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1.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 207: 107826, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31927159

RESUMO

AIMS: Evidence linking illicit methamphetamine use to violence perpetration and victimisation comes primarily from cross-sectional studies. These associations have not previously been studied in a longitudinal general population sample. DESIGN: Longitudinal birth cohort. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: General population sample (n = 1265) born in Christchurch, New Zealand in 1977. MEASUREMENTS: Participants were asked at age 21, 25, 30 and 35 about their frequency of methamphetamine use, and violence perpetration or victimization since the last interview. Violence was measured both in general, and within intimate partner relationships in particular. Logistic generalised estimating equations modelled the association between methamphetamine exposure and violence outcomes within each age period, adjusting for confounding factors and time-dynamic covariate factors. The dose-response profiles were explored via associations between heaviest methamphetamine use frequency from age 18-35 and violence outcomes in that period. FINDINGS: 28 % of participants reported using methamphetamine at least once between age 18 and 35. Compared to no use, a history of any methamphetamine use in each age period was associated with an increased adjusted risk of violence perpetration (OR 1.60; 1.01-2.54), intimate partner violence perpetration (OR 1.55, 95 % CI 1.04-2.30), and violence victimization (OR 1.57, 1.00-2.47). Evidence for an association with intimate partner violence victimization was inconclusive (OR 1.09, 0.80-1.49). There was a dose response relationship whereby those who had used methamphetamine at least weekly at any time from age 18-35 had substantially elevated adjusted odds of violence involvement compared to people who used but less often, or had never used. CONCLUSIONS: Methamphetamine use is an independent risk factor for violence perpetration and victimisation in the general population.

2.
Br J Psychiatry ; : 1-5, 2020 Jan 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992378

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Natural disasters are increasing in frequency and impact; they cause widespread disruption and adversity throughout the world. The Canterbury earthquakes of 2010-2011 were devastating for the people of Christchurch, New Zealand. It is important to understand the impact of this disaster on the mental health of children and adolescents. AIMS: To report psychiatric medication use for children and adolescents following the Canterbury earthquakes. METHOD: Dispensing data from community pharmacies for the medication classes antidepressants, antipsychotics, anxiolytics, sedatives/hypnotics and methylphenidate are routinely recorded in a national database. Longitudinal data are available for residents of the Canterbury District Health Board (DHB) and nationally. We compared dispensing data for children and adolescents residing in Canterbury DHB with national dispensing data to assess the impact of the Canterbury earthquakes on psychotropic prescribing for children and adolescents. RESULTS: After longer-term trends and population adjustments are considered, a subtle adverse effect of the Canterbury earthquakes on dispensing of antidepressants was detected. However, the Canterbury earthquakes were not associated with higher dispensing rates for antipsychotics, anxiolytics, sedatives/hypnotics or methylphenidate. CONCLUSIONS: Mental disorders or psychological distress of a sufficient severity to result in treatment of children and adolescents with psychiatric medication were not substantially affected by the Canterbury earthquakes.

4.
Addiction ; 115(2): 279-290, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31503369

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Little is known about how cannabis use over the life-course relates to harms in adulthood. The present study aimed to identify trajectories of cannabis use from adolescence to adulthood and examine both the predictors of these trajectories and adverse adult outcomes associated with those trajectories. DESIGN: A latent trajectory analysis of a longitudinal birth cohort (from birth to age 35 years). SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: General community sample (n = 1065) from New Zealand. MEASUREMENT: Annual frequency of cannabis use (ages 15-35 years); childhood family and individual characteristics (birth to age 16 years); measures of adult outcomes (substance use disorders, ages 30-35 years; mental health disorders, ages 30-35 years; socio-economic outcomes at age 35 years; social/family outcomes at age 35 years). FINDINGS: A six-class solution was the best fit to the data. Individuals assigned to trajectories with higher levels of cannabis use were more likely to have experienced adverse childhood family and individual circumstances. Membership of trajectories with higher levels of use was associated with increased risk of adverse outcomes at ages 30-35 years. Adjustment of these associations for the childhood family and individual predictors largely did not reduce the magnitude of the associations. CONCLUSIONS: In New Zealand, long-term frequent cannabis use, or transition to such use, appears to be robustly associated with diverse harms in adulthood.

