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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31344451

RESUMO

Development of autoimmune cytopenia (AIC) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a serious complication requiring urgent intensification of immunosuppressive therapy. The pathophysiology and predictors of AIC are not completely understood. In this retrospective cohort analysis of 380 pediatric patients, we evaluated the incidence, outcomes, and related various variables, including immune reconstitution markers to AIC. Three hundred eighty patients (median age, 7.4 years; range, .1 to 22.7) were included, of which 30 patients (7.8%) developed AIC in 1 (n = 6), 2 (n = 6), or 3 (n = 16) cell lineages at a median of 133 days (range, 46 to 445) after HCT. Using multivariate analysis we found that chemo-naivety before HCT, acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD) grades II to IV, and serotherapy were associated with the development of AIC. Development of AIC was preceded by increased levels of IgM, IgA, and IgG. Immune profiles of total absolute lymphocytes were very similar between AIC patients and control subjects. However, CD3-CD16+CD56+ natural killer cells, CD3+ T cells, CD3+CD4+ T cell subset, and CD3+CD8+ T cell subset were lower in AIC patients. Overall survival was good, at 83% (similar between AIC patients and control subjects). In conclusion, we identified chemo-naivety before HCT, preceding aGVHD grades II to IV, and serotherapy as predictors for development of AIC. Increasing levels of IgM, IgA, and IgG preceded AIC development. These data provide clues to further study the biology of AIC.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31136799

RESUMO

Busulfan therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) is often used to achieve target plasma exposures. Variability in busulfan plasma exposure units (BPEU) is a potential source for misinterpretation of publications and protocols and is a barrier to data capture by hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) registry databases. We sought to harmonize to a single BPEU for international use. Using Delphi consensus methodology, iterative surveys were sent to an increasing number of relevant clinical stakeholders. In survey 1, 14 stakeholders were asked to identify ideal properties of a BPEU. In survey 2, 52 stakeholders were asked (1) to evaluate BPEU candidates according to ideal BPEU properties established by survey 1 and local position statements for TDM and (2) to identify potential facilitators and barriers to adoption of the harmonized BPEU. The most frequently used BPEU identified, in descending order, were area under the curve (AUC) in µM × min, AUC in mg × h/L, concentration at steady state (Css) in ng/mL, AUC in µM × h, and AUC in µg × h/L. All respondents conceptually agreed on the ideal properties of a BPEU and to adopt a harmonized BPEU. Respondents were equally divided between selecting AUC in µM × min versus mg × h/L for harmonization. AUC in mg × h/L was finally selected as the harmonized BPEU, because it satisfied most of the survey-determined ideal properties for the harmonized BPEU and is read easily understood in the clinical practice environment. Furthermore, 10 major professional societies have endorsed AUC in mg × h/L as the harmonized unit for reporting to HCT registry databases and for use in future protocols and publications.

3.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31070229

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare the total number of adverse events (AEs) before and after mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) infusion in refractory JIA and to evaluate its effectiveness. METHODS: Single-centre Proof of Mechanism Phase Ib, open label intervention study in JIA patients previously failing all biologicals registered for their diagnosis. Six patients received 2 million/kg intravenous infusions of allogeneic bone-marrow derived MSC. In case of ACR-Ped30-response but subsequent loss of response one and maximal two repeated infusions are allowed. RESULTS: Six JIA patients with 9.2 years median disease duration, still active arthritis and damage were included. All had failed methotrexate, corticosteroids and median five different biologicals. MSC were administered twice in three patients. No acute infusion reactions were observed and a lower post-treatment than pre-treatment incidence in AEs was found. The one systemic onset JIA (sJIA) patient had again an evolving macrophage activation syndrome, 9 weeks after tocilizumab discontinuation and 7 weeks post-MSC infusion. Statistically significant decreases were found 8 weeks after one MSC infusion in VAS well-being (75-56), the JADAS-71 (24.5-11.0) and the cJADAS10 (18.0-10.6). CONCLUSION: MSC infusions in six refractory JIA patients were safe, although in sJIA stopping the 'failing' biologic treatment carries a risk of a MAS flare, as the drug might still suppress the systemic features. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Trial register.nl, http://https://www.trialregister.nl, NTR4146.

