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1.
Bioinformatics ; 2021 Aug 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459872

RESUMO

SUMMARY: Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) characterize the associations between genetic variation and gene expression to provide insights into tissue-specific gene regulation. Interactive visualization of tissue-specific eQTLs or splice QTLs (sQTLs) can facilitate our understanding of functional variants relevant to disease-related traits. However, combining the multi-dimensional nature of eQTLs/sQTLs into a concise and informative visualization is challenging. Existing QTL visualization tools provide useful ways to summarize the unprecedented scale of transcriptomic data but are not necessarily tailored to answer questions about the functional interpretations of trait-associated variants or other variants of interest. We developed FIVEx, an interactive eQTL/sQTL browser with an intuitive interface tailored to the functional interpretation of associated variants. It features the ability to navigate seamlessly between different data views while providing relevant tissue- and locus-specific information to offer users a better understanding of population-scale multi-tissue transcriptomic profiles. Our implementation of the FIVEx browser on the EBI eQTL catalogue, encompassing 16 publicly available RNA-seq studies, provides important insights for understanding potential tissue-specific regulatory mechanisms underlying trait-associated signals. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: A FIVEx instance visualizing EBI eQTL catalogue data can be found at https://fivex.sph.umich.edu. Its source code is open source under an MIT license at https://github.com/statgen/fivex. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

2.
Neurogastroenterol Motil ; : e14236, 2021 Aug 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34378841

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Functional dyspepsia (FD) is a common gastrointestinal condition of poorly understood pathophysiology. While symptoms' overlap with other conditions may indicate common pathogenetic mechanisms, genetic predisposition is suspected but has not been adequately investigated. METHODS: Using healthcare, questionnaire, and genetic data from three large population-based biobanks (UK Biobank, EGCUT, and MGI), we surveyed FD comorbidities, heritability, and genetic correlations across a wide spectrum of conditions and traits in 10,078 cases and 351,282 non-FD controls of European ancestry. KEY RESULTS: In UK Biobank, 281 diagnoses were detected at increased prevalence in FD, based on healthcare records. Among these, gastrointestinal conditions (OR = 4.0, p < 1.0 × 10-300 ), anxiety disorders (OR = 2.3, p < 1.4 × 10-27 ), ischemic heart disease (OR = 2.2, p < 2.3 × 10-76 ), and infectious and parasitic diseases (OR = 2.1, p = 1.5 × 10-73 ) showed strongest association with FD. Similar results were obtained in an analysis of self-reported conditions and use of medications from questionnaire data. Based on a genome-wide association meta-analysis of genotypes across all cohorts, FD heritability was estimated close to 5% ( h SNP 2  = 0.047, p = 0.014). Genetic correlations indicate FD predisposition is shared with several other diseases and traits (rg  > 0.344), mostly overlapping with those also enriched in FD patients. Suggestive (p < 5.0 × 10-6 ) association with FD risk was detected for 13 loci, with 2 showing nominal replication (p < 0.05) in an independent cohort of 192 FD patients. CONCLUSIONS & INFERENCES: FD has a weak heritable component that shows commonalities with multiple conditions across a wide spectrum of pathophysiological domains. This new knowledge contributes to a better understanding of FD etiology and may have implications for improving its treatment.

