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2.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(Suppl 1): 196, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511088

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Achievement of successful health outcomes depends on evidence-based programming and implementation of effective health interventions. Routine Health Management Information System is one of the most valuable data sets to support evidence-based programming, however, evidence on systemic use of routine monitoring data for problem-solving and improving health outcomes remain negligible. We attempt to understand the effects of systematic evidence-based review mechanism on improving health outcomes in Uttar Pradesh, India. METHODS: Data comes from decision-tracking system and routine health management information system for period Nov-2017 to Mar-2019 covering 6963 health facilities across 25 high-priority districts of the state. Decision-tracking data captured pattern of decisions taken, actions planned and completed, while the latter one provided information on service coverage outcomes over time. Three service coverage indicators, namely, pregnant women receiving 4 or more times ANC and haemoglobin testing during pregnancy, delivered at the health facility, and receive post-partum care within 48 h of delivery were used as outcomes. Univariate and bivariate analyses were conducted. RESULTS: Total 412 decisions were taken during the study reference period and a majority were related to ante-natal care services (31%) followed by delivery (16%) and post-natal services (16%). About 21% decisions-taken were focused on improving data quality. By 1 year, 67% of actions planned based on these decisions were completed, 26% were in progress, and the remaining 7% were not completed. We found that, over a year, districts witnessing > 20 percentage-point increase in outcomes were also the districts with significantly higher action completion rates (> 80%) compared to the districts with < 10 percentage-point increase in outcomes having completion of action plans around 50-70%. CONCLUSIONS: Findings revealed a significantly higher improvement in coverage outcomes among the districts which used routine health management data to conduct monthly review meetings and had high actions completion rates. A data-based review-mechanisms could specifically identify programmatic gaps in service delivery leading to strategic decision making by district authorities to bridge the programmatic gaps. Going forward, establishing systematic evidence-based review platforms can be an important strategy to improve health outcomes and promote the use of routine health monitoring system data in any setting.


Assuntos
Sistemas de Informação Administrativa , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Feminino , Programas Governamentais , Humanos , Índia , Assistência Médica , Gravidez
3.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(Suppl 1): 691, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511083

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Recording and reporting health data in facilities is the backbone of routine health information systems which provide data collected by health facility workers during service provision. Data is firstly collected in a register, to record patient health data and care process, and tallied into nationally designed reporting forms. While there is anecdotal evidence of large numbers of registers and reporting forms for primary health care (PHC) facilities, there are few systematic studies to document this potential burden on health workers. This multi-country study aimed to document the numbers of registers and reporting forms use at the PHC level and to estimate the time it requires for health workers to meet data demands. METHODS: In Cambodia, Ghana, Mozambique, Nigeria and Tanzania, a desk review was conducted to document registers and reporting forms mandated at the PHC level. In each country, visits to 16 randomly selected public PHC facilities followed to assess the time spent on paper-based recording and reporting. Information was collected through self-reports of estimated time use by health workers, and observation of 1360 provider-patient interactions. Data was primarily collected in outpatient care (OPD), antenatal care (ANC), immunization (EPI), family planning (FP), HIV and Tuberculosis (TB) services. RESULT: Cross-countries, the average number of registers was 34 (ranging between 16 and 48). Of those, 77% were verified in use and each register line had at least 20 cells to be completed per patient. The mean time spent on recording was about one-third the total consultation time for OPD, FP, ANC and EPI services combined. Cross-countries, the average number of monthly reporting forms was 35 (ranging between 19 and 52) of which 78% were verified in use. The estimated time to complete monthly reporting forms was 9 h (ranging between 4 to 15 h) per month per health worker. CONCLUSIONS: PHC facilities are mandated to use many registers and reporting forms pausing a considerable burden to health workers. Service delivery systems are expected to vary, however an imperative need remains to invest in international standards of facility-based registers and reporting forms, to ensure regular, comparable, quality-driven facility data collection and use.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Pessoal de Saúde , Instituições de Assistência Ambulatorial , Coleta de Dados , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Gravidez , Atenção Primária à Saúde
4.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(Suppl 1): 195, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In conflict-affected settings, data on reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health (RMNCH) are often lacking for priority setting and timely decision-making. We aimed to describe the levels and trends in RMNCH indicators within Kivu provinces between 2015 and 2018, by linking conflict data with health facility (HF) data from the District Health Information System 2 (DHIS2). METHODS: We used data from the DHIS2 for the period 2015-2018, the 2014 Demographic and Health Survey, the 2018 Multiple Indicators Cluster Survey and the Uppsala Conflict Data Program. Health zones were categorised in low, moderate and high conflict intensity level, based on an annual conflict death rate. We additionally defined a monthly conflict death rate and a conflict event-days rate as measures of conflict intensity and insecurity. Outcomes were completion of four antenatal care visits, health facility deliveries, caesarean sections and pentavalent vaccine coverage. We assessed data quality and analyzed coverage and trends in RMNCH indicators graphically, by conflict categories and using HF data aggregated annually. We used a series of fixed-effect regression models to examine the potential dose-response effect of varying conflict intensity and insecurity on RMNCH. RESULTS: The overall HF reporting was good, ranging between 83.3 and 93.2% and tending to be lower in health zones with high conflict intensity in 2016 and 2017 before converging in 2018. Despite the increasing number of conflict-affected health zones over time, more in North-Kivu than in South-Kivu, we could not identify any clear pattern of variation in RMNCH coverage both by conflict intensity and insecurity. North-Kivu province had consistently reported better RMNCH indicators than South-Kivu, despite being more affected by conflict. The Kivu as a whole recorded higher coverage than the national level. Coverage of RMNCH services calculated from HF data was consistent with population-based surveys, despite year-to-year fluctuation among health zones and across conflict-intensity categories. CONCLUSIONS: Although good in general, the HF reporting rate in the Kivu was negatively impacted by conflict intensity especially at the beginning of the DHIS2's rolling-up. Routine HF data appeared useful for assessing and monitoring trends in RMNCH service coverage, including in areas with high-intensity conflict.


