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1.
Emerg Med J ; 2020 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32047076

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Point-of-care (POC) cardiac troponin (cTn) assays have a rapid turnaround time but are generally less sensitive than laboratory-based assays. Previous research found that the Abbott i-Stat cardiac troponin I (cTnI) assay has good diagnostic accuracy when used with the Troponin-only Manchester Acute Coronary Syndromes (T-MACS) decision aid and serial sampling over 3 hours. Accuracy of other assays may differ. We therefore evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of a different POC cTnI assay with serial sampling over 3 hours, both with T-MACS and when used alone. METHODS: In a prospective diagnostic accuracy study at eight EDs in England (July 2015-October 2017), we collected clinical data from consenting adults with suspected ACS at the time of assessment in the ED. Blood samples were drawn on arrival and 3 hours later for POC cTnI (Cardio 3 Triage, Alere). The target condition was an adjudicated diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), based on reference standard serial laboratory-based cTn testing. We calculated test characteristics for POC cTnI using the limit of detection (LoD, 0.01 µg/L) and the T-MACS decision aid. RESULTS: Of 347 participants, 59 (14.9%) had AMI. With serial POC cTnI testing over 3 hours, POC cTnI at the LoD cut-off ruled out AMI in 193 (55.6%) patients with 98.1% sensitivity (95% CI 89.9% to 100.0%) and 99.5% negative predictive value (NPV, 95% CI 96.5% to 99.9%). T-MACS ruled out AMI in 117 (33.7%) patients with 98.1% sensitivity (95% CI 89.9% to 100%) and 99.2% NPV (95% CI 94.3% to 99.9%). T-MACS ruled in AMI with 97.9% specificity (95% CI 95.8% to 99.5%) and 83.7% positive predictive value (95% CI 70.6% to 91.7%). CONCLUSIONS: With serial sampling over 3 hours, the Alere Cardio 3 Triage cTnI assay has relatively high NPV for AMI using either the LoD cut-off alone or the T-MACS decision aid. However, wide CIs around the measures of diagnostic accuracy mean that further prospective testing of this strategy is required before clinical implementation. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: UKCRN 18000.

2.
Emerg Med J ; 37(1): 8-13, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31767674

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To directly compare the diagnostic accuracy of four decision aids (Troponin-only Manchester Acute Coronary Syndromes (T-MACS), History, ECG, Age, Risk factors and Troponin (HEART), Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction (TIMI) and Emergency Department Assessment of Chest Pain (EDACS)) used to expedite the early diagnosis of acute coronary syndromes (ACS) in the ED. METHODS: We prospectively included patients who presented to 14 EDs in England (February 2015 to June 2017) with suspected ACS within 12 hours of symptom onset. Data to enable evaluation of the T-MACS, HEART, TIMI and EDACS decision aids (without recalibration) were prospectively collected, blinded to patient outcome. We tested admission blood samples for high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI; Siemens ADVIA Centaur). Patients also underwent serial cardiac troponin testing over 3-12 hours. The target condition was an adjudicated diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We also evaluated the incidence of major adverse cardiac events (including death, AMI or coronary revascularisation) at 30 days. Diagnostic accuracy of each decision aid and hs-cTnI alone (using the limit of quantification cut-off, 3 ng/L) was evaluated by calculating sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV). RESULTS: Of 999 included patients, 132 (13.2%) had AMI. C-statistics were 0.96 for T-MACS, 0.78 for HEART and 0.69 for TIMI. The sensitivities of T-MACS, HEART, TIMI, EDACS and hs-cTnI <3 ng/L for AMI were 99.2% (95% CI 95.7% to 100.0%), 91.8% (85.0% to 96.2%), 97.5% (92.9% to 99.5%), 96.2% (92.2% to 99.4%) and 99.2% (95.9% to 100.0%), respectively. The respective strategies would have ruled out 46.5%, 34.9%, 19.4%, 48.3% and 28.8% patients. PPVs for the decision aids that identify 'high-risk' patients were 80.4% (T-MACS), 51.9% (TIMI) and 37.2% (HEART). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, T-MACS could rule out AMI in 46.5% patients with 99.2% sensitivity. EDACS could rule out AMI in 48.3% patients with lower sensitivity, although the difference was not statistically significant. The HEART and TIMI scores had lower diagnostic accuracy.