3.
Hum Genomics ; 15(1): 34, 2021 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099068

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mitochondrial genome copy number (MT-CN) varies among humans and across tissues and is highly heritable, but its causes and consequences are not well understood. When measured by bulk DNA sequencing in blood, MT-CN may reflect a combination of the number of mitochondria per cell and cell-type composition. Here, we studied MT-CN variation in blood-derived DNA from 19184 Finnish individuals using a combination of genome (N = 4163) and exome sequencing (N = 19034) data as well as imputed genotypes (N = 17718). RESULTS: We identified two loci significantly associated with MT-CN variation: a common variant at the MYB-HBS1L locus (P = 1.6 × 10-8), which has previously been associated with numerous hematological parameters; and a burden of rare variants in the TMBIM1 gene (P = 3.0 × 10-8), which has been reported to protect against non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. We also found that MT-CN is strongly associated with insulin levels (P = 2.0 × 10-21) and other metabolic syndrome (metS)-related traits. Using a Mendelian randomization framework, we show evidence that MT-CN measured in blood is causally related to insulin levels. We then applied an MT-CN polygenic risk score (PRS) derived from Finnish data to the UK Biobank, where the association between the PRS and metS traits was replicated. Adjusting for cell counts largely eliminated these signals, suggesting that MT-CN affects metS via cell-type composition. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that measurements of MT-CN in blood-derived DNA partially reflect differences in cell-type composition and that these differences are causally linked to insulin and related traits.

4.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(4): 583-596, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798444

RESUMO

The contribution of genome structural variation (SV) to quantitative traits associated with cardiometabolic diseases remains largely unknown. Here, we present the results of a study examining genetic association between SVs and cardiometabolic traits in the Finnish population. We used sensitive methods to identify and genotype 129,166 high-confidence SVs from deep whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data of 4,848 individuals. We tested the 64,572 common and low-frequency SVs for association with 116 quantitative traits and tested candidate associations using exome sequencing and array genotype data from an additional 15,205 individuals. We discovered 31 genome-wide significant associations at 15 loci, including 2 loci at which SVs have strong phenotypic effects: (1) a deletion of the ALB promoter that is greatly enriched in the Finnish population and causes decreased serum albumin level in carriers (p = 1.47 × 10-54) and is also associated with increased levels of total cholesterol (p = 1.22 × 10-28) and 14 additional cholesterol-related traits, and (2) a multi-allelic copy number variant (CNV) at PDPR that is strongly associated with pyruvate (p = 4.81 × 10-21) and alanine (p = 6.14 × 10-12) levels and resides within a structurally complex genomic region that has accumulated many rearrangements over evolutionary time. We also confirmed six previously reported associations, including five led by stronger signals in single nucleotide variants (SNVs) and one linking recurrent HP gene deletion and cholesterol levels (p = 6.24 × 10-10), which was also found to be strongly associated with increased glycoprotein level (p = 3.53 × 10-35). Our study confirms that integrating SVs in trait-mapping studies will expand our knowledge of genetic factors underlying disease risk.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Variação Estrutural do Genoma/genética , Alelos , Colesterol/sangue , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Feminino , Finlândia , Genoma Humano/genética , Genótipo , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Piruvato Desidrogenase (Lipoamida)-Fosfatase/genética , Ácido Pirúvico/metabolismo , Albumina Sérica Humana/genética
5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(4): 669-681, 2021 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33730541

RESUMO

Tests of association between a phenotype and a set of genes in a biological pathway can provide insights into the genetic architecture of complex phenotypes beyond those obtained from single-variant or single-gene association analysis. However, most existing gene set tests have limited power to detect gene set-phenotype association when a small fraction of the genes are associated with the phenotype and cannot identify the potentially "active" genes that might drive a gene set-based association. To address these issues, we have developed Gene set analysis Association Using Sparse Signals (GAUSS), a method for gene set association analysis that requires only GWAS summary statistics. For each significantly associated gene set, GAUSS identifies the subset of genes that have the maximal evidence of association and can best account for the gene set association. Using pre-computed correlation structure among test statistics from a reference panel, our p value calculation is substantially faster than other permutation- or simulation-based approaches. In simulations with varying proportions of causal genes, we find that GAUSS effectively controls type 1 error rate and has greater power than several existing methods, particularly when a small proportion of genes account for the gene set signal. Using GAUSS, we analyzed UK Biobank GWAS summary statistics for 10,679 gene sets and 1,403 binary phenotypes. We found that GAUSS is scalable and identified 13,466 phenotype and gene set association pairs. Within these gene sets, we identify an average of 17.2 (max = 405) genes that underlie these gene set associations.