Assuntos
Saúde da Criança , Serviços de Saúde Reprodutiva , Conflitos Armados , Criança , República Democrática do Congo , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Saúde Materna , Gravidez
5.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(Suppl 1): 512, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511080

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Routine health facility data are a critical source of local monitoring of progress and performance at the subnational level. Uganda has been using district health statistics from facility data for many years. We aimed to systematically assess data quality and examine different methods to obtain plausible subnational estimates of coverage for maternal, newborn and child health interventions. METHODS: Annual data from the Uganda routine health facility information system 2015-2019 for all 135 districts were used, as well as national surveys for external comparison and the identification of near-universal coverage interventions. The quality of reported data on antenatal and delivery care and child immunization was assessed through completeness of facility reporting, presence of extreme outliers and internal data consistencies. Adjustments were made when necessary. The denominators for the coverage indicators were derived from population projections and health facility data on near-universal coverage interventions. The coverage results with different denominators were compared with the results from household surveys. RESULTS: Uganda's completeness of reporting by facilities was near 100% and extreme outliers were rare. Inconsistencies in reported events, measured by annual fluctuations and between intervention consistency, were common and more among the 135 districts than the 15 subregions. The reported numbers of vaccinations were improbably high compared to the projected population of births or first antenatal visits - and especially so in 2015-2016. There were also inconsistencies between the population projections and the expected target population based on reported numbers of antenatal visits or immunizations. An alternative approach with denominators derived from facility data gave results that were more plausible and more consistent with survey results than based on population projections, although inconsistent results remained for substantive number of subregions and districts. CONCLUSION: Our systematic assessment of the quality of routine reports of key events and denominators shows that computation of district health statistics is possible with transparent adjustments and methods, providing a general idea of levels and trends for most districts and subregions, but that improvements in data quality are essential to obtain more accurate monitoring.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde da Criança , Serviços de Saúde Materna , Criança , Saúde da Criança , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Uganda/epidemiologia
6.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(Suppl 1): 194, 2021 Sep 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511085