3.
Emerg Med J ; 37(1): 52-53, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685680
4.
Acad Emerg Med ; 27(1): 85-86, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529734
5.
Acad Emerg Med ; 27(1): 24-30, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31338902

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Chest pain is a common problem presenting to the emergency department (ED). Many decision aids and accelerated diagnostic protocols have been developed to help clinicians differentiate those needing admission from those who can be safely discharged. Some early evidence has suggested that clinician judgment or gestalt alone could be sufficient. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to externally validate whether emergency physician's gestalt could "rule in" or "rule out" acute coronary syndromes (ACS). METHODS: We performed a multicenter prospective diagnostic accuracy study including consenting patients presenting to the ED in whom the physician suspected ACS. At the time of arrival, clinicians recorded their perceived probability of ACS using a 5-point Likert scale. The primary outcome was a diagnosis of ACS, defined as acute myocardial infarction or major adverse cardiac events within 30 days. RESULTS: A total of 1,391 patients were included; 240 (17.3%) had ACS. Overall, gestalt had fair diagnostic accuracy with a C-statistic of 0.75 (95% confidence interval = 0.72 to 0.79). If ACS was "ruled out" in the 60 (4.3%) patients where clinicians perceived that the diagnosis was "definitely not" ACS, a sensitivity of 98.0% and negative predictive value of 95.0% could have been achieved. If ACS was only ruled out in patients who also had no electrocardiographic (ECG) ischemia and a normal initial cardiac troponin (cTn) concentration, 100.0% sensitivity and NPV could be achieved. However, this strategy only applied to 4.1% of patients. If patients with "probably not" ACS who had normal ECG and cTn were also ruled out (n = 418, 30.8%), sensitivity fell to 86.2% with 99.2% NPV. Using gestalt "definitely" ACS to rule in ACS gave a specificity of 98.5% and positive predictive value of 71.2%. CONCLUSION: Clinician gestalt is not sufficiently accurate or safe to either rule in or rule out ACS as a decision-making strategy. This study will enable emergency physicians to understand the limitations of our clinical judgment.

6.
JBI Database System Rev Implement Rep ; 18(1): 154-162, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483342

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The primary question of the review is: What is known about retention of doctors in emergency medicine? INTRODUCTION: There is a staffing crisis in emergency medicine and retention problems across healthcare. The evidence is disparate and includes healthcare research, management studies and policy documents from government and other agencies. Therefore there is a need to map the evidence on retention of emergency medicine doctors. This review is part of a wider study of the retention of doctors in emergency medicine situated in the UK. INCLUSION CRITERIA: We will identify papers relating to emergency medicine doctors at all levels, using the different terms used internationally for these practitioners. We will exclude papers relating to other healthcare professions. We aim to include papers relating to retention; to identify these our search will include terms such as turnover and exodus. The setting is focused on the emergency department; studies focusing on working in other settings, for example, a minor injuries unit, will be excluded. Studies from any country will be included; however, we are limited to those published in English. METHODS: We will search medical literature databases including MEDLINE, Embase, HMIC, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the British Medical Journal collection. We will supplement this by searching business and management journals including Business Source Complete, ProQuest Business Database and Emerald Business and Management Journals. A structured iterative search of the gray literature will be conducted. Retrieved papers will be screened for inclusion by two reviewers. Data will be extracted and presented in tabular form and a narrative summary that align with the review's objective.

8.
Trends Hear ; 23: 2331216519878983, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31621509

RESUMO

Over the past two decades, significant technological advances have facilitated the identification of hundreds of genes associated with hearing loss. Variants in many of these genes result in severe congenital hearing loss with profound implications for the affected individual and their family. This review collates these advances, summarizing the current state of genomic knowledge in childhood hearing loss. We consider how current and emerging genetic technologies have the potential to alter our approach to the management and diagnosis of hearing loss. We review approaches being taken to ensure that these discoveries are used in clinical practice to detect genetic hearing loss as soon as possible to reduce unnecessary investigations, provide information about reproductive risks, and facilitate regular follow-up and early treatment. We also highlight how rapid sequencing technology has the potential to identify children susceptible to antibiotic-induced hearing loss and how this adverse reaction can be avoided.