Assuntos
Bancos de Espécimes Biológicos , Interpretação Estatística de Dados , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Conjuntos de Dados como Assunto , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Fenótipo , Transportadores de Cassetes de Ligação de ATP/genética , Simulação por Computador , Expressão Gênica/genética , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Fatores de Tempo , Reino Unido , Navegador
6.
Bioinformatics ; 2021 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33734315

RESUMO

LocusZoom.js is a JavaScript library for creating interactive web-based visualizations of genetic association study results. It can display one or more traits in the context of relevant biological data (such as gene models and other genomic annotation), and allows interactive refinement of analysis models (by selecting linkage disequilibrium reference panels, identifying sets of likely causal variants, or comparisons to the GWAS catalog). It can be embedded in web pages to enable data sharing and exploration. Views can be customized and extended to display other data types such as phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) results, chromatin co-accessibility, or eQTL measurements. A new web upload service harmonizes datasets, adds annotations, and makes it easy to explore user-provided result sets. Availability LocusZoom.js is open-source software under a permissive MIT license. Code and documentation are available at: https://github.com/statgen/locuszoom/. Installable packages for all versions are also distributed via NPM. Additional features are provided as standalone libraries to promote reuse. Use with your own GWAS results at https://my.locuszoom.org/. Supplementary information Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

7.
Genetics ; 218(1)2021 05 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33720349

RESUMO

Traditional Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) tests (the χ2 test and the exact test) have long been used as a metric for evaluating genotype quality, as technical artifacts leading to incorrect genotype calls often can be identified as deviations from HWE. However, in data sets composed of individuals from diverse ancestries, HWE can be violated even without genotyping error, complicating the use of HWE testing to assess genotype data quality. In this manuscript, we present the Robust Unified Test for HWE (RUTH) to test for HWE while accounting for population structure and genotype uncertainty, and to evaluate the impact of population heterogeneity and genotype uncertainty on the standard HWE tests and alternative methods using simulated and real sequence data sets. Our results demonstrate that ignoring population structure or genotype uncertainty in HWE tests can inflate false-positive rates by many orders of magnitude. Our evaluations demonstrate different tradeoffs between false positives and statistical power across the methods, with RUTH consistently among the best across all evaluations. RUTH is implemented as a practical and scalable software tool to rapidly perform HWE tests across millions of markers and hundreds of thousands of individuals while supporting standard VCF/BCF formats. RUTH is publicly available at https://www.github.com/statgen/ruth.

9.
G3 (Bethesda) ; 11(2)2021 02 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33585870

RESUMO

Over the last decade, GWAS meta-analyses have used a strict P-value threshold of 5 × 10-8 to classify associations as significant. Here, we use our current understanding of frequently studied traits including lipid levels, height, and BMI to revisit this genome-wide significance threshold. We compare the performance of studies using the P = 5 × 10-8 threshold in terms of true and false positive rate to other multiple testing strategies: (1) less stringent P-value thresholds, (2) controlling the FDR with the Benjamini-Hochberg and Benjamini-Yekutieli procedure, and (3) controlling the Bayesian FDR with posterior probabilities. We applied these procedures to re-analyze results from the Global Lipids and GIANT GWAS meta-analysis consortia and supported them with extensive simulation that mimics the empirical data. We observe in simulated studies with sample sizes ∼20,000 and >120,000 that relaxing the P-value threshold to 5 × 10-7 increased discovery at the cost of 18% and 8% of additional loci being false positive results, respectively. FDR and Bayesian FDR are well controlled for both sample sizes with a few exceptions that disappear under a less stringent definition of true positives and the two approaches yield similar results. Our work quantifies the value of using a relaxed P-value threshold in large studies to increase their true positive discovery but also show the excess false positive rates due to such actions in modest-sized studies. These results may guide investigators considering different thresholds in replication studies and downstream work such as gene-set enrichment or pathway analysis. Finally, we demonstrate the viability of FDR-controlling procedures in GWAS.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Teorema de Bayes , Simulação por Computador , Fenótipo , Probabilidade
10.
Nature ; 590(7845): 290-299, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33568819