4.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 25(8): 1526-1535, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30831208

RESUMO

Antithymocyte globulin (ATG) use mitigates the risk of graft rejection and graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT), but ATG overexposure in the setting of lymphopenia negatively affects immune recovery. We hypothesized that standard empiric weight-based dosing of ATG, used to prevent graft rejection in ex vivo CD34-selected allo-HCT, may lead to serious adverse consequences on outcomes in certain patients. We evaluated 304 patients undergoing myeloablative-conditioned ex vivo CD34-selected allo-HCT with HLA-matched donors for the treatment of hematologic malignancies. Patients received rabbit ATG at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg/day i.v. on days -3 and/or -2. An ATG dosing cutoff of 450 mg was used for statistical analyses to assess the relationship between ATG and overall survival (OS). Among all patients, median total ATG dose was 360 mg (range, 130 to 510 mg); 279 (92%) received a total dose of ATG ≤450 mg, and 25 (8%) received a total dose >450 mg. On the first day of ATG administration (day -3), the median absolute lymphocyte count was .0 K/µL. For patients who received a total dose of ATG >450 mg or ≤450 mg, the incidences of acute and late-acute GVHD grade II-IV were statistically similar. At 3 years post-HCT, for patients who received a total dose of ATG >450 mg or ≤450 mg, nonrelapse mortality (NRM) rates were 35% and 18%, respectively (P = .029), disease-free survival (DFS) rates were 37% and 61%, respectively (P = .003), and OS rates were 40% and 67%, respectively (P = .001). Among all patient and HCT characteristics in multivariable analyses, receipt of a total dose of ATG >450 mg was associated with an increased risk of NRM (hazard ratio [HR], 2.9; P = .01), shorter DFS (HR, 2.0; P = .03), and inferior OS (HR, 2.1; P = .01). In summary, the use of weight-based ATG at a time of relative lymphopenia before ex vivo CD34-selected allo-HCT results in overdosing in heavier patients, leading to higher NRM and lower DFS and OS. Further pharmacokinetic investigation in this setting is critical to determining the optimal dosing strategy for ATG.

5.
Am J Transplant ; 19(6): 1798-1805, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586230

RESUMO

We report data obtained from a retrospective multicenter pediatric survey on behalf of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT). Information on solid organ transplantation (SOT) performed in pediatric recipients of either autologous or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) between 1984 and 2016 was collected in 20 pediatric EBMT Centers (25.6%). Overall, we evaluated data on 44 SOTs following HSCT including 20 liver (LTx), 12 lung (LuTx), 6 heart (HTx), and 6 kidney (KTx) transplantations. The indication for SOT was organ failure related to intractable graft-vs-host disease in 16 children (36.3%), acute or chronic HSCT-related toxicity in 18 (40.9%), and organ dysfunction related to the underlying disease in 10 (22.8%). The median follow-up was 10.9 years (95% confidence interval: 1.7-29.5). The overall survival rate at 1 and 5 years after SOT was 85.7% and 80.4%, respectively: it was 74% and 63.2% after LTx, 83.2% after HTx, and 100% equally after LuTx and KTx. This multicenter survey confirms that SOT represents a promising option in children with severe organ failure occurring after HSCT. Additional studies are needed to further establish the effectiveness of SOT after HSCT and to better understand the mechanism underlying this encouraging success.

6.
Oncotarget ; 9(86): 35611-35622, 2018 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30479692

RESUMO

Incubation of umbilical cord blood (UCB) derived regulatory T-cells (Tregs) with fucosyltransferase enzyme improves their ability to home to the target tissue to prevent graft vs. host disease (GVHD). We report results of 5 patients (Double UCB Transplant, n=2; Peripheral Blood Matched Unrelated Donor Transplant, n=3) who received UCB-Tregs (Dose level = 1×106/kg), infused one day prior to the donor graft. All patients received their designated UCB-Treg dose without any infusion reaction. The ratio of conventional T-cells in donor graft was at least 10 times higher than infused UCB-Tregs (ratio range, 12-356). All patients engrafted at median of 13 days (range, 8-17 days). One patient died due to brain hemorrhage on day 45. A bi-modal increase of plasma IL-10 level occurred on day 7 and day 21 and notably, plasma IL-2 level dropped significantly in all patients at Day 7. All evaluable patients developed ≥grade II acute GVHD and at 1 year follow up, all were alive and without evidence of disease relapse. No increase in the chronic GVHD biomarkers (REG3a and Elafin) was observed at day 7. At the time of last follow up, all evaluable patients were off immune-suppression. Stage 2 of this clinical trial examining UCB-Treg at dose level= 1×107/kg is currently underway.

