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1.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(17): 10498-10508, 2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33899859

RESUMO

Topochemical reactions involving ionic exchange have been used to assess a large number of metastable compositions, particularly in layered metal oxides. This method encompasses complex reactions that are poorly explored, yet are of prime importance to understand and control the materials' properties. In this work, we embark on investigating the reactions involved during the ionic exchange between a layered Na-titanate (lepidocrocite-type structure) and an acidic solution (HCl), leading to a protonic (H3O+) titanate (trititanate structure). The reactions involve an ionic exchange provoking a structural change from the lepidocrocite-type to the trititanate structure as shown by real-space refinements of ex situ pair distribution function data. Mobile Na+ ions are exchanged by hydronium ions inducing high proton mobility in the final structure. Moreover, the reaction was followed by ex situ23Na and 1H solid-state MAS NMR which allowed, among other things, confirming that the Na+ ions are in the interlayer space and specifying their local environment. Strikingly, the ionic exchange reaction induces progressive exfoliation of the Na-titanate particles leading to 2-5 nm thin elongated crystallites. To further understand the different steps associated with the ionic exchange, the evolution of the electrolytic conductivity, using conductimetric titration, has been monitored upon HCl addition, enabling characterization of the intercalation(H+)/de-intercalation(Na+) reactions and assessing kinetic parameters. Accordingly, it is hypothesized that the exfoliation of the particles is due to the accumulation of charges at the particle level in relation to the rapid intercalation of protons. This work provides novel insights into ionic exchange reactions involved in layered oxide compounds.

2.
Materials (Basel) ; 13(16)2020 Aug 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32806738

RESUMO

High-specific-surface-area MgF2 was prepared by microwave-assisted solvothermal synthesis. The influences of the solvent and the magnesium precursors, and the calcination atmospheres, on the nanoparticle sizes and specific surface areas, estimated by X-Ray Powder Diffraction, N2 sorption and TEM analyses, were investigated. Nanocrystallized (~7 nm) magnesium partially hydroxylated fluorides (MgF2-x(OH)x) with significant specific surface areas between 290 and 330 m2∙g-1 were obtained. After activation under gaseous HF, MgF2-x(OH)x catalysts underwent a large decrease of both their surface area and their hydroxide, rates as shown by their 19F and 1H solid-state NMR spectra. Expect for MgF2 prepared from the acetate precursor, an activity of 30-32 mmol/h∙g was obtained which was about 40% higher compared with that of MgF2 prepared using Trifluoroacetate method (21.6 mmol/h∙g).

3.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 59(43): 19247-19253, 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649793

RESUMO

Aluminium batteries constitute a safe and sustainable high-energy-density electrochemical energy-storage solution. Viable Al-ion batteries require suitable electrode materials that can readily intercalate high-charge Al3+ ions. Here, we investigate the Al3+ intercalation chemistry of anatase TiO2 and how chemical modifications influence the accommodation of Al3+ ions. We use fluoride- and hydroxide-doping to generate high concentrations of titanium vacancies. The coexistence of these hetero-anions and titanium vacancies leads to a complex insertion mechanism, attributed to three distinct types of host sites: native interstitial sites, single vacancy sites, and paired vacancy sites. We demonstrate that Al3+ induces a strong local distortion within the modified TiO2 structure, which affects the insertion properties of the neighbouring host sites. Overall, specific structural features induced by the intercalation of highly polarising Al3+ ions should be considered when designing new electrode materials for polyvalent batteries.