RESUMO

The Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) programme seeks to elucidate the genetic architecture and biology of heart, lung, blood and sleep disorders, with the ultimate goal of improving diagnosis, treatment and prevention of these diseases. The initial phases of the programme focused on whole-genome sequencing of individuals with rich phenotypic data and diverse backgrounds. Here we describe the TOPMed goals and design as well as the available resources and early insights obtained from the sequence data. The resources include a variant browser, a genotype imputation server, and genomic and phenotypic data that are available through dbGaP (Database of Genotypes and Phenotypes)1. In the first 53,831 TOPMed samples, we detected more than 400 million single-nucleotide and insertion or deletion variants after alignment with the reference genome. Additional previously undescribed variants were detected through assembly of unmapped reads and customized analysis in highly variable loci. Among the more than 400 million detected variants, 97% have frequencies of less than 1% and 46% are singletons that are present in only one individual (53% among unrelated individuals). These rare variants provide insights into mutational processes and recent human evolutionary history. The extensive catalogue of genetic variation in TOPMed studies provides unique opportunities for exploring the contributions of rare and noncoding sequence variants to phenotypic variation. Furthermore, combining TOPMed haplotypes with modern imputation methods improves the power and reach of genome-wide association studies to include variants down to a frequency of approximately 0.01%.


Assuntos
Variação Genética/genética , Genoma Humano/genética , Genômica , National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (U.S.) , Medicina de Precisão , Citocromo P-450 CYP2D6/genética , Haplótipos/genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Mutação INDEL , Mutação com Perda de Função , Mutagênese , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Densidade Demográfica , Medicina de Precisão/normas , Controle de Qualidade , Tamanho da Amostra , Estados Unidos , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma/normas
11.
J Invest Dermatol ; 141(6): 1493-1502, 2021 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33385400

RESUMO

Psoriasis and type 2 diabetes (T2D) are complex conditions with significant impacts on health. Patients with psoriasis have a higher risk of T2D (∼1.5 OR) and vice versa, controlling for body mass index; yet, there has been a limited study comparing their genetic architecture. We hypothesized that there are shared genetic components between psoriasis and T2D. Trans-disease meta-analysis was applied to 8,016,731 well-imputed genetic markers from large-scale meta-analyses of psoriasis (11,024 cases and 16,336 controls) and T2D (74,124 cases and 824,006 controls), adjusted for body mass index. We confirmed our findings in a hospital-based study (42,112 patients) and tested for causal relationships with multivariable Mendelian randomization. Mendelian randomization identified a causal relationship between psoriasis and T2D (P = 1.6 × 10‒4, OR = 1.01) and highlighted the impact of body mass index. Trans-disease meta-analysis further revealed four genome-wide significant loci (P < 5 × 10‒8) with evidence of colocalization and shared directions of effect between psoriasis and T2D not present in body mass index. The proteins coded by genes in these loci (ACTR2, ERLIN1, TRMT112, and BECN1) are connected through NF-κB signaling. Our results provide insight into the immunological components that connect immune-mediated skin conditions and metabolic diseases, independent of confounding factors.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Loci Gênicos/imunologia , Psoríase/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Causalidade , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/epidemiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/imunologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Psoríase/epidemiologia , Psoríase/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transdução de Sinais/imunologia
12.
Nat Genet ; 53(2): 156-165, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462485