9.
BMJ Open ; 9(10): e032834, 2019 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31662404

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Within the UK, chest pain is one of the most common reasons for emergency (999) ambulance calls and the most common reason for emergency hospital admission. Diagnosing acute coronary syndromes (ACS) in a patient with chest pain in the prehospital setting by a paramedic is challenging. The Troponin-only Manchester Acute Coronary Syndromes (T-MACS) decision rule is a validated tool used in the emergency department (ED) to stratify patients with suspected ACS following a single blood test.We are seeking to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the T-MACS decision aid algorithm to 'rule out' ACS when used in the prehospital environment with point-of-care troponin assays. If successful, this could allow paramedics to immediately rule out ACS for patients in the 'very low risk' group and avoid the need for transport to the ED, while also risk stratifying other patients using a single blood sample taken in the prehospital setting. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will recruit patients who call emergency (999) ambulance services where the responding paramedic suspects cardiac chest pain. The data required to apply T-MACS will be prospectively recorded by paramedics who are responding to each patient. Paramedics will be required to draw a venous blood sample at the time of arrival to the patient. Blood samples will later be tested in batches for cardiac troponin, using commercially available troponin assays. The primary outcome will be a diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction, established at the time of initial hospital admission. The secondary outcomes will include any major adverse cardiac events within 30 days of enrolment. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study obtained approval from the National Research Ethics Service (reference: 18/ES/0101) and the Health Research Authority. We will publish our findings in a high impact general medical journal. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: Registration number: ClinicalTrials.gov, study ID: NCT03561051.

11.
Clin Chem ; 65(10): 1221-1227, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31387884

RESUMO

The IFCC Committee on Clinical Applications of Cardiac Bio-Markers (C-CB) has directives and initiatives focused on providing evidence-based educational resources to aid and improve understanding around key analytical and clinical aspects of cardiac biomarkers used in clinical practice and the research setting. As a task force, we have previously published position statements and recommendations focused on use and analytical aspects of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays. The current educational document is the first from the C-CB highlighting important biochemical, analytical, and clinical aspects as they relate to the natriuretic peptides (NPs), including B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), with a focus on heart failure.

12.
BMJ Open ; 9(7): e029187, 2019 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31350248

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: A new prognostic model has been developed and externally validated, the aim of which is to assist in the management of the blunt chest wall trauma patient in the emergency department (ED). The aim of this trial is to assess the feasibility and acceptability of a definitive impact trial investigating the clinical and cost-effectiveness of a new prognostic model for the management of patients with blunt chest wall trauma in the ED. DESIGN: Stepped wedge feasibility trial. SETTING: Four EDs in England and Wales. PARTICIPANTS: Adult blunt chest wall trauma patients presenting to the ED with no concurrent, life-threatening injuries. INTERVENTION: A prognostic model (the STUMBL score) to guide clinical decision-making. OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary: participant recruitment rate and clinicians' use of the STUMBL score. Secondary: composite outcome measure (mortality, pulmonary complications, delayed upgrade in care, unplanned representations to the ED), physical and mental components of quality of life, clinician feedback and health economic data gathering methodology for healthcare resource utilisation. RESULTS: Quantitative data were analysed using the intention-to-treat principle. 176 patients were recruited; recruitment targets were achieved at all sites. Clinicians used the model in 96% of intervention cases. All feasibility criteria were fully or partially met. After adjusting for predefined covariates, there were no statistically significant differences between the control and intervention periods. Qualitative analysis highlighted that STUMBL was well-received and clinicians would support a definitive trial. Collecting data on intervention costs, health-related quality of life and healthcare resource use was feasible. DISCUSSION: We have demonstrated that a fully powered randomised clinical trial of the STUMBL score is feasible and desirable to clinicians. Minor methodological modifications will be made for the full trial. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN95571506; Post-results.