5.
N Z Med J ; 132(1507): 11-21, 2019 12 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31830013

RESUMO

AIMS: The increasing prevalence of overweight and obesity has become a key challenge for New Zealand. The purpose of the present study was to examine childhood risk factors for adult adiposity in a longitudinal birth cohort. METHODS: Data were gathered from the Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS), a birth cohort of 1,265 children born in Christchurch in 1977. Associations were examined between socio-demographic background, perinatal factors, infant and child characteristics, family functioning/child maltreatment and adiposity at ages 30 and 35 years. Adiposity was assessed using body mass index scores. RESULTS: At ages 30 and 35, approximately one-third of cohort members were overweight and one-fifth were obese. Generalised estimating equation models showed that statistically significant (p<.05) predictors of later adiposity and overweight/obesity were: male gender, being born into a single-parent family, having parents with larger body size, higher early infant growth, limited or no breastfeeding, lower levels of cognitive ability and exposure to severe sexual abuse. CONCLUSIONS: Overweight and obesity was associated with social and family background, biological endowment, cognitive ability and childhood adversity factors. These findings may assist in the development of structured adiposity intervention programmes in conjunction with established community organisations specialising in child and family health.

6.
N Z Med J ; 132(1488): 7-10, 2019 01 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31851656

RESUMO

At the present time there are continuing debates on the legal status of cannabis in New Zealand. Many of these debates have not given sufficient consideration to evidence concerning cannabis-related harm, much of which has been gathered here in New Zealand by the Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS) and the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study (DMHDS). We present a summary of this evidence, and recommendations for a cautious path forward for changing cannabis laws in New Zealand that aims at reducing cannabis-related harm.


Assuntos
Uso da Maconha/efeitos adversos , Uso da Maconha/legislação & jurisprudência , Acidentes , Cannabis , Depressão , Humanos , Nova Zelândia , Gestão de Riscos
7.
Int J Drug Policy ; 74: 18-25, 2019 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408802

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early exposure to alcohol in adolescence is associated with a range of long term harms. Better understanding of trajectories of alcohol use from adolescence to early adulthood would help target prevention strategies to high risk groups. METHODS: Christchurch (New Zealand) general population birth cohort (n = 1265). A latent trajectory model of drinking behaviour at age 14-16 was used to predict drinking outcomes at age 18-35, net of covariate factors known to be associated with substance use outcomes in this cohort. RESULTS: Three classes of adolescent alcohol use were identified. These were: occasional drinkers, emergent binge drinkers and increasing heavy drinkers. CONCLUSIONS: This analysis identifies three groups of adolescent alcohol users with differing patterns of use. Emergent binge drinkers likely require public policy responses to alcohol use whereas increasing heavy drinkers are potentially able to be identified individually on the basis of patterns of alcohol use and social variables. This group may benefit from psychosocial interventions and are unlikely to respond to a broad public health approach.

8.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 12108, 2019 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31431677

RESUMO

Natriuretic Peptides (NP) are important in maintaining normal cardiac and metabolic status and have been used to predict cardiovascular events. Whether plasma concentrations of NP products within the normal range reflect cardio-metabolic health is unknown. Plasma NTproANP, NTproBNP and NTproCNP and their bioactive counterparts were measured in a random sample of 348 community dwellers aged 49-51 yr without heart disease and associations sought with established vascular risk factors, echocardiographic indices and a genetic variant previously linked with BNP. Stratified by sex, each of ten vascular risk factors were positively associated with NTproCNP whereas associations with NTproBNP and NTproANP were all negative. In both sexes, higher plasma NTproCNP was associated with higher arterial elastance, lower LV stroke volume and lower LV end diastolic volume. Exactly opposite associations were found with plasma NTproBNP or NTproANP. Sex specific differences were identified: positive association of NTproBNP with LV end systolic volume and the negative association with LV elastance were found only in males. The genetic variant rs198358 was independently associated with NTproBNP but not with NTproANP. In conclusion, higher NTproCNP is likely to be an adaptive response to impaired LV relaxation whereas genetic factors likely contribute to higher NTproBNP and improved cardio-metabolic health at midlife.