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: South Africa is committed to advancing universal health coverage (UHC). The usefulness and potential of using routine health facility data for monitoring progress towards UHC, in the form of the 16-tracer WHO service coverage index (SCI), was assessed. METHODS: Alternative approaches to calculating the WHO SCI from routine data, allowing for disaggregation to district level, were explored. Data extraction, coding, transformation and modelling processes were applied to generate time series for these alternatives. Equity was assessed using socio-economic quintiles by district. RESULTS: The UHC SCI at a national level was 46.1 in 2007-2008 and 56.9 in 2016-2017. Only for the latter period, could the index be calculated for all indicators at a district level. Alternative indicators were formulated for 9 of 16 tracers in the index. Routine or repeated survey data could be used for 14 tracers. Apart from the NCD indicators, a gradient of poorer performance in the most deprived districts was evident in 2016-2017. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to construct the UHC SCI for South Africa from predominantly routine data sources. Overall, there is evidence from district level data of a trend towards reduced inequity in relation to specific categories (notably RMNCH). Progress towards UHC has the potential to overcome fragmentation and enable harmonisation and interoperability of information systems. Private sector reporting of data into routine information systems should be encouraged.


Assuntos
Serviços de Saúde , Cobertura Universal do Seguro de Saúde , Humanos , Setor Privado , África do Sul/epidemiologia
7.
SSM Popul Health ; 15: 100888, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34430700

RESUMO

Studies of inequalities in child health have given limited attention to household structure and headship. The few existing reports on child outcomes in male and female-headed households have produced inconsistent results. The aim of our analyses was to provide a global view of the influence of sex of the household head on child health in cross-sectional surveys from up to 95 LMICs. Studied outcomes were full immunization coverage in children aged 12-23 months and stunting prevalence in under-five children. We analyzed the most recent nationally-representative surveys for each country (since 2010) with available data. After initial exploratory analyses, we focused on three types of households: a) male-headed household (MHH) comprised 73.1% of all households in the pooled analyses; b) female Headed Household (FHH) with at least one adult male represented 9.8% of households; and c) FHH without an adult male accounted for 15.0% of households. Our analyses also included the following covariates: wealth index, education of the child's mother and urban/rural residence. Meta-analytic approaches were used to calculate pooled effects across the countries with MHH as the reference category. Regarding full immunization, the pooled prevalence ratio for FHH (any male) was 0.99 (0.97; 1.01) and that for FHH (no male) was 0.99 (0.97; 1.02). For stunting prevalence, the pooled prevalence ratio for FHH (any male) was 1.00 (0.98; 1.02) and for FHH (no male) was 1.00 (0.98; 1.02). Adjustment for covariates did not lead to any noteworthy change in the results. No particular patterns were found among different world regions. A few countries presented significant inequalities with different directions of association, indicating the diversity of FHH and how complex the meaning and measurement of household headship may be. Further research is warranted to understand context, examine mediating factors, and exploring alternative definitions of household headship in countries with some association.

8.
Reprod Health ; 18(Suppl 1): 120, 2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134720

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa HIV transmission is a major challenge in adolescents, especially among girls and those living in urban settings. Major international efforts have aimed at reducing sexual transmission of HIV. This analysis aims to assess the trends in HIV prevalence by gender in adolescents, as well as urban-rural disparities. METHODS: HIV prevalence data at ages 15-19 years were obtained for 31 countries with a national survey since 2010 and for 23 countries with one survey circa 2005 and a recent survey circa 2015. Country medians and average annual rates of changes were used to summarize the trends for two subregions in sub-Saharan Africa, Eastern and Southern Africa and West and Central Africa, which largely correspond with higher and lower HIV prevalence countries. Data on HIV incidence at ages 15-24 and prevalence at 5-9 and 10-14 years were reviewed from 11 recent national surveys. Trends in urban-rural disparities in HIV prevalence and selected indicators of sexual and HIV testing behaviours were assessed for females and males 15-24 years, using the same surveys. RESULTS: HIV prevalence among girls 15-19 years declined in eastern and Southern Africa from 5.7 to 2.6% during 2005-2015 (country median), corresponding with an average annual rate of reduction of 6.5% per year. Among boys, the median HIV prevalence declined from 2.1 to 1.2%. Changes were also observed in West and Central Africa where median HIV prevalence among girls decreased from 0.7 to 0.4% (average annual rate of reduction 5.9%), but not for boys (0.3%). Girl-boy differences at 10-14 years were small with a country median HIV of 1.0% and 1.3%, respectively. Urban females and males 15-24 had at least 1.5 times higher HIV prevalence than their rural counterparts in both subregions, and since the urban-rural declines were similar, the gaps persisted during 2005-2015. CONCLUSIONS: HIV prevalence among adolescents declined in almost all countries during the last decade, in both urban and rural settings. The urban-rural gap persisted and HIV transmission to girls, but not boys, is still a major challenge in Eastern and Southern African countries.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Características de Residência/estatística & dados numéricos , População Rural , População Urbana , Adolescente , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , África Austral , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Vigilância da População/métodos , Prevalência , Distribuição por Sexo , Adulto Jovem
9.
Reprod Health ; 18(Suppl 1): 121, 2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134746