13.
N Engl J Med ; 380(26): 2529-2540, 2019 06 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31242362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data regarding high-sensitivity troponin concentrations in patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of myocardial infarction may be useful in determining the probability of myocardial infarction and subsequent 30-day outcomes. METHODS: In 15 international cohorts of patients presenting to the emergency department with symptoms suggestive of myocardial infarction, we determined the concentrations of high-sensitivity troponin I or high-sensitivity troponin T at presentation and after early or late serial sampling. The diagnostic and prognostic performance of multiple high-sensitivity troponin cutoff combinations was assessed with the use of a derivation-validation design. A risk-assessment tool that was based on these data was developed to estimate the risk of index myocardial infarction and of subsequent myocardial infarction or death at 30 days. RESULTS: Among 22,651 patients (9604 in the derivation data set and 13,047 in the validation data set), the prevalence of myocardial infarction was 15.3%. Lower high-sensitivity troponin concentrations at presentation and smaller absolute changes during serial sampling were associated with a lower likelihood of myocardial infarction and a lower short-term risk of cardiovascular events. For example, high-sensitivity troponin I concentrations of less than 6 ng per liter and an absolute change of less than 4 ng per liter after 45 to 120 minutes (early serial sampling) resulted in a negative predictive value of 99.5% for myocardial infarction, with an associated 30-day risk of subsequent myocardial infarction or death of 0.2%; a total of 56.5% of the patients would be classified as being at low risk. These findings were confirmed in an external validation data set. CONCLUSIONS: A risk-assessment tool, which we developed to integrate the high-sensitivity troponin I or troponin T concentration at emergency department presentation, its dynamic change during serial sampling, and the time between the obtaining of samples, was used to estimate the probability of myocardial infarction on emergency department presentation and 30-day outcomes. (Funded by the German Center for Cardiovascular Research [DZHK]; ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT00470587, NCT02355457, NCT01852123, NCT01994577, and NCT03227159; and Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry numbers, ACTRN12611001069943, ACTRN12610000766011, ACTRN12613000745741, and ACTRN12611000206921.).


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Medição de Risco/métodos , Troponina/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Coortes , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Troponina I/sangue
14.
Clin Chem ; 65(8): 1006-1014, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31118187

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We sought to evaluate diagnostic accuracy of a high-sensitivity cardiac troponin I (hs-cTnI) assay for acute coronary syndromes (ACS) in the emergency department (ED). The assay has high precision at low concentrations and can detect cTnI in 96.8% of healthy individuals. METHODS: In successive prospective multicenter studies ("testing" and "validation"), we included ED patients with suspected ACS. We drew blood for hs-cTnI [Singulex Clarity® cTnI; 99th percentile, 8.67 ng/L; limit of detection (LoD), 0.08 ng/L] on arrival. Patients also underwent hs-cTnT (Roche Elecsys) testing over ≥3 h. The primary outcome was an adjudicated diagnosis of ACS, defined as acute myocardial infarction (AMI; prevalent or incident), death, or revascularization within 30 days. RESULTS: The testing and validation studies included 665 and 2470 patients, respectively, of which 94 (14.1%) and 565 (22.9%) had ACS. At a 1.5-ng/L cutoff, hs-cTnI had good sensitivity for AMI in both studies (98.7% and 98.1%, respectively) and would have "ruled out" 40.1% and 48.9% patients. However, sensitivity was lower for ACS (95.7% and 90.6%, respectively). At a 0.8-ng/L cutoff, sensitivity for ACS was higher (97.5% and 97.9%, ruling out 28.6% patients in each cohort). The hs-cTnT assay had similar performance at the LoD (24.6% ruled out; 97.2% sensitivity for ACS). CONCLUSIONS: The hs-cTnI assay could immediately rule out AMI in 40% of patients and ACS in >25%, with similar accuracy to hs-cTnT at the LoD. Because of its high precision at low concentrations, this hs-cTnI assay has favorable characteristics for this clinical application.