9.
N Z Med J ; 132(1500): 9-11, 2019 08 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415494
10.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 2019 Aug 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31408171

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Unemployment has been related to smoking, yet the causal nature of the association is subject to continued debate. Social causation argues that unemployment triggers changes in smoking, whereas the social selection hypothesis proposes that preexisting smoking behavior lowers the probability of maintaining employment. The present study tested these competing explanations while accounting for another alternative explanation-common liability. METHODS: Data were from the Christchurch Health and Development Study, a longitudinal cohort followed from birth to age 35. Odds were generated for having nicotine dependence in models for social causation and being unemployed in models for social selection. These models were extended to include possible common liability factors during childhood (e.g., novelty seeking) and young adulthood (e.g., major depression). RESULTS: In the model testing social causation, coefficients representing the impacts of unemployment on nicotine dependence remained statistically significant and robust (OR = 1.55; 95% CI = 1.20, 2.00), even after accounting for common determinant measures. In contrast, a reverse social selection model revealed that coefficients representing the impacts of nicotine dependence on unemployment substantially attenuated and became statistically nonsignificant as childhood factors were added (OR = 1.14; 95% CI = 0.90, 1.45). CONCLUSIONS: Unemployment may serve as inroads to nicotine addiction among young adults, not the other way, even in the context of nicotine dependence, a more impaired form of smoking that may arguably hold higher potential to generate social selection processes. This social causation process cannot be completely attributable to common determinant factors. IMPLICATIONS: It is critical to clarify whether unemployment triggers changes in smoking behaviors (i.e., social causation) or vice versa (i.e., social selection)-the answers to the question will lead to public health strategies with very different intervention targets to break the linkage. The current study findings favor social causation over social selection, regardless of gender, and support a needed shift in service profiles for unemployed young adults-from a narrow focus on job skills training to a more holistic approach that incorporates knowledge from addiction science in which unemployed young adults can find needed services to cope with job loss.

11.
Int J Geriatr Psychiatry ; 34(11): 1599-1604, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31291027

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of the Canterbury earthquakes on the mental health of older people by examining dispensing patterns of psychotropic medication. METHOD: Dispensing data from community pharmacies for antidepressants, antipsychotics, anxiolytics, and sedative/hypnotics are routinely recorded in a national database. Longitudinal data are available for residents of the Canterbury District Health Board (DHB) (n = 67 760 at study onset) and the rest of New Zealand (n = 469 055 at study onset). We compared older age dispensing data between 2008 and 2018 for Canterbury DHB with older age dispensing data nationally in order to assess the impact of the Canterbury earthquakes on the mental health of older persons. RESULTS: Older age residents of Canterbury are dispensed antidepressants, antipsychotics, and anxiolytics at higher rates than national comparators, but this finding predated the onset of the earthquakes. Short-term increases in anxiolytic and sedative/hypnotic dispensing occurred for the month following the February 2011 earthquake. No other short- or longer-term increases in dispensing of psychiatric medication were present. CONCLUSION: The February 2011 Canterbury earthquake caused a short-term increase in dispensing of anxiolytics and sedative/hypnotics. No longer-term effects on dispensing were observed. This suggests that older persons sought assistance for insomnia and anxiety in the aftermath of the most devastating earthquake, but longer-term rates of clinically significant anxiety and depression for older persons did not increase as a consequence of the earthquakes sequence.

13.
N Z Med J ; 132(1495): 48-53, 2019 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31095544

RESUMO

AIM: To report dispensing of disulfiram, naltrexone, antidepressants and quetiapine for New Zealanders diagnosed with alcohol use disorder. METHOD: The Pharmaceutical Collection is the national dispensing database for medications in New Zealand. PRIMHD is the national mental health and addiction service database. Dispensing data was extracted from the Pharmaceutical Collection and merged with diagnostic data from PRIMHD to report pharmacological treatment of alcohol use disorders in New Zealand. RESULTS: In 2014, there were 5,004 individuals diagnosed with an alcohol use disorder by mental health and addiction services. Four hundred and eighty-nine individuals also received a major depressive disorder diagnosis. 2.1% of the group with alcohol use disorder were dispensed disulfiram and 0.7% were dispensed naltrexone. Treatment with antidepressants (12.7%) and quetiapine (5.6%) was more common. In the group with comorbid alcohol use disorder and depression, 2% were dispensed disulfiram, 0.2% were dispensed naltrexone, 27.4% were dispensed antidepressants and 11.2% were dispensed quetiapine. CONCLUSION: Overall rates of dispensing were relatively low. Antidepressants followed by quetiapine were the most common treatments. In contrast, disulfiram and naltrexone were only used for a minority of clients. This suggests inadequate and poorly targeted pharmacological treatments are used for the treatment of alcohol use disorders in New Zealand.