RESUMO

To study the effect of host genetics on gut microbiome composition, the MiBioGen consortium curated and analyzed genome-wide genotypes and 16S fecal microbiome data from 18,340 individuals (24 cohorts). Microbial composition showed high variability across cohorts: only 9 of 410 genera were detected in more than 95% of samples. A genome-wide association study of host genetic variation regarding microbial taxa identified 31 loci affecting the microbiome at a genome-wide significant (P < 5 × 10-8) threshold. One locus, the lactase (LCT) gene locus, reached study-wide significance (genome-wide association study signal: P = 1.28 × 10-20), and it showed an age-dependent association with Bifidobacterium abundance. Other associations were suggestive (1.95 × 10-10 < P < 5 × 10-8) but enriched for taxa showing high heritability and for genes expressed in the intestine and brain. A phenome-wide association study and Mendelian randomization identified enrichment of microbiome trait loci in the metabolic, nutrition and environment domains and suggested the microbiome might have causal effects in ulcerative colitis and rheumatoid arthritis.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Variação Genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Adolescente , Adulto , Bifidobacterium/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Lactase/genética , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Metabolismo/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S
13.
Mol Psychiatry ; 26(9): 5239-5250, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33483695

RESUMO

Bipolar disorder (BD) is a serious mental illness with substantial common variant heritability. However, the role of rare coding variation in BD is not well established. We examined the protein-coding (exonic) sequences of 3,987 unrelated individuals with BD and 5,322 controls of predominantly European ancestry across four cohorts from the Bipolar Sequencing Consortium (BSC). We assessed the burden of rare, protein-altering, single nucleotide variants classified as pathogenic or likely pathogenic (P-LP) both exome-wide and within several groups of genes with phenotypic or biologic plausibility in BD. While we observed an increased burden of rare coding P-LP variants within 165 genes identified as BD GWAS regions in 3,987 BD cases (meta-analysis OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.3-2.8, one-sided p = 6.0 × 10-4), this enrichment did not replicate in an additional 9,929 BD cases and 14,018 controls (OR = 0.9, one-side p = 0.70). Although BD shares common variant heritability with schizophrenia, in the BSC sample we did not observe a significant enrichment of P-LP variants in SCZ GWAS genes, in two classes of neuronal synaptic genes (RBFOX2 and FMRP) associated with SCZ or in loss-of-function intolerant genes. In this study, the largest analysis of exonic variation in BD, individuals with BD do not carry a replicable enrichment of rare P-LP variants across the exome or in any of several groups of genes with biologic plausibility. Moreover, despite a strong shared susceptibility between BD and SCZ through common genetic variation, we do not observe an association between BD risk and rare P-LP coding variants in genes known to modulate risk for SCZ.

14.
PLoS Genet ; 16(12): e1009060, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33320851

RESUMO

Gene-based association tests aggregate genotypes across multiple variants for each gene, providing an interpretable gene-level analysis framework for genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Early gene-based test applications often focused on rare coding variants; a more recent wave of gene-based methods, e.g. TWAS, use eQTLs to interrogate regulatory associations. Regulatory variants are expected to be particularly valuable for gene-based analysis, since most GWAS associations to date are non-coding. However, identifying causal genes from regulatory associations remains challenging and contentious. Here, we present a statistical framework and computational tool to integrate heterogeneous annotations with GWAS summary statistics for gene-based analysis, applied with comprehensive coding and tissue-specific regulatory annotations. We compare power and accuracy identifying causal genes across single-annotation, omnibus, and annotation-agnostic gene-based tests in simulation studies and an analysis of 128 traits from the UK Biobank, and find that incorporating heterogeneous annotations in gene-based association analysis increases power and performance identifying causal genes.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular/métodos , Algoritmos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/normas , Humanos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular/normas , Polimorfismo Genético , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
15.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4912, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32999275