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The annual collection of fertility, marriage, sexual behaviour, and contraceptive use data in the nationally representative rounds of Performance Monitoring and Accountability (PMA) surveys in sub-Saharan Africa may contribute to the periodic monitoring of adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH). However, we need to understand the reliability of these data in monitoring the ASRH indicators. We assessed the internal and external consistencies in ASRH indicators in five countries. METHODS: We included countries with at least three nationally representative rounds of PMA surveys and two recent DHS: Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, and Uganda. Our analysis focused on four current status indicators of ASRH among girls 15-19 years: ever had sex, currently married, has given birth or currently pregnant, and currently using modern contraceptives among sexually active unmarried girls. We compared the PMA survey and DHS data and tested for statistical significance and assessed trends over time using Jonckheere-Terpstra test statistic. RESULTS: PMA and DHS survey methodologies were similar and, where there were differences, these were shown to have minimal impact on the indicator values. The comparison of the data points from PMA and DHS for the same years showed statistically significant differences in 12 of the 20 comparisons, which was most common for sexual behaviour (4/5) and least for contraceptive use (2/5). This is partly due to larger confidence intervals in both surveys. The time trends were consistent between the annual PMA surveys in most instances in Ethiopia, Kenya, and Nigeria but less so for Ghana and Uganda. However, both surveys highlight slow progress in adolescent and reproductive health indicators with major disparities between the countries. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the differences between PMA 2020 surveys and DHS surveys conducted in the same year, and inconsistencies of the PMA survey time series for several indicators in some countries, we found no systematic issues with PMA surveys and consider PMA surveys a valuable data source for the assessment of levels and trends of ASRH beyond contraceptive use and family planning for indicators of fertility, marriage, and sex among adolescent girls in sub-Saharan Africa.


Assuntos
Saúde Reprodutiva , Comportamento Sexual , Saúde Sexual , Adolescente , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Gravidez , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Responsabilidade Social
10.
Reprod Health ; 18(Suppl 1): 117, 2021 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34134718

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Adolescent sexual and reproductive health (ASRH) is a major public health concern in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). However, inequalities in ASRH have received less attention than many other public health priority areas, in part due to limited data. In this study, we examine inequalities in key ASRH indicators. METHODS: We analyzed national household surveys from 37 countries in SSA, conducted during 1990-2018, to examine trends and inequalities in adolescent behaviors related to early marriage, childbearing and sexual debut among adolescents using data from respondents 15-24 years. Survival analyses were conducted on each survey to obtain estimates for the ASRH indicators. Multilevel linear regression modelling was used to obtain estimates for 2000 and 2015 in four subregions of SSA for all indicators, disaggregated by sex, age, household wealth, urban-rural residence and educational status (primary or less versus secondary or higher education). RESULTS: In 2015, 28% of adolescent girls in SSA were married before age 18, declined at an average annual rate of 1.5% during 2000-2015, while 47% of girls gave birth before age 20, declining at 0.6% per year. Child marriage was rare for boys (2.5%). About 54% and 43% of girls and boys, respectively, had their sexual debut before 18. The declines were greater for the indicators of early adolescence (10-14 years). Large differences in marriage and childbearing were observed between adolescent girls from rural versus urban areas and the poorest versus richest households, with much greater inequalities observed in West and Central Africa where the prevalence was highest. The urban-rural and wealth-related inequalities remained stagnant or widened during 2000-2015, as the decline was relatively slower among rural and the poorest compared to urban and the richest girls. The prevalence of the ASRH indicators did not decline or increase in either education categories. CONCLUSION: Early marriage, childbearing and sexual debut declined in SSA but the 2015 levels were still high, especially in Central and West Africa, and inequalities persisted or became larger. In particular, rural, less educated and poorest adolescent girls continued to face higher ASRH risks and vulnerabilities. Greater attention to disparities in ASRH is needed for better targeting of interventions and monitoring of progress.