4.
ACS Omega ; 4(6): 10929-10938, 2019 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460191

RESUMO

Manipulating the atomic structure of semiconductors is a fine way to tune their properties. The rationalization of their modified properties is, however, particularly challenging as defects locally disrupt the long-range structural ordering, and a deeper effort is required to fully describe their structure. In this work, we investigated the photoelectrochemical properties of an anatase-type structure featuring a high content of titanium vacancies stabilized by dual-oxide substitution by fluoride and hydroxide anions. Such atomic modification induces a slight red-shift band gap energy of 0.08 eV as compared to pure TiO2, which was assigned to changes in titanium-anion ionocovalent bonding. Under illumination, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed the formation of TiIII and O2 - radicals which were not detected in defect-free TiO2. Consequently, the modified anatase shows higher ability to oxidize water with lower electron-hole recombination rate. To further increase the photoelectrochemical properties, we subsequently modified the compound by a surface functionalization with N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP). This treatment further modifies the chemical composition, which results in a red shift of the band gap energy to 3.03 eV. Moreover, the interaction of the NMP electron-donating molecules with the surface induces an absorption band in the visible region with an estimated band gap energy of 2.25-2.50 eV. Under illumination, the resulting core-shell structure produces a high concentration of reduced TiIII and O2 -, suggesting an effective charge carrier separation which is confirmed by high photoelectrochemical properties. This work provides new opportunities to better understand the structural features that affect the photogenerated charge carriers.

5.
Dalton Trans ; 48(2): 587-601, 2019 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30534767

RESUMO

Solid state NMR signals are very sensitive to the local environment of the observed nucleus; however, their interpretation is not straightforward. On the other hand, first-principles DFT calculations of NMR parameters can now be applied to periodic compounds to predict NMR parameters. Thus, ab initio calculations can help to interpret the NMR spectra exhibited by complex materials, to assign NMR lines to structural environments, and even to enlighten the environmental factors influencing the NMR parameters for a given nucleus. Both techniques have been applied to crystalline compounds of the KF-YF3 binary system, γ-K3YF6, K2YF5, KYF4, ß-KY2F7 and α-KY3F10, which present a variety of YFn and KFm polyhedra. First, the structure of K2YF5 was refined in the Pnma space group and, for all compounds, atomic positions were optimized by DFT. The 19F, 89Y and 39K NMR spectra have been recorded and the measured NMR parameters are compared to those calculated from the first-principles DFT method, allowing unambiguous assignments of NMR lines to crystallographic sites. Linear correlations between the experimental δiso and calculated σiso values for the three nuclei are used to predict the theoretical 19F spectra of KYF4 (24 F sites) and ß-KY2F7 (19 F sites) as well as the 39K spectrum of KYF4 (6 K sites). For 89Y and 39K, both computational and experimental results show a decrease of the isotropic chemical shift values when the cation coordination number increases. Above all, 89Y isotropic chemical shift values correlate with the number of K atoms present in the Y second coordination sphere. For 19F, the combination of isotropic chemical shift and chemical shift anisotropy allows for distinguishing four kinds of F environments.

6.
Inorg Chem ; 57(24): 15350-15360, 2018 Dec 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30475605

RESUMO

Because of its sensitivity to the atomic scale environment, solid-state NMR offers new perspectives in terms of structural characterization, especially when applied jointly with first-principles calculations. Particularly, challenging is the study of actinide-based materials because of the electronic complexity of the actinide cations and to the hazards due to their radioactivity. Consequently, very few studies have been published in this subfield. In the present paper, we report a joint experimental-theoretical analysis of thorium tetrafluoride, ThF4, containing a closed-shell actinide (5f0) cation. Its crystalline structure has been revisited in the present work using powder neutron diffraction experiments. The 19F NMR parameters of the seven F crystallographic sites have been modeled using an empirical superposition model, periodic first-principles calculations, and a cluster-based all-electron approach. On the basis of the atomic position optimized structure, a complete and unambiguous assignment of the 19F NMR resonances to the F sites has been obtained.

7.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 54(72): 10080-10083, 2018 Sep 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30128472

RESUMO

In anatase TiO2, substituting oxide anions with singly charged (F,OH) anions allows the controlled formation of cation vacancies, which act as reversible intercalation sites for Mg2+. We show that ion-transport (diffusion coefficients) and intercalation (reversible capacity) properties are controlled by two critical parameters: the vacancy concentration and the local anionic environment. Our results emphasise the complexity of this behaviour, and highlight the potential benefits of chemically controlling cationic-defects in electrode materials for rechargeable multivalent-ion batteries.