8.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 24(9): 1808-1813, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29906569

RESUMO

Although disease progression in mucopolysaccharidosis type I (MPS-I) can be attenuated by hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), it is increasingly recognized that residual disease is substantial. Biomarkers that would allow us to evaluate the efficacy of HCT (and upcoming new therapies) in nonhematologic tissues are needed. Current biomarkers, including the iduronidase (IDUA) activity in leukocytes, are not suitable for this purpose because they are assessed in tissues of hematologic origin and may not reflect enzyme availability in nonhematologic tissues. Saliva is a nonhematologic body fluid that can be collected easily and noninvasively. We hypothesized that the extent of recovery of IDUA activity in saliva after HCT could provide a better understanding of the penetration of donor-derived enzyme into nonhematologic compartments. This study in 20 patients with MPS-I shows that the measurement of IDUA activity in saliva is possible and allows diagnosis of IDUA deficiency (P < .0001), with values a magnitude further deviating from the normal range than when assayed in corresponding dried blood spots (DBSs). Furthermore, it could possibly differentiate between phenotypes (P = .045). More importantly, patients exhibit strikingly low values of IDUA in saliva after HCT, far below the normal range of control subjects (P = .013), contrasting the normal IDUA levels in DBSs. We postulate that the limited recovery of donor-derived IDUA activity in saliva after treatment reflects the situation in poorly responding nonhematologic tissue compartments, unveiling enzyme delivery as a weak spot of the current therapy. Salivary IDUA activity could be used as a biomarker for the evaluation of the effect of new therapies in well-vascularized nonhematologic tissues.

9.
Cell Rep ; 23(13): 3946-3959.e6, 2018 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29949776

RESUMO

Destruction of cancer cells by therapeutic antibodies occurs, at least in part, through antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC), and this can be mediated by various Fc-receptor-expressing immune cells, including neutrophils. However, the mechanism(s) by which neutrophils kill antibody-opsonized cancer cells has not been established. Here, we demonstrate that neutrophils can exert a mode of destruction of cancer cells, which involves antibody-mediated trogocytosis by neutrophils. Intimately associated with this is an active mechanical disruption of the cancer cell plasma membrane, leading to a lytic (i.e., necrotic) type of cancer cell death. Furthermore, this mode of destruction of antibody-opsonized cancer cells by neutrophils is potentiated by CD47-SIRPα checkpoint blockade. Collectively, these findings show that neutrophil ADCC toward cancer cells occurs by a mechanism of cytotoxicity called trogoptosis, which can be further improved by targeting CD47-SIRPα interactions.

10.
Blood Adv ; 2(11): 1198-1206, 2018 Jun 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29844205

RESUMO

Busulfan combined with cyclophosphamide (BuCy) has long been considered a standard myeloablative conditioning regimen for allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), including both nonmalignant conditions and myeloid diseases. Substituting fludarabine for cyclophosphamide (BuFlu) to reduce toxicity without an increase in relapse has been increasingly performed in children, but without comparison with BuCy. We retrospectively analyzed 1781 children transplanted from 2008 to 2014 to compare the effectiveness of BuCy with BuFlu. Nonmalignant and malignant disease populations were analyzed separately. Overall mortality was comparable for children with nonmalignant conditions who received BuFlu or BuCy (relative risk [RR], 1.14, P = .52). Lower incidences of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (P = .04), hemorrhagic cystitis (P = .04), and chronic graft-versus-host disease (P = .02) were observed after BuFlu, but the influence of the conditioning regimen could not be assessed by multivariate analysis because of the low frequency of these complications. Children transplanted for malignancies were more likely to receive BuFlu if they had higher hematopoietic cell transplantation-comorbidity index scores (P < .001) or their donor was unrelated and HLA-mismatched (P = .004). Nevertheless, there were no differences in transplant toxicities and comparable transplant-related mortality (RR, 1.2; P = .46), relapse (RR, 1.2; P = .15), and treatment failure (RR, 1.2; P = .12). BuFlu was associated with higher overall mortality (RR, 1.4; P = .008) related to inferior postrelapse survival (P = .001). Our findings demonstrated that outcomes after BuFlu are similar to those for BuCy for children, but for unclear reasons, those receiving BuFlu for malignancy may be at risk for shorter postrelapse survival.