15.
Intern Med J ; 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30989793

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are common in emergency departments (ED). Guidelines recommend administration of inhaled bronchodilators, systemic corticosteroids and antibiotics along with non-invasive ventilation (NIV) for patients with respiratory acidosis. We aimed to determine compliance with guideline recommendations for patients with treated for COPD in ED in Europe (EUR) and South East Asia/Australasia (SEA) and to compare management and outcomes. METHODS: In each region, an observational prospective cohort study was performed that included patients presenting to EDs with the main complaint of dyspnoea during three 72-hour periods. This planned sub-study included those with an ED primary discharge diagnosis of COPD. Data were collected on demographics, clinical features, treatment, disposition and in-hospital mortality. We determined overall compliance with guideline recommendations and compared treatments and outcome between regions. RESULTS: 801 patients were included from 122 EDs (66 EUR and 46 SEA). Inhaled bronchodilators were administered to 80.3% of patients, systemic corticosteroids to 59.5%, antibiotics to 44% and 60.6% of patients with pH <7.3 received NIV. The proportion administered systemic corticosteroids was higher in SEA (EUR vs. SEA for all comparisons; 52% vs. 66%, p<0.001) as was administration of antibiotics (40% vs. 49%, p=0.02). Rates of NIV and mechanical ventilation were similar. Overall in-hospital mortality was 4.2% (SEA 3.9% vs. EUR 4.5%, p=0.77). CONCLUSION: Compliance with guideline recommended treatments, in particular administration of corticosteroids and NIV, was sub-optimal in both regions. Improved compliance has the potential to improve patient outcome. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

16.
Crit Pathw Cardiol ; 18(1): 10-15, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30747759

RESUMO

The TRAPID-AMI (High Sensitivity Cardiac Troponin T assay for rapid Rule-out of Acute Myocardial Infarction) study evaluated a rapid "rule-out" acute myocardial infarction (AMI). We evaluated what symptoms were associated with AMI as part of a substudy of TRAPID-AMI. There were 1282 patients evaluated from 12 centers in Europe, the United States of America, and Australia from 2011 to 2013. Multiple symptom variables were prospectively obtained and evaluated for association with the final diagnosis of AMI. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was done, and odds ratios (OR) were calculated. There were 213/1282 (17%) AMIs. Four independent predictors for the diagnosis of AMI were identified: radiation to right arm or shoulder [OR = 3.0; confidence interval (CI): 1.8-5.0], chest pressure (OR = 2.5; CI: 1.3-4.6), worsened by physical activity (OR = 1.7; CI: 1.2-2.5), and radiation to left arm or shoulder (OR = 1.7; CI: 1.1-2.4). In the entire group, 131 (10%) had radiation to right arm or shoulder, 897 (70%) had chest pressure, 385 (30%) worsened with physical activity, and 448 (35%) had radiation to left arm or shoulder. Duration of symptoms was not predictive of AMI. There were no symptoms predictive of non-AMI. Relationship between AMI size and symptoms was also studied. For 213 AMI patients, cardiac troponins I values were divided into 4 quartiles. Symptoms including pulling chest pain, supramammillary right location, and right arm/shoulder radiation were significantly more likely to occur in patients with larger AMIs. In a large multicenter trial, only 4 symptoms were associated with the diagnosis of AMI, and no symptoms that were associated with a non-AMI diagnosis.


Assuntos
Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico , Troponina/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Eletrocardiografia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Tempo
17.
BMJ Open ; 9(2): e026882, 2019 02 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30772866

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Patients presenting to emergency departments (EDs) with epistaxis uncontrolled by subsequent simple first aid measures or application of topical vasoconstrictors will typically undergo anterior nasal packing. Packing is effective, but can be extremely painful and unpleasant and patients usually need hospital admission. Tranexamic acid (TXA) is a cheap, safe, readily available antifibrinolytic agent known to be beneficial in a variety of clinical settings where uncontrolled bleeding may be a problem. Anecdotal evidence suggests that topical TXA may be of value in persistent epistaxis; however, further evaluation is required. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This is a multicentre, double-blind, parallel group, randomised, controlled trial comparing the use of topical intranasal TXA with indistinguishable placebo in adults presenting to UK EDs with persistent atraumatic epistaxis. Follow-up is at 1 week by structured telephone review. The primary outcome measure is the subsequent need for anterior nasal packing in the ED. Key secondary outcomes include the need for hospital admission, blood transfusion and/or further treatment for epistaxis during the index ED attendance. Recruiting 450 patients will provide 90% power to demonstrate an absolute reduction in packing rate from 95% to 85%. An improvement of this magnitude would be of significant benefit to patients and healthcare providers and justify a change to standard practice. Given the low cost of TXA and its short administration time, a full economic evaluation is not being undertaken. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study has been approved by the South West-Bristol Research Ethics Committee (reference 17/SW/0010). We aim to publish the findings in a high impact, international peer-reviewed journal. Results will also be shared with the Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia foundation and telangiectasia UK for dissemination through appropriate related forums. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN34153772 and EudraCT No: 2016-001530-10.