8.
Nat Mater ; 16(11): 1142-1148, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28920941

RESUMO

In contrast to monovalent lithium or sodium ions, the reversible insertion of multivalent ions such as Mg2+ and Al3+ into electrode materials remains an elusive goal. Here, we demonstrate a new strategy to achieve reversible Mg2+ and Al3+ insertion in anatase TiO2, achieved through aliovalent doping, to introduce a large number of titanium vacancies that act as intercalation sites. We present a broad range of experimental and theoretical characterizations that show a preferential insertion of multivalent ions into titanium vacancies, allowing a much greater capacity to be obtained compared to pure TiO2. This result highlights the possibility to use the chemistry of defects to unlock the electrochemical activity of known materials, providing a new strategy for the chemical design of materials for practical multivalent batteries.

9.
Inorg Chem ; 56(9): 5219-5232, 2017 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28398062

RESUMO

Through an analysis combining powder XRD, TGA, and 19F and 1H solid-state NMR, it is confirmed for NbO2F and shown for TaO2F that both contain hydroxyl defects and metal vacancies when prepared by aqueous solution synthesis. The formulations M1-x□xO2-5x(OH,F)1+5x of both the samples are determined. The effects of the usually applied thermal treatments are examined. Obtaining pure NbO2F and TaO2F from these samples, that is, fully removing metal vacancies and hydroxide, while avoiding the formation of M2O5, is not that easy. Since thermal treatments result in dehydroxylation and defluorination, it requires, at least, a larger amount of fluorine than metal initially, which may not be the case. We also confirm that the solid-state synthesis is an efficient method to avoid metal vacancies and hydroxyl defects in NbO2F and then apply it to the synthesis of TaO2F. The local structure of NbO2F and TaO2F is poorly described by an ideal cubic ReO3-type model with O and F randomly distributed over the available anion sites. Since O/F ordering was previously highlighted, NbO2F and TaO2F cubic 3 × 3 × 3 supercells featuring -M-O-M-O-M-F- chains along ⟨100⟩ have been built and geometry optimized. These optimized supercells lead to more realistic structures than the previously proposed models, that is, really disordered structures with angularly and radially distorted MX6 octahedra as expected in disordered compounds. Moreover, the structural modeling of NbO2F and TaO2F by these geometry-optimized supercells is supported by the computed 19F and 93Nb NMR parameters, which give very good agreement with the experimental ones.

10.
Dalton Trans ; 46(11): 3761-3769, 2017 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28262874

RESUMO

Pure tysonite-type Ce1-xSrxF3-x solid solutions for 0 ≤ x < 0.15 were prepared by a solid-state route at 900 °C. The cell parameters follow Vegard's laws for 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.10 and the solubility limit is identified (0.10 < xlimit < 0.15). For 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.05, the F2-(Ce,Sr) and F3-(Ce,Sr) bond distances into [Ce1-xSrxF](2-x)+ slabs strongly vary with x. This slab buckling is maximum around x = 0.025 and strongly affects the more mobile F1 fluoride ions located between the slabs. The 19F MAS NMR spectra show the occurrence of F1-F2,3 exchange at 64 °C. The fraction of mobile F2,3 atoms deduced from the relative intensity of the NMR resonance is maximum for Ce0.99Sr0.01F2.99 (22% at 64 °C) while this fraction linearly increases with x for La1-xAExF3-x (AE = Ba, Sr). The highest conductivity found for Ce0.975Sr0.025F2.975 (3 × 10-4 S cm-1 at RT, Ea = 0.31 eV) is correlated to the largest dispersion of F2-(Ce,Sr) and F3-(Ce,Sr) distances which induces the maximum sheet buckling. Such a relationship between composition, structural features and fluoride ion conductivity is extended to other tysonite-type fluorides. The key role of the difference between AE2+ and RE3+ ionic radii and of the thickness of the slab buckling is established and could allow designing new ionic conductors.