Assuntos
Dissuasores de Álcool , Alcoolismo , Antidepressivos , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Dissuasores de Álcool/administração & dosagem , Dissuasores de Álcool/uso terapêutico , Alcoolismo/complicações , Alcoolismo/tratamento farmacológico , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Antidepressivos/administração & dosagem , Antidepressivos/uso terapêutico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/complicações , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Dissulfiram/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Naltrexona/uso terapêutico , Nova Zelândia , Fumarato de Quetiapina/uso terapêutico
14.
Aust N Z J Public Health ; 43(3): 274-280, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30958618

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aims to identify and evaluate all studies that measured psychological distress or mental disorder following the Canterbury earthquakes to establish the psychological consequences of the earthquakes on those exposed. A secondary aim is to outline and emphasise key methodological factors in disaster research. METHOD: Eligible studies were identified following a comprehensive literature search. A quality assessment was undertaken for all included studies. This was followed by methodological and descriptive review. RESULTS: Thirty-one papers measuring psychological distress or mental disorder following the Canterbury earthquakes were identified. These papers reported outcomes from 20 separate studies of which seven were rated high-quality, eight were rated medium and five were rated low-quality. Key methodological findings and outcomes are discussed for each study. CONCLUSION: The Canterbury earthquakes were associated with widespread but not universal adverse effects on mental health. Disaster research quality is assisted by representative samples, repeated measures, and the use of appropriate controls to allow accurate assessments of psychological consequences to be made. Implications for public health: The presence of widespread adverse effects as a result of the earthquakes suggests broad-ranging community initiatives are essential to mitigate the negative consequences of disasters.


Assuntos
Terremotos , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Saúde Mental , Qualidade de Vida/psicologia , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/psicologia , Estresse Psicológico/etiologia , Adulto , Desastres , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Nova Zelândia , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
15.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 197: 326-334, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30878883

RESUMO

AIMS: To determine the extent to which the transition to parenthood protects against heavy and problematic alcohol consumption in young men and women. DESIGN: Integrated participant-level data analysis from three population-based prospective Australasian cohort studies. SETTING: General community; participants from the Australian Temperament Study, the Christchurch Health and Development Study, and the Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study. MEASUREMENTS: Recent binge drinking, alcohol abuse/dependence and number of standard drinks consumed per occasion. FINDINGS: 4015 participants (2151 females; 54%) were assessed on four occasions between ages 21 and 35. Compared to women with children aged <12 months, women who had not transitioned to parenthood were more likely to meet the criteria for alcohol abuse/dependence (fully adjusted risk ratio [RR] 3.5; 95% CI 1.5-7.9) and to report recent binge drinking (RR 3.0; 95% CI 2.1-4.3). The proportion of women meeting the criteria for alcohol abuse/dependence and/or binge drinking increased with the age of participants' youngest child, as did the mean number of standard drinks consumed on each occasion (1.8 if the youngest child was <1 year of age vs. 3.6 for 5+ years of age). Associations between parenthood and male drinking behaviour were considerably weaker. CONCLUSIONS: For most women in their twenties and thirties, parenting a child <1 year of age was associated with reduced alcohol consumption. However, this protective effect diminished after 12 months with drinking levels close to pre-parenthood levels after five years. There was little change in male drinking with the transition to parenthood.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Poder Familiar/psicologia , Dinâmica Populacional , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/psicologia , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Austrália/epidemiologia , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Br J Psychiatry ; 214(3): 153-158, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30774061

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The extent to which exposure to childhood sexual and physical abuse increases the risk of psychotic experiences in adulthood is currently unclear.AimsTo examine the relationship between childhood sexual and physical abuse and psychotic experiences in adulthood taking into account potential confounding and time-dynamic covariate factors. METHOD: Data were from a cohort of 1265 participants studied from birth to 35 years. At ages 18 and 21, cohort members were questioned about childhood sexual and physical abuse. At ages 30 and 35, they were questioned about psychotic experiences (symptoms of abnormal thought and perception). Generalised estimating equation models investigated covariation of the association between abuse exposure and psychotic experiences including potential confounding factors in childhood (socioeconomic disadvantage, adverse family functioning) and time-dynamic covariate factors (mental health, substance use and life stress). RESULTS: Data were available for 962 participants; 6.3% had been exposed to severe sexual abuse and 6.4% to severe physical abuse in childhood. After adjustment for confounding and time-dynamic covariate factors, those exposed to severe sexual abuse had rates of abnormal thought and abnormal perception symptoms that were 2.25 and 4.08 times higher, respectively than the 'no exposure' group. There were no significant associations between exposure to severe physical abuse and psychotic experiences. CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate that exposure to severe childhood sexual (but not physical) abuse is independently associated with an increased risk of psychotic experiences in adulthood (particularly symptoms of abnormal perception) and this association could not be fully accounted for by confounding or time-dynamic covariate factors.Declaration of interestNone.