11.
12.
Oncotarget ; 8(53): 90852-90867, 2017 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29207608

RESUMO

Busulfan (BU) dose adjustment following therapeutic drug monitoring contributes to better outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Further improvement could be achieved through genotype-guided BU dose adjustments. To investigate this aspect, polymorphism within glutathione S transferase genes were assessed. Particularly, promoter haplotypes of the glutathione S transferase A1 (GSTA1) were evaluated in vitro, with reporter gene assays and clinically, in a pediatric multi-center study (N =138) through association with BU pharmacokinetics (PK) and clinical outcomes. Promoter activity significantly differed between the GSTA1 haplotypes (p<0.001) supporting their importance in capturing PK variability. Four GSTA1 diplotype groups that significantly correlated with clearance (p=0.009) were distinguished. Diplotypes underlying fast and slow metabolizing capacity showed higher and lower BU clearance (ml/min/kg), respectively. GSTA1 diplotypes with slow metabolizing capacity were associated with higher incidence of sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, acute graft versus host disease and combined treatment-related toxicity (p<0.0005). Among other GST genes investigated, GSTP1 313GG correlated with acute graft versus host disease grade 1-4 (p=0.01) and GSTM1 non-null genotype was associated with hemorrhagic cystitis (p=0.003). This study further strengthens the hypothesis that GST diplotypes/genotypes could be incorporated into already existing population pharmacokinetic models for improving first BU dose prediction and HSCT outcomes. (No Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01257854. Registered 8 December 2010, retrospectively registered).

13.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 23(12): 2178-2183, 2017 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28882446

RESUMO

Mixed donor chimerism after hematopoietic cell transplantation for sickle cell disease (SCD) can result in resolution of disease symptoms, but symptoms recur when donor chimerism is critically low. The relationship between chimerism, hemoglobin S (HbS) level, and symptomatic disease was correlated retrospectively in 95 patients who had chimerism reports available at day 100 and at 1 and 2 years after transplantation. Recurrent disease was defined as recurrence of vaso-occlusive crises, acute chest syndrome, stroke, and/or HbS levels > 50%. Thirty-five patients maintained full donor chimerism (myeloid or whole blood) through 2 years. Donor chimerism was less than 10% (defined as graft failure) in 13 patients during this period. Mixed chimerism was reported in the remaining 47 patients (range, 10% to 94%). The lowest documented donor chimerism without symptomatic disease was 26%. Of 12 surviving patients with recurrent disease, 2 had recurrence of symptoms before documented graft failure (donor chimerism of 11% and 17%, respectively). Three patients underwent second transplantation for graft failure. None received donor leukocyte infusion to maintain mixed chimerism or prevent graft failure. We conclude stable donor chimerism greater than 25% is associated with resolution of SCD-related symptoms, and HbS levels in transplant recipients should be interpreted in context of the sickle trait status of the donors.


Assuntos
Anemia Falciforme/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Quimeras de Transplante , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Anemia Falciforme/patologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Rejeição de Enxerto , Hemoglobina Falciforme/análise , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Recidiva , Doadores de Tecidos , Adulto Jovem
14.
Lancet Haematol ; 4(7): e325-e333, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28623181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The standard for selecting unrelated umbilical cord blood units for transplantation for non-malignant diseases relies on antigen-level (lower resolution) HLA typing for HLA-A and HLA-B, and allele-level for HLA-DRB1. We aimed to study the effects of allele-level matching at a higher resolution-HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, and HLA-DRB1, which is the standard used for adult unrelated volunteer donor transplantation for non-malignant diseases-for umbilical cord blood transplantation. METHODS: We retrospectively studied 1199 paediatric donor-recipient pairs with allele-level HLA matching who received a single unit umbilical cord blood transplantation for non-malignant diseases reported to the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research or Eurocord and European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplant. Transplantations occurred between Jan 1, 2000, and Dec 31, 2012. The primary outcome was overall survival. The effect of HLA matching on survival was studied using a Cox regression model. FINDINGS: Compared with HLA-matched transplantations, mortality was higher with transplantations mismatched at two (hazard ratio [HR] 1·55, 95% CI 1·08-2·21, p=0·018), three (2·04, 1·44-2·89, p=0·0001), and four or more alleles (3·15, 2·16-4·58, p<0·0001). There were no significant differences in mortality between transplantations that were matched and mismatched at one allele (HR 1·18, 95% CI 0·80-1·72, p=0·39). Other factors associated with higher mortality included recipient cytomegalovirus seropositivity (HR 1·40, 95% CI 1·13-1·74, p=0·0020), reduced intensity compared with myeloablative conditioning regimens (HR 1·36, 1·10-1·68, p=0·0041), transplantation of units with total nucleated cell dose of more than 21 × 107 cells per kg compared with 21 × 107 cells per kg or less (HR 1·47, 1·11-1·95, p=0·0076), and transplantations done in 2000-05 compared with those done in 2006-12 (HR 1·64, 1·31-2·04, p<0·0001). The 5-year overall survival adjusted for recipient cytomegalovirus serostatus, conditioning regimen intensity, total nucleated cell dose, and transplantation period was 79% (95% CI 74-85) after HLA matched, 76% (71-81) after one allele mismatched, 70% (65-75) after two alleles mismatched, 62% (57-68) after three alleles mismatched, and 49% (41-57) after four or more alleles mismatched transplantations. Graft failure was the predominant cause of mortality. INTERPRETATION: These data support a change from current practice in that selection of unrelated umbilical cord blood units for transplantation for non-malignant diseases should consider allele-level HLA matching at HLA-A, HLA-B, HLA-C, and HLA-DRB1. FUNDING: National Cancer Institute; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Diseases; US Department of Health and Human Services-Health Resources and Services Administration; and US Department of Navy.