11.
Dalton Trans ; 45(39): 15565-15574, 2016 Oct 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27722721

RESUMO

The room temperature structure of Ba5AlF13 has been investigated by coupling electron, synchrotron and neutron powder diffraction, solid-state high-resolution NMR (19F and 27Al) and first principles calculations. An initial structural model has been obtained from electron and synchrotron powder diffraction data, and its main features have been confirmed by one- and two-dimensional NMR measurements. However, DFT GIPAW calculations of the 19F isotropic shieldings revealed an inaccurate location of one fluorine site (F3, site 8a), which exhibited unusual long F-Ba distances. The atomic arrangement was reinvestigated using neutron powder diffraction data. Subsequent Fourier maps showed that this fluorine atom occupies a crystallographic site of lower symmetry (32e) with partial occupancy (25%). GIPAW computations of the NMR parameters validate the refined structural model, ruling out the presence of local static disorder and indicating that the partial occupancy of this F site reflects a local motional process. Visualisation of the dynamic process was then obtained from the Rietveld refinement of neutron diffraction data using an anharmonic description of the displacement parameters to account for the thermal motion of the mobile fluorine. The whole ensemble of powder diffraction and NMR data, coupled with first principles calculations, allowed drawing an accurate structural model of Ba5AlF13, including site-specific dynamical disorder in the fluorine sub-network.

12.
Inorg Chem ; 55(14): 7182-7, 2016 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27351834

RESUMO

Anatase TiO2 with exposed highly reactive (001) surface is commonly prepared using solution-based synthesis in the presence of a fluorinating agent acting as a structure-directing agent. Recently, the solvothermal reaction of titanium tetraisopropoxide in the presence of aqueous HF has resulted in the stabilization of an oxyhydroxyfluorinated anatase phase featuring cationic vacancies. In the present work, we have studied its formation mechanism, revealing a solid-state transformation of a highly defective anatase phase having a hydroxyfluoride composition that subsequently evolves through an oxolation reaction into an oxyhydroxyfluoride phase. Importantly, this work confirms that titanium alkoxide precursors can react with HF via a fluorolysis process yielding fluorinated molecular precursors, which further condense to produce new composition and structural features deviating from a well-ordered anatase network.

13.
Dalton Trans ; 44(47): 20675-84, 2015 Dec 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26565802

RESUMO

The structures of the ß- and t-LaOF phases have been refined from XRPD patterns. For both phases, (19)F and (139)La solid-state NMR spectra recorded at high magnetic fields show the presence of a single F and a single La local environment, indicating a full anionic ordering in these oxyfluoride compounds. DFT calculations of the (19)F and (139)La chemical shielding tensors and of the (139)La EFG tensor have been performed for the proposed structural models. The observed good agreement between experimental and calculated NMR parameters for both phases highlights the accuracy of the structural data.

14.
Dalton Trans ; 44(45): 19625-35, 2015 Dec 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26246328

RESUMO

Pure tysonite La1-xBaxF3-x solid solutions for x < 0.15 were prepared by solid state synthesis in a platinum tube under an azote atmosphere with subsequent quenching for 0.07 ≤x < 0.15. The solid solutions were studied by X-ray, electron and neutron diffractions and by (19)F NMR and impedance spectroscopy. The evolution of the cell parameters obeying Vegard's rule was determined for 0 < x≤ 0.15 and atomic position parameters were accurately refined for x = 0.03, 0.07 and 0.10. The chemical pressure induced by large Ba(2+) cations leads to an increase of the unit cell parameters. Fluorine environment and mobilities are discussed on the basis of the results of neutron diffraction and (19)F solid state NMR. The F1 subnetwork is lacunar; fluorine exchange occurs according to the order: F1-F1 and F1-F2,3. 2D EXSY NMR spectra of La0.97Ba0.03F2.97 reveal, for the first time, a chemical exchange between F2 and F3 sites that requires two successive jumps. The ionic conductivity was evaluated from sintered pellets and different shaping methods were compared. The only structural features which could explain the conductivity maximum are a crossover together with a smaller dispersion of F1-F1,2,3 distances at x = 0.05-0.07.