Assuntos
Sobreviventes Adultos de Maus-Tratos Infantis/psicologia , Transtornos Psicóticos/psicologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 194: 238-243, 2019 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30466041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: International public policy on age of first alcoholic drink (AFD) has emphasised the long-term benefits of delaying AFD. This study aimed to compare AFD to age of first intoxication (AFI) as predictors of substance use disorder and mental disorder outcomes in adulthood. METHODS: Data were obtained from a longitudinal birth cohort in Christchurch, New Zealand. Participants were born in 1977. Analysis samples ranged from n = 1025 (age 18) to n = 962 (age 35). Measures of AFD and AFI were generated using parental- and self-report data collected from age 11. Outcomes at age 18-35 were alcohol quantity consumed, DSM-IV alcohol use disorder (AUD) and AUD symptoms, major depression, anxiety disorder, and nicotine, cannabis, and other illicit drug dependence. Covariate factors measured during childhood included family socioeconomic status, family functioning, parental alcohol-related attitudes/behaviours, and individual factors. RESULTS: There was a significant unadjusted association between AFD and symptoms of AUD (p < .001) and nicotine dependence (p < .05) but not other outcomes. AFI was significantly (p < .05) associated with all outcomes. After adjustment for covariates, the association between AFD and outcomes was not statistically significant. Conversely, in adjusted models, statistically significant (p < .05) associations remained between AFI and all AUD and substance use disorder outcomes but not alcohol consumption or mental disorder outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: AFI was a more robust predictor of adult substance use disorder outcomes than AFD. Public health and policy interventions aimed at prevention of long term harms from alcohol should therefore focus on AFI rather than AFD.


Assuntos
Intoxicação Alcoólica/epidemiologia , Transtornos Mentais/epidemiologia , Saúde Mental/tendências , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Intoxicação Alcoólica/diagnóstico , Intoxicação Alcoólica/psicologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/diagnóstico , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/psicologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/diagnóstico , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/psicologia , Manual Diagnóstico e Estatístico de Transtornos Mentais , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mentais/psicologia , Nova Zelândia/epidemiologia , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/diagnóstico , Transtornos Relacionados ao Uso de Substâncias/psicologia , Tabagismo/diagnóstico , Tabagismo/epidemiologia , Tabagismo/psicologia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Br J Psychiatry ; 213(6): 716-722, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30301477