Assuntos
Alelos , Sangue Fetal/transplante , Teste de Histocompatibilidade/métodos , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Resultado do Tratamento
15.
Lancet Haematol ; 4(4): e183-e191, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28330607

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) is used to prevent graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) after allogeneic haemopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). However, ATG can also cause delayed immune reconstitution of T cells, negatively affecting survival. We studied the relation between exposure to ATG and clinical outcomes in adult patients with acute leukaemia and myelodysplastic syndrome. METHODS: We did a retrospective, pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic analysis of data from patients with acute lymphoid leukaemia, acute myeloid leukaemia, or myelodysplastic syndrome receiving their first T-cell repleted allogeneic peripheral blood stem cell HCT with ATG (thymoglobulin) as part of non-myeloablative conditioning from March 1, 2004, to June 1, 2015. Patients received a cumulative intravenous dose of 8 mg/kg divided over 4 days, starting on day -8 before HCT. Active ATG concentrations were measured using a validated bioassay and pharmacokinetic exposure measures (maximum concentration, concentration at time of infusion of the graft, time to reach a concentration of 1 arbitary unit [AU] per day/mL, area under the curve [AUC], and the AUC before and after HCT) were calculated with a validated population pharmacokinetic model. The main outcome of interest was 5-year overall survival, defined as days to death from any cause or last follow-up. Other outcomes were relapse-related mortality, non-relapse mortality, event-free survival, acute and chronic GvHD, and assessment of current and optimum dosing. We used Cox proportional hazard models and Fine-Gray competing risk models for the analyses. FINDINGS: 146 patients were included. ATG exposure after HCT was shown to be the best predictor for 5-year overall survival. Optimum exposure after transplantation was determined to be 60-95 AU per day/mL. Estimated 5-year overall survival in the group who had optimum exposure (69%, 95% CI 55-86) was significantly higher than in the group who had below optimum exposure (32%, 20-51, p=0·00037; hazard ratio [HR] 2·41, 95% CI 1·15-5·06, p=0·020) and above optimum exposure (48%, 37-62, p=0·030; HR 2·11, 95% CI 1·04-4·27, p=0·038). Patients in the optimum exposure group had a greater chance of event-free survival than those in the below optimum exposure group (HR 2·54, 95% CI 1·29-5·00, p=0·007; HR for the above optimum group: 1·83, 0·97-3·47, p=0·063). Above-optimum exposure led to higher relapse-related mortality compared with optimum exposure (HR 2·66, 95% CI 1·12-6·31; p=0·027). Below optimum exposure increased non-relapse mortality compared with optimum exposure (HR 4·36, 95% CI 1·60-11·88; p=0·0040), grade 3-4 acute GvHD (3·09, 1·12-8·53; p=0·029), but not chronic GvHD (2·38, 0·93-6·08; p=0·070). Modelled dosing based on absolute lymphocyte counts led to higher optimum target attainment than did weight-based dosing. INTERPRETATION: Exposure to ATG affects survival after HCT in adults, stressing the importance of optimum ATG dosing. Individualised dosing of ATG, based on lymphocyte counts rather than bodyweight, might improve survival chances after HCT. FUNDING: Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development and Queen Wilhelma Fund for Cancer Research.