15.
Solid State Nucl Magn Reson ; 59-60: 1-7, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24508247

RESUMO

The relationship between the experimental (19)F isotropic chemical shift and the (19)F isotropic shielding calculated using the gauge including projector augmented-wave (GIPAW) method with PBE functional is investigated in the case of GaF3, InF3, TlF and several AlF3 polymorphs. It is shown that the linear correlation between experimental and DFT-PBE calculated values previously established on alkali, alkaline earth and rare earth of column 3 basic fluorides (Sadoc et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 13 (2011) 18539-18550) remains valid in the case of column 13 metal fluorides, indicating that it allows predicting (19)F solid state NMR spectra of a broad range of crystalline fluorides with a relatively good accuracy. For the isostructural α-AlF3, GaF3 and InF3 phases, PBE-DFT geometry optimization leads to noticeably overbended M-F-M bond angles and underestimated (27)Al, (71)Ga and (115)In calculated quadrupolar coupling constants. For the studied compounds, whose structures are built of corner shared MF6 octahedra, it is shown that the electric field gradient (EFG) tensor at the cationic sites is not related to distortions of the octahedral units, in contrast to what previously observed for isolated AlF6 octahedra in fluoroaluminates.

16.
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 13(41): 18539-50, 2011 Nov 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21947333

RESUMO

(19)F isotropic chemical shifts for alkali, alkaline earth and rare earth of column 3 basic fluorides are measured and the corresponding isotropic chemical shieldings are calculated using the GIPAW method. When using the PBE exchange-correlation functional for the treatment of the cationic localized empty orbitals of Ca(2+), Sc(3+) (3d) and La(3+) (4f), a correction is needed to accurately calculate (19)F chemical shieldings. We show that the correlation between experimental isotropic chemical shifts and calculated isotropic chemical shieldings established for the studied compounds allows us to predict (19)F NMR spectra of crystalline compounds with a relatively good accuracy. In addition, we experimentally determine the quadrupolar parameters of (25)Mg in MgF(2) and calculate the electric field gradients of (25)Mg in MgF(2) and (139)La in LaF(3) using both PAW and LAPW methods. The orientation of the EFG components in the crystallographic frame, provided by DFT calculations, is analysed in terms of electron densities. It is shown that consideration of the quadrupolar charge deformation is essential for the analysis of slightly distorted environments or highly irregular polyhedra.

17.
Dalton Trans ; (44): 6150-8, 2008 Nov 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18985247

RESUMO

The results from one-dimensional multinuclear (19F, 207Pb and 67Zn) magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance experiments combined with the use of the ISODISPLACE program allow for the space group determination of beta-Pb2ZnF6 (no. 138 P4(2)/ncm). The structure was refined from X-ray powder diffraction data (a = 5.633 (1) A and c = 16.247 (1) A, Z = 4). beta-Pb2ZnF6 has one six-fold coordinated Zn, one eleven-fold coordinated Pb and five F non-equivalent crystallographic sites and is built from alternated layers parallel to the (a, b) plane; tilted ZnF4(2-) layers of corner sharing ZnF6(4-) octahedra and FPb+ layers of edge sharing FPb4(7+) tetrahedra. The structure of beta-Pb2ZnF6 was then optimized using the ab initio code WIEN2k and the calculated 67Zn EFG is in agreement with the NMR results. 19F-19F proximities and 19F-207Pb connectivities were evidenced using through-space and through-bond NMR correlation experiments, respectively, and support the proposed structure. 19F-207Pb J-coupling was also used to select fluorine resonances depending on the number of neighbouring lead ions, leading to an unambiguous assignment of the different 19F resonances.