RESUMO

Most signals detected by genome-wide association studies map to non-coding sequence and their tissue-specific effects influence transcriptional regulation. However, key tissues and cell-types required for functional inference are absent from large-scale resources. Here we explore the relationship between genetic variants influencing predisposition to type 2 diabetes (T2D) and related glycemic traits, and human pancreatic islet transcription using data from 420 donors. We find: (a) 7741 cis-eQTLs in islets with a replication rate across 44 GTEx tissues between 40% and 73%; (b) marked overlap between islet cis-eQTL signals and active regulatory sequences in islets, with reduced eQTL effect size observed in the stretch enhancers most strongly implicated in GWAS signal location; (c) enrichment of islet cis-eQTL signals with T2D risk variants identified in genome-wide association studies; and (d) colocalization between 47 islet cis-eQTLs and variants influencing T2D or glycemic traits, including DGKB and TCF7L2. Our findings illustrate the advantages of performing functional and regulatory studies in disease relevant tissues.


Assuntos
Glicemia/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diacilglicerol Quinase/genética , Diacilglicerol Quinase/metabolismo , Elementos Facilitadores Genéticos , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , RNA-Seq , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Proteína 2 Semelhante ao Fator 7 de Transcrição/genética , Proteína 2 Semelhante ao Fator 7 de Transcrição/metabolismo , Adulto Jovem
16.
PLoS Genet ; 16(9): e1009019, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915782

RESUMO

Loci identified in genome-wide association studies (GWAS) can include multiple distinct association signals. We sought to identify the molecular basis of multiple association signals for adiponectin, a hormone involved in glucose regulation secreted almost exclusively from adipose tissue, identified in the Metabolic Syndrome in Men (METSIM) study. With GWAS data for 9,262 men, four loci were significantly associated with adiponectin: ADIPOQ, CDH13, IRS1, and PBRM1. We performed stepwise conditional analyses to identify distinct association signals, a subset of which are also nearly independent (lead variant pairwise r2<0.01). Two loci exhibited allelic heterogeneity, ADIPOQ and CDH13. Of seven association signals at the ADIPOQ locus, two signals colocalized with adipose tissue expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) for three transcripts: trait-increasing alleles at one signal were associated with increased ADIPOQ and LINC02043, while trait-increasing alleles at the other signal were associated with decreased ADIPOQ-AS1. In reporter assays, adiponectin-increasing alleles at two signals showed corresponding directions of effect on transcriptional activity. Putative mechanisms for the seven ADIPOQ signals include a missense variant (ADIPOQ G90S), a splice variant, a promoter variant, and four enhancer variants. Of two association signals at the CDH13 locus, the first signal consisted of promoter variants, including the lead adipose tissue eQTL variant for CDH13, while a second signal included a distal intron 1 enhancer variant that showed ~2-fold allelic differences in transcriptional reporter activity. Fine-mapping and experimental validation demonstrated that multiple, distinct association signals at these loci can influence multiple transcripts through multiple molecular mechanisms.


Assuntos
Adiponectina/genética , Adiponectina/metabolismo , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Alelos , Caderinas/genética , Caderinas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Frequência do Gene/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Proteínas Substratos do Receptor de Insulina/genética , Proteínas Substratos do Receptor de Insulina/metabolismo , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/genética , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
17.
medRxiv ; 2020 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817962

RESUMO

COVID-19 severity has varied widely, with demographic and cardio-metabolic factors increasing risk of severe reactions to SARS-CoV-2 infection, but the underlying mechanisms for this remain uncertain. We investigated phenotypic and genetic factors associated with subcutaneous adipose tissue expression of Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme 2 ( ACE2 ), which has been shown to act as a receptor for SARS-CoV-2 cellular entry. In a meta-analysis of three independent studies including up to 1,471 participants, lower adipose tissue ACE2 expression was associated with adverse cardio-metabolic health indices including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and obesity status, higher serum fasting insulin and BMI, and lower serum HDL levels (P<5.32x10 -4 ). ACE2 expression levels were also associated with estimated proportions of cell types in adipose tissue; lower ACE2 expression was associated with a lower proportion of microvascular endothelial cells (P=4.25x10 -4 ) and higher macrophage proportion (P=2.74x10 -5 ), suggesting a link to inflammation. Despite an estimated heritability of 32%, we did not identify any proximal or distal genetic variants (eQTLs) associated with adipose tissue ACE2 expression. Our results demonstrate that at-risk individuals have lower background ACE2 levels in this highly relevant tissue. Further studies will be required to establish how this may contribute to increased COVID-19 severity.