Assuntos
Soro Antilinfocitário/uso terapêutico , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Síndromes Mielodisplásicas/terapia , Adulto , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/etiologia , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
16.
Neurology ; 87(1): 103-11, 2016 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27261095

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess frequency of gallbladder polyposis and carcinoma in metachromatic leukodystrophy (MLD). METHODS: We evaluated 34 patients with MLD (average age 16.7 years, age range 2-39 years) screened for gallbladder abnormalities by ultrasound. In the case of cholecystectomy, findings at pathology were reviewed. RESULTS: Only 8 of 34 patients (23%) had a normal gallbladder at ultrasound. Gallbladder polyps were visible in 8 patients (23%). Cholecystectomy was performed in 11 patients (32%). In these, pathology revealed various abnormalities, including hyperplastic polyps, intestinal metaplasia, prominent Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses, and sulfatide storage. CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate that gallbladder involvement is the rule rather than the exception in MLD. The high prevalence of hyperplastic polyps, a known precancerous condition, and one death from gallbladder carcinoma at a young age suggest that MLD predisposes to neoplastic gallbladder abnormalities. As novel therapies for this patient group are emerging leading to increased life expectancy, we recommend screening for gallbladder abnormalities by ultrasound in order to prevent early death.


Assuntos
Doenças da Vesícula Biliar/complicações , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/complicações , Vesícula Biliar/diagnóstico por imagem , Leucodistrofia Metacromática/complicações , Pólipos/complicações , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/complicações , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Colecistectomia , Feminino , Vesícula Biliar/patologia , Vesícula Biliar/cirurgia , Doenças da Vesícula Biliar/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias da Vesícula Biliar/diagnóstico por imagem , Humanos , Hiperplasia , Leucodistrofia Metacromática/diagnóstico por imagem , Leucodistrofia Metacromática/genética , Leucodistrofia Metacromática/cirurgia , Masculino , Pólipos/diagnóstico por imagem , Pólipos/patologia , Pólipos/cirurgia , Lesões Pré-Cancerosas/diagnóstico por imagem , Ultrassonografia , Adulto Jovem
18.
Lancet Haematol ; 2(5): e194-203, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26688094

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Anti-thymocyte globulin (ATG) was introduced into the conditioning regimen in haemopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) to prevent graft-versus-host-disease (GvHD) and graft failure. However, ATG can also cause delayed immune reconstitution of donor T cells. We studied the relation between exposure to active ATG and clinical outcomes in children. METHODS: In this retrospective analysis, all patients (age 0·2-23 years) receiving their first HCT between April 1, 2004, and April 1, 2012, who received ATG (thymoglobulin) in two Dutch paediatric HCT programmes were included. The cumulative dose of ATG was chosen according to local protocols and was given intravenously over 4 days consecutively. ATG exposure measures (maximum concentration, concentration at time of HCT, clearance, days to reach a concentration below the lympholytic concentration of one arbitrary unit [AU] per mL, total area under the curve [AUC], AUC before HCT, and AUC after HCT) were calculated using a validated population pharmacokinetic model. The main outcome of interest was immune reconstitution (defined as CD4+ T cells >0·05 × 10(9) cells per L in two consecutive measurements within 100 days). Other outcomes of interest were survival, acute and chronic GvHD, and graft failure. We used Cox proportional hazard models, logistic regression models, and Fine-Gray competing risk regressions for analyses. FINDINGS: 251 patients were included. The chance of successful immune reconstitution decreased as the ATG AUC after HCT increased (odds ratio 0·991, 95% CI 0·987-0·996; p<0·0001). Within the cord blood group, we noted decreased immune reconstitution above the lowest AUC quartile (≥ 20 AU × day/mL; p=0·0024), whereas in the bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell group, decreased immune reconstitution was noted only in the highest quartile (≥ 100 AU × day/mL; p=0·0024). Successful immune reconstitution by day 100 was associated with increased overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] 0·49, 95% CI 0·29-0·81; p=0·0047) caused by reduced non-relapse mortality (0·40, 0·21-0·77; p=0·0062), and relapse-related mortality in myeloid leukaemia (0·25, 0·08-0·76; p=0·015). An AUC before transplantation of at least 40 AU × day/mL resulted in a lower incidence of acute GvHD (grade 2-4 HR 0·979, 95% CI 0·963-0·994; p=0·0081; and grade 3-4 0·975, 0·952-0·998; p=0·033), chronic GvHD (0·983, 0·968-0·998; p=0·029), and graft failure (0·981, 0·965-0·997; p=0·020) compared with an AUC of less than 40 AU × day/mL. INTERPRETATION: These results stress the importance of improving the efficacy and safety of ATG in HCT by amending dosage and timing. Individualised dosing and timing of ATG to aim for optimum exposure before and after HCT could result in improved outcomes after paediatric HCT. FUNDING: Dutch Organization for Scientific Research.


