivered specific conclusions for pediatric and adolescent patients that can be directly applied to clinical practice.

12.
Cardiol Young ; 29(5): 699-700, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31122308

RESUMO

We describe the case of a newborn girl who displayed association of aortic atresia and interrupted aortic arch, with retrograde flow in ascending aorta, through extracranial anastomoses between vertebral arteries (arisen from descending aorta) and external carotids.

13.
Dev Med Child Neurol ; 2019 May 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31050360

RESUMO

AIM: We aimed to evaluate the contribution of early magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the presymptomatic diagnosis of Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) in infants with a facial port-wine birthmark (PWB). METHOD: Asymptomatic infants with a facial PWB who performed a first MRI scan before 3 months and a second MRI scan after 9 months were included in this study. Leptomeningeal enhancement on T1-weighted imaging and four indirect signs of leptomeningeal angioma (choroid plexus enlargement, cerebral atrophy, signal inversion of the white matter with T2 hyposignal, and T1 hypersignal) were screened on the first MRI scan and correlated with clinical and/or radiological diagnosis of SWS. RESULTS: Thirteen of 30 included patients had SWS with leptomeningeal angioma. Eleven had a leptomeningeal enhancement on the first MRI scan and 10 had associated indirect signs. The presence of a direct or at least one indirect sign of leptomeningeal angioma on the first MRI scan confirmed the diagnosis of SWS with a sensitivity of 100 per cent (95% confidence interval 75-100%) and a specificity of 94 per cent (71-100%). INTERPRETATION: Early diagnosis of SWS is possible on contrast-enhanced MRI performed in asymptomatic infants with a facial PWB before the age of 3 months. This early detection would help to select patients who may benefit from early neuroprotective intervention. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: Specific magnetic resonance imaging markers provide early diagnosis of leptomeningeal angioma in Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS). Presymptomatic diagnosis of SWS should help to select patients for early therapy intervention.

14.
Int J Legal Med ; 2019 May 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31065793

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To report routine practice of "perimortem" CT-scan imaging to determine the causes of death in children dying from severe accidental injuries within the first hours following hospital admission. SETTINGS: Trauma center of a University Pediatric Hospital. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in children (0 to 15 years old) referred for severe trauma (GCS ≤ 8) to a regional pediatric trauma center, presenting with at least spontaneous cardiac rhythm and dying within the first 12 h after admission. "Perimortem" CT-scan consisted in high-resolution, contrast-enhanced, full-body CT-scan imaging, performed whatever child's clinical status. Lethal and associated lesions found were analyzed and classified according to validated scales. The comparison between clinical and radiological examinations and CT-scan findings evaluated the accuracy of clinical examination to predict lethal lesions. RESULTS: CT-scan performed in 73 children detected 132 potentially lethal lesions, at least 2 lesions in 63%, and 1 in 37% of the cases. More frequent lethal lesions were brain (43%), and chest injuries (33%), followed by abdominal (12%), and cervical spine injuries (12%). Clinical and minimal radiological examinations were poorly predictive for identifying abdominal/chest lesions. Clinical and imaging data provided to the medical examiner were considered sufficient to identify the cause of death, and to deliver early burial certificates in 70 children. Only three legal autopsies were commanded. CONCLUSIONS: Perimortem CT imaging could provide an insight into the causes of death in traumatized children. Performed on an emergency basis near death, it eliminates the difficulties encountered in forensic radiology. It could be a possible alternative to full-scale forensic examination, at least regarding elucidation of the potential, or highly probable causes of death.

15.
Psychiatr Genet ; 29(6): 237-242, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30933046

RESUMO

ARID1B mutations in Coffin-Siris syndrome are a cause of intellectual disability (0.5-1%), with various degrees of autism and agenesis of the corpus callosum (10%). Little is known regarding the cognitive and motor consequences of ARID1B mutations in humans and no link has been made between corpus callosum anomalies and visuospatial and neuromotor dysfunctions. We have investigated the visuospatial and neuromotor phenotype in eight patients with ARID1B mutations. A paramedian sagittal section of the brain MRI was selected, and corpus callosum was measured in anteroposterior length, genu and trunk width. Spearman's rank order coefficients were used to explore correlations between visuospatial and social cognitive variables and dimensions of the corpus callosum. A significant correlation between genu width size and visual cognition was observed. Retrocerebellar cysts were associated with corpus callosum anomalies. Here, we show that corpus callosum anomalies caused in ARID1B mutations may be predictive of the visuospatial and motor phenotype in Coffin-Siris syndrome.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31006924