19.
Nature ; 582(7811): 240-245, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499647

RESUMO

Meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 240 loci that are associated with type 2 diabetes (T2D)1,2; however, most of these loci have been identified in analyses of individuals with European ancestry. Here, to examine T2D risk in East Asian individuals, we carried out a meta-analysis of GWAS data from 77,418 individuals with T2D and 356,122 healthy control individuals. In the main analysis, we identified 301 distinct association signals at 183 loci, and across T2D association models with and without consideration of body mass index and sex, we identified 61 loci that are newly implicated in predisposition to T2D. Common variants associated with T2D in both East Asian and European populations exhibited strongly correlated effect sizes. Previously undescribed associations include signals in or near GDAP1, PTF1A, SIX3, ALDH2, a microRNA cluster, and genes that affect the differentiation of muscle and adipose cells3. At another locus, expression quantitative trait loci at two overlapping T2D signals affect two genes-NKX6-3 and ANK1-in different tissues4-6. Association studies in diverse populations identify additional loci and elucidate disease-associated genes, biology, and pathways.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Aldeído-Desidrogenase Mitocondrial/genética , Alelos , Anquirinas/genética , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Europa (Continente)/etnologia , Proteínas do Olho/genética , Extremo Oriente/etnologia , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , RNA Mensageiro/análise , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Transcrição Genética
20.
Nature ; 582(7813): 577-581, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32499649

RESUMO

Many common illnesses, for reasons that have not been identified, differentially affect men and women. For instance, the autoimmune diseases systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and Sjögren's syndrome affect nine times more women than men1, whereas schizophrenia affects men with greater frequency and severity relative to women2. All three illnesses have their strongest common genetic associations in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) locus, an association that in SLE and Sjögren's syndrome has long been thought to arise from alleles of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes at that locus3-6. Here we show that variation of the complement component 4 (C4) genes C4A and C4B, which are also at the MHC locus and have been linked to increased risk for schizophrenia7, generates 7-fold variation in risk for SLE and 16-fold variation in risk for Sjögren's syndrome among individuals with common C4 genotypes, with C4A protecting more strongly than C4B in both illnesses. The same alleles that increase risk for schizophrenia greatly reduce risk for SLE and Sjögren's syndrome. In all three illnesses, C4 alleles act more strongly in men than in women: common combinations of C4A and C4B generated 14-fold variation in risk for SLE, 31-fold variation in risk for Sjögren's syndrome, and 1.7-fold variation in schizophrenia risk among men (versus 6-fold, 15-fold and 1.26-fold variation in risk among women, respectively). At a protein level, both C4 and its effector C3 were present at higher levels in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma8,9 in men than in women among adults aged between 20 and 50 years, corresponding to the ages of differential disease vulnerability. Sex differences in complement protein levels may help to explain the more potent effects of C4 alleles in men, women's greater risk of SLE and Sjögren's syndrome and men's greater vulnerability to schizophrenia. These results implicate the complement system as a source of sexual dimorphism in vulnerability to diverse illnesses.


Assuntos
Complemento C3/genética , Complemento C4/genética , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/genética , Caracteres Sexuais , Síndrome de Sjogren/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Complemento C3/análise , Complemento C3/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Complemento C4/análise , Complemento C4/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Antígenos HLA/genética , Haplótipos , Humanos , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/sangue , Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Síndrome de Sjogren/sangue , Síndrome de Sjogren/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Adulto Jovem
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