Assuntos
Soro Antilinfocitário/uso terapêutico , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos/citologia , Neoplasias Hematológicas/terapia , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Condicionamento Pré-Transplante , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Doença Enxerto-Hospedeiro/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Transplante Homólogo , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
19.
Brain ; 138(Pt 10): 2847-58, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26264513

RESUMO

Haematopoietic stem cell transplantation has been proposed as treatment for mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy, a rare fatal autosomal recessive disease due to TYMP mutations that result in thymidine phosphorylase deficiency. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all known patients suffering from mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy who underwent allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation between 2005 and 2011. Twenty-four patients, 11 males and 13 females, median age 25 years (range 10-41 years) treated with haematopoietic stem cell transplantation from related (n = 9) or unrelated donors (n = 15) in 15 institutions worldwide were analysed for outcome and its associated factors. Overall, 9 of 24 patients (37.5%) were alive at last follow-up with a median follow-up of these surviving patients of 1430 days. Deaths were attributed to transplant in nine (including two after a second transplant due to graft failure), and to mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy in six patients. Thymidine phosphorylase activity rose from undetectable to normal levels (median 697 nmol/h/mg protein, range 262-1285) in all survivors. Seven patients (29%) who were engrafted and living more than 2 years after transplantation, showed improvement of body mass index, gastrointestinal manifestations, and peripheral neuropathy. Univariate statistical analysis demonstrated that survival was associated with two defined pre-transplant characteristics: human leukocyte antigen match (10/10 versus <10/10) and disease characteristics (liver disease, history of gastrointestinal pseudo-obstruction or both). Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation can restore thymidine phosphorylase enzyme function in patients with mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy and improve clinical manifestations of mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalomyopathy in the long term. Allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation should be considered for selected patients with an optimal donor.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/métodos , Pseudo-Obstrução Intestinal/cirurgia , Encefalomiopatias Mitocondriais/cirurgia , Resultado do Tratamento , Adolescente , Adulto , Peso Corporal , Encéfalo/patologia , Criança , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Condução Nervosa/fisiologia , Exame Neurológico , Neutrófilos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Análise de Sobrevida , Timidina Fosforilase/metabolismo , Transplante Homólogo/métodos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 21(9): 1622-6, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26071867

RESUMO

Pulmonary complications are an important cause for treatment-related morbidity and mortality in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) in children. The aim of this study was to investigate the yield of our pre-HCT pulmonary screening program. We also describe our management guidelines based on these findings and correlate them with symptomatic lung injury after HCT. Since 2008, all patients undergo a dedicated pulmonary screening consisting of pulmonary function test (PFT), chest high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT), and bronchial alveolar lavage (BAL) before HCT. We systematically evaluated the yield during the first 5 years of our screening program. We included 142 consecutive children. In 74% of patients, abnormalities were found. In 66% of patients, 1 or more PFT results were <80% of normal. Chest HRCT showed abnormalities in 55%; 19% of these abnormalities were considered "clinically significant." BAL was abnormal in 43% of patients; respiratory viruses (PCR) were found in 35 patients, fungi (antigen or culture) in 21, and bacteria (culture) in 22. All 3 screening tests contributed separately to clinically relevant information regarding pulmonary status in these pre-HCT children. In 46 patients (33%), screening results had diagnostic and/or therapeutic implications. We found an association between pre-SCT HRCT findings and lung injury after transplantation. Pre-HCT screening with the combination of 3 modalities, reflecting different domains of respiratory status (function, structure, and microbial colonization), reveals important abnormalities in a substantial number of patients. Whether this improves patient outcome requires further investigation.


Assuntos
Lavagem Broncoalveolar , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Lesão Pulmonar , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Lesão Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagem , Lesão Pulmonar/metabolismo , Masculino , Testes de Função Respiratória
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