18.
Emerg Med Australas ; 31(5): 756-762, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30806041

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Asthma exacerbations are common presentations to ED. Key guideline recommendations for management include administration of inhaled bronchodilators, systemic corticosteroids and titrated oxygen therapy. Our aim was to compare management and outcomes between patients treated for asthma in Europe (EUR) and South East Asia/Australasia (SEA) and compliance with international guidelines. METHODS: In each region, prospective, interrupted time series studies were performed including adult (age >18 years) patients presenting to ED with the main complaint of dyspnoea during three 72 h periods. This was a planned sub-study that included those with an ED primary diagnosis of asthma. Data was collected on demographics, clinical features, treatment in ED, diagnosis, disposition and in-hospital outcome. The results of interest were differences in treatment and outcome between EUR and SEA cohorts. RESULTS: Five hundred and eighty-four patients were identified from 112 EDs (66 EUR and 46 SEA). The cohorts had similar demographics and co-morbidity patterns, with 89% of the cohort having a previous diagnosis of asthma. There were no significant differences in treatment between EUR and SEA patients - inhaled beta-agonists were administered in 86% of cases, systemic corticosteroids in 66%, oxygen therapy in 44% and antibiotics in 20%. Two thirds of patients were discharged home from the ED. CONCLUSION: The data suggests that compliance with guideline-recommended therapy in both regions, particularly corticosteroid administration, is sub-optimal. It also suggests over-use of antibiotics.

19.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 73(9): 1059-1077, 2019 03 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30798981

RESUMO

High-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) I or T methods have been in use in certain regions for years but are now increasingly globally adopted, including in the United States. Accordingly, inevitable challenges are created for institutions transitioning from conventional cardiac troponin (cTn) assays. hs-cTn assays have higher analytic precision at lower concentrations, yielding greater clinical sensitivity for myocardial injury and allowing accurate recognition of small changes in troponin concentration (rise or fall) within a short time frame. Although much of the knowledge regarding troponin biology that was applicable with older troponin assays still holds true, considerable education regarding the differences between conventional cTn and hs-cTn is needed before medical systems convert to the newer methods. This includes a basic understanding of how hs-cTn testing differs from conventional cTn testing and how it is best deployed in different settings, such as the emergency department and inpatient services. This Expert Panel will review important concepts for institutional transition to hs-cTn methodology, providing recommendations useful for education before implementation.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisão Clínica/métodos , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência , Infarto do Miocárdio/sangue , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto , Troponina/sangue , Biomarcadores/sangue , Humanos , Infarto do Miocárdio/diagnóstico
20.
Heart ; 105(10): 768-774, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30636217

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The rapid turnaround time of point-of-care (POC) cardiac troponin (cTn) assays is highly attractive for crowded emergency departments (EDs). We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of the Troponin-only Manchester Acute Coronary Syndromes (T-MACS) decision aid with a POC cTn assay. METHODS: In a prospective diagnostic accuracy study at eight EDs, we included patients with suspected acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Blood drawn on arrival and 3 hours later was analysed for POC cTnI (i-Stat, Abbott Point of Care). The primary outcome was a diagnosis of ACS, which included both an adjudicated diagnosis of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) based on serial laboratory cTn testing and major adverse cardiac events (death, AMI or coronary revascularisation) within 30 days. RESULTS: Of 716 patients included, 105 (14.7%) had ACS. Using serial POC cTnI concentrations over 3 hours could have 'ruled out' ACS in 198 (31.2%) patients with a sensitivity of 99.0% (95% CI 94.4% to 100.0%) and negative predictive value 99.5% (95% CI 96.5% to 99.9%). No AMIs were missed. T-MACS 'ruled in' ACS for 65 (10.4%) patients with a positive predictive value of 91.2% (95% CI 82.1% to 95.9%) and specificity 98.9% (97.6% to 99.6%). CONCLUSION: With a POC cTnI assay, T-MACS could 'rule out' ACS for approximately one-third of patients within 3 hours while 'ruling in' ACS for another 10%. The rapid turnaround time and portability of the POC assay make this an attractive pathway for use in crowded EDs or urgent care centres. Future work should also evaluate use in the prehospital environment.

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