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Inadequacy between currently available fetoscopes and anatomical constraints of the fetal bladder account for most technical difficulties during fetal cystoscopies (FC) in lower urinary tract obstruction (LUTO). The aim of this anatomical study was to assess by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) the variations in three bladder angles (bladder-neck angle (BNA), vesicourethral angle (VUA), dome-urethra angle (DUA)) with gestational age (GA), bladder volume or the presence of LUTO. METHODS: 46 MRIs of male fetuses (17 LUTO at 28.1 weeks [17.3-35] and 29 controls at 29.9 weeks [21.9-35] matched for GA) were reviewed. Mann-Whitney's test was used to compare angle values between groups. Variations according to GA and bladder volume were determined using ANOVA. A reliability study was performed using Bland-Altman's method and Lin's correlation coefficient. RESULTS: The BNA was higher in LUTO fetuses: 127.1° [101.6-161.6] versus 111.2° [88.5-157.3]), p<0.01. There was no difference in the DUA, p=0.92. No statistical analysis was conducted on the VUA since it was not measurable in most control fetuses. Variance analysis showed no variation of the three angles with bladder volume in LUTO (BNA: p=1.21, VUA: p=0.65, DUA: p=0.08) and in control fetuses (BNA: p=1.22, DUA: p=0.92). The BNA in LUTO fetuses was the only angle to vary with GA and was higher after 25 weeks (p=0.04). Reliability study showed an acceptable bias for both intra- and inter-investigator reproducibility for all three angles. Surgical difficulties could be anticipated from virtual MRI cystoscopy. CONCLUSION: The BNA is approximately 15° higher in LUTO fetuses and the angle between the posterior urethra and the bladder axis averages 117°. The development of a customized fetal cystoscope should help overcome the current technical challenges of FC. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

18.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(7): 1304-1309, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31004414

RESUMO

The spectrum of clinical consequences of variants in the Platelet derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRB) gene is wide. Missense variants leading to variable loss of signal transduction in vitro have been reported in the idiopathic basal ganglia calcification (IBGC) syndrome Type 4. In contrast, gain-of-function variants have been reported in infantile myofibromatosis, Penttinen syndrome, and Kosaki overgrowth syndrome. Here, we report a patient harboring a novel postzygotic variant in PDGFRB (c.1682_1684del, p.[Arg561_Tyr562delinsHis]) and presenting severe cerebral malformations, intracerebral calcifications, and infantile myofibromatosis. This observation expands the phenotype associated with PDGFRB variants and illustrates the wide clinical spectrum linked to dysregulation of PDGFRB.

19.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 180(5): 281-290, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30884465

RESUMO

Objectives Childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a public health issue. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence of permanent pituitary hormone deficiency and to detect the emergence of other pituitary dysfunctions or central precocious puberty several years after severe TBI. Design Follow-up at least 5 years post severe TBI of a prospective longitudinal study. Patients Overall, 66/87 children, who had endocrine evaluation 1 year post severe TBI, were included (24 with pituitary dysfunction 1 year post TBI). Main outcome measures In all children, the pituitary hormones basal levels were assessed at least 5 years post TBI. Growth hormone (GH) stimulation tests were performed 3-4 years post TBI in children with GH deficiency (GHD) 1 year post TBI and in all children with low height velocity (<-1 DS) or low IGF-1 (<-2 DS). Central precocious puberty (CPP) was confirmed by GnRH stimulation test. Results Overall, 61/66 children were followed up 7 (5-10) years post TBI (median; (range)); 17/61 children had GHD 1 year post TBI, and GHD was confirmed in 5/17 patients. For one boy, with normal pituitary function 1 year post TBI, GHD was diagnosed 6.5 years post TBI. 4/61 patients developed CPP, 5.7 (2.4-6.1) years post-TBI. Having a pituitary dysfunction 1 year post TBI was significantly associated with pituitary dysfunction or CPP more than 5 years post TBI. Conclusion Severe TBI in childhood can lead to permanent pituitary dysfunction; GHD and CPP may appear after many years. We recommend systematic hormonal assessment in children 1 year after severe TBI and a prolonged monitoring of growth and pubertal maturation. Recommendations should be elaborated for the families and treating physicians.


Assuntos
Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/complicações , Hipopituitarismo/etiologia , Puberdade Precoce/etiologia , Adolescente , Hormônio Adrenocorticotrópico/sangue , Lesões Encefálicas Traumáticas/sangue , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Seguimentos , Hormônio do Crescimento Humano/sangue , Humanos , Hipopituitarismo/sangue , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Puberdade Precoce/sangue , Tireotropina/sangue
20.
Prenat Diagn ; 39(9): 781-791, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30715739

RESUMO

"CHARGE syndrome" (CS) is a multifaceted syndrome associated with a poor prognosis. The prenatal diagnosis remains challenging especially as the fetal anomalies that may evoke suspicion of CS are not comprehensively described. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify the anomalies in MRI with suspected CHARGE syndrome and to propose a possible standardization in the image-based prenatal diagnosis of CS. METHODS: This was a retrospective study of 26 fetuses who underwent MRI and had a confirmed diagnosis of CS, as proven by histopathological and/or neonatal examinations and/or the presence of the CHD7 gene mutation. RESULTS: The three most frequent MRI anomalies confirmed at histopathological and/or neonatal examinations were arhinencephaly in 100% (26 of 26), dysplasia of the semicircular canals agenesis (SCA) in 100% (24 of 24), and posterior fossa anomalies in 100% (22 of 22). Our study also revealed short petrous bones with a particular triangular shape in 24 of 24 cases of SCA. Other relevant findings included external ear anomalies in 36% (9 of 25), cleft lip and palate (9 of 9), ventriculomegaly (VMG) (6 of 6), short corpus callosum (3 of 3), and ocular asymmetry in 36.6% (4 of 11). CONCLUSION: Our study emphasizes the interest of fetal MRI in the diagnosis of CS with an adapted knowledge of semiology.

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