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Natural disasters are increasing in frequency and severity. They cause widespread hardship and are associated with detrimental effects on mental health.AimsOur aim is to provide the best estimate of the effects of natural disasters on mental health through a systematic review and meta-analysis of the rates of psychological distress and psychiatric disorder after natural disasters. METHOD: This systematic review and meta-analysis is limited to studies that met predetermined quality criteria. We required included studies to make comparisons with pre-disaster or non-disaster exposed controls, and sample representative populations. Key studies were identified through a comprehensive search of PubMed, EMBASE and PsycINFO from 1980 to 3 March 2017. Random effects meta-analyses were performed for studies that reported key outcomes with appropriate statistics. RESULTS: Forty-one studies were identified by the literature search, of which 27 contributed to the meta-analyses. Continuous measures of psychological distress were increased after natural disasters (combined standardised mean difference 0.63, 95% CI 0.27-0.98, P = 0.005). Psychiatric disorders were also increased (combined odds ratio 1.84, 95% CI 1.43-2.38, P < 0.001). Rates of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression were significantly increased after disasters. Findings for anxiety and alcohol misuse/dependence were not significant. High rates of heterogeneity suggest that disaster-specific factors and, to a lesser degree, methodological factors contribute to the variance between studies. CONCLUSIONS: Increased rates of psychological distress and psychiatric disorders follow natural disasters. High levels of heterogeneity between studies suggest that disaster variables and post-disaster response have the potential to mitigate adverse effects.Declaration of interestNone.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/epidemiologia , Desastres Naturais , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/epidemiologia , Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Transtornos de Ansiedade/epidemiologia , Humanos
19.
Contemp Clin Trials ; 74: 61-69, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30287268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic factors contribute to anorexia nervosa (AN); and the first genome-wide significant locus has been identified. We describe methods and procedures for the Anorexia Nervosa Genetics Initiative (ANGI), an international collaboration designed to rapidly recruit 13,000 individuals with AN and ancestrally matched controls. We present sample characteristics and the utility of an online eating disorder diagnostic questionnaire suitable for large-scale genetic and population research. METHODS: ANGI recruited from the United States (US), Australia/New Zealand (ANZ), Sweden (SE), and Denmark (DK). Recruitment was via national registers (SE, DK); treatment centers (US, ANZ, SE, DK); and social and traditional media (US, ANZ, SE). All cases had a lifetime AN diagnosis based on DSM-IV or ICD-10 criteria (excluding amenorrhea). Recruited controls had no lifetime history of disordered eating behaviors. To assess the positive and negative predictive validity of the online eating disorder questionnaire (ED100K-v1), 109 women also completed the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV (SCID), Module H. RESULTS: Blood samples and clinical information were collected from 13,363 individuals with lifetime AN and from controls. Online diagnostic phenotyping was effective and efficient; the validity of the questionnaire was acceptable. CONCLUSIONS: Our multi-pronged recruitment approach was highly effective for rapid recruitment and can be used as a model for efforts by other groups. High online presence of individuals with AN rendered the Internet/social media a remarkably effective recruitment tool in some countries. ANGI has substantially augmented Psychiatric Genomics Consortium AN sample collection. ANGI is a registered clinical trial: clinicaltrials.govNCT01916538; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01916538?cond=Anorexia+Nervosa&draw=1&rank=3.


Assuntos
Anorexia Nervosa/diagnóstico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anorexia Nervosa/genética , Austrália , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Dinamarca , Transtornos da Alimentação e da Ingestão de Alimentos/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Internet , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nova Zelândia , Seleção de Pacientes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Suécia , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Addiction ; 113(10): 1811-1825, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29749666

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Studies have linked adolescent alcohol use with adverse consequences in adulthood, yet it is unclear how strong the associations are and to what extent they may be due to confounding. Our aim was to estimate the strength of association between different patterns of adolescent drinking and longer-term psychosocial harms taking into account individual, family and peer factors. DESIGN: Participant-level data were integrated from four long-running longitudinal studies: Australian Temperament Project, Christchurch Health and Development Study, Mater Hospital and University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy and Victorian Adolescent Health Cohort Study. SETTING: Australia and New Zealand. PARTICIPANTS: Participants were assessed on multiple occasions between ages 13 and 30 years (from 1991 to 2012). Number of participants varied (up to n = 9453) by analysis. MEASUREMENTS: Three patterns of alcohol use (frequent, heavy episodic and problem drinking) were assessed prior to age 17. Thirty outcomes were assessed to age 30 spanning substance use and related problems, antisocial behaviour, sexual risk-taking, accidents, socio-economic functioning, mental health and partner relationships. FINDINGS: After covariate adjustment, weekly drinking prior to age 17 was associated with a two- to threefold increase in the odds of binge drinking [odds ratio (OR) = 2.14; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.57-2.90], drink driving (OR = 2.78; 95% CI = 1.84-4.19), alcohol-related problems (OR = 3.04; 95% CI = 1.90-4.84) and alcohol dependence (OR = 3.30; 95% CI = 1.69-6.47) in adulthood. Frequency of drinking accounted for a greater proportion of the rate of most adverse outcomes than the other measures of alcohol use. Associations between frequent, heavy episodic and problem drinking in adolescence and most non-alcohol outcomes were largely explained by shared risk factors for adolescent alcohol use and poor psychosocial functioning. CONCLUSIONS: Frequency of adolescent drinking predicts substance use problems in adulthood as much as, and possibly more than, heavy episodic and problem drinking independent of individual, family and peer predictors of those outcomes.


Assuntos
Alcoolismo/epidemiologia , Bebedeira/epidemiologia , Dirigir sob a Influência/estatística & dados numéricos , Consumo de Álcool por Menores/estatística & dados numéricos , Acidentes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/epidemiologia , Australásia , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Saúde Mental/estatística & dados numéricos , Assunção de Riscos , Comportamento Sexual/estatística & dados numéricos , Classe Social , Adulto Jovem
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