18.
Dalton Trans ; (23): 2457-66, 2007 Jun 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17844668

RESUMO

New oxyfluorides Li(2x)Ca(1.5-x) square (0.5-x)M2O6F (M = Nb, Ta), belonging to the cubic pyrochlore structural type (Z = 8, a approximately 10.5 angstroms), were synthesized by solid state reaction for 0 < or = x < or = 0.5. XRD data allowed us to determine their structures from single crystals for the two alpha and beta-Ca(1.5) square (0.5)Nb2O6F forms and from powder samples for the others. This characterisation was completed by TEM and solid state 19F NMR experiments. For the Ca(1.5) square (0.5)M2O6F (x = 0) pyrochlore phases, the presence of a double ordering phenomenon is demonstrated, involving on one hand the Ca(2+) ions and the vacancies and on the other hand the oxide and the fluoride anions which are strictly located in the 8b sites of the Fd3m aristotype space group. The Ca(2+) ions/vacancies ordering leads to a reversible phase transition, a (P4(3)32) <--> beta (Fd3m). The 19F NMR study strongly suggests that, in the beta-phases, the fluoride ions are only on average at the centre of the Ca3 square tetrahedron. It shows that slightly different Ca-F distances occuring in alpha-Ca(1.5) square (0.5)Nb2O6F may be related to a more difficult thermal ionic and vacancies diffusion process than in the tantalate compound. This may explain the hysteresis phenomenon presented by the phase transition. A solid solution Li(2x)Ca(1.5-x) square (0.5-x) Ta2O6F (0 < or = x < or = 0.5) was prepared and the order-disorder phase transition observed for Ca(1.5) square (0.5)M2MO6F compounds disappears for all the other compositions where less or no more vacancies exist in the 16d sites. In the LiCaM2O6F compounds, the 19F NMR study allows us to determine the Ca(2+) and Li+ ions distributions around the fluoride ions and shows that the [FLi2Ca2] environment is clearly favoured.

19.
J Phys Chem B ; 109(20): 10270-8, 2005 May 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-16852244

RESUMO

(19)F NMR isotropic chemical shift (delta(iso)) calculations are performed in crystallized compounds using the GIAO method with the B3LYP hybrid functional at DFT level. Clusters centered on the studied fluorine atoms mimic the crystalline structures. The 6-311+G(d) basis set is chosen for the central fluorine atom, and the LanL2DZ basis set for the others. The metal atoms are described by the 3-21G(2d) basis set or, when not available, by the CRENBL basis set with the corresponding ECP, and augmented with 2d polarization functions when existing. First, for high-symmetry systems (MF, MF(2), and MF(3) compounds), a systematization of the cluster building up from coordination spheres is proposed, generalized to fluoroperovskites and fluoroaluminates KAlF(4) and RbAlF(4). When applied to rather low symmetry systems such as barium fluorometalates BaMgF(4), BaZnF(4), and Ba(2)ZnF(6), the definition of the coordination spheres is far from easy. Then, for structures built up from a MF(6) octahedron network, we may define different "starting clusters": [FM(2)F(8)] for the shared fluorine atoms, [FMF(4)] for the unshared ones, and [FBa(4)](7+) for the "free" ones. Analogous "starting clusters" are then tested on compounds from the NaF-AlF(3), BaF(2)-AlF(3), and CaF(2)-AlF(3) binary systems and for alpha-BaCaAlF(7) that are also built up from a MF(6) octahedron network. For each of these corresponding fluorine sites, delta(iso) values are calculated with the "starting clusters" and several larger clusters and compared to the experimental delta(iso) values. For the barium-containing clusters, the RMS deviation is equal to 51 ppm. It is suggested that this result may be related to the poor quality of the barium basis sets for which no polarization functions are available for the moment. In total, chemical shifts were calculated for 122 fluorine sites, in a various range of compounds. For the clusters without barium, the ab initio method leads to a RMS equal to 22 ppm, which is a quite nice result keeping in mind that the (19)F chemical shift range is larger than 200 ppm.

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