Assuntos
Casamento/tendências , Comportamento Reprodutivo , Saúde Reprodutiva/tendências , Comportamento Sexual , Adolescente , Adulto , África ao Sul do Saara/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Casamento/etnologia , Comportamento Reprodutivo/etnologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Adulto Jovem
11.
Int Breastfeed J ; 16(1): 26, 2021 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33726797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Timely initiation of breastfeeding, also known as early initiation of breastfeeding, is a well-recognized life-saving intervention to reduce neonatal mortality. However, only one quarter of newborns in Uttar Pradesh, India were breastfed in the first hour of life. This paper aims to understand the association of community-based prenatal counselling and postnatal support at place of delivery with early initiation of breastfeeding in Uttar Pradesh, India. METHODS: Data from a cross-sectional survey of 9124 eligible women (who had a live birth in 59 days preceding the survey) conducted in 25 districts of Uttar Pradesh, India, in 2018, were used. Simple random sampling was used to randomly select 40 Community Development Blocks (sub district administrative units) in 25 districts. The Primary Sampling Units (PSUs), health service delivery unit for frontline workers, were selected randomly from a linelisting of PSUs in each selected Community Development Block. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the association of prenatal counselling and postnatal support on early initiation of breastfeeding in public, private and home deliveries. RESULTS: Overall 48.1% of mothers initiated breastfeeding within an hour, with major variation by place of delivery (61.2% public, 23.6% private and 32.6% home). The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) of early initiation of breastfeeding was highest among mothers who received both counselling and support (aOR 2.67; 95% CI 2.30, 3.11), followed by those who received only support (aOR 1.99; 95% CI 1.73, 2.28), and only counselling (aOR 1.40; 95% CI 1.18, 1.67) compared to mothers who received none. The odds of early initiation of breastfeeding was highest among mothers who received both prenatal counselling and postnatal support irrespective of delivery at public health facilities (aOR 2.49; 95% CI 2.07, 3.01), private health facilities (aOR 3.50; 95% CI 2.25, 5.44), or home (aOR 2.84; 95% CI 2.02, 3.98). CONCLUSIONS: A significant association of prenatal counselling and postnatal support immediately after birth on improving early initiation of breastfeeding, irrespective of place of delivery, indicates the importance of enhancing coverage of both the interventions through community and facility-based programs in Uttar Pradesh.

12.
Lancet ; 397(10273): 522-532, 2021 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503456

RESUMO

Women and children bear substantial morbidity and mortality as a result of armed conflicts. This Series paper focuses on the direct (due to violence) and indirect health effects of armed conflict on women and children (including adolescents) worldwide. We estimate that nearly 36 million children and 16 million women were displaced in 2017, on the basis of international databases of refugees and internally displaced populations. From geospatial analyses we estimate that the number of non-displaced women and children living dangerously close to armed conflict (within 50 km) increased from 185 million women and 250 million children in 2000, to 265 million women and 368 million children in 2017. Women's and children's mortality risk from non-violent causes increases substantially in response to nearby conflict, with more intense and more chronic conflicts leading to greater mortality increases. More than 10 million deaths in children younger than 5 years can be attributed to conflict between 1995 and 2015 globally. Women of reproductive ages living near high intensity conflicts have three times higher mortality than do women in peaceful settings. Current research provides fragmentary evidence about how armed conflict indirectly affects the survival chances of women and children through malnutrition, physical injuries, infectious diseases, poor mental health, and poor sexual and reproductive health, but major systematic evidence is sparse, hampering the design and implementation of essential interventions for mitigating the harms of armed conflicts.


Assuntos
Conflitos Armados/estatística & dados numéricos , Proteção da Criança , Refugiados/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde da Mulher , Adolescente , Causas de Morte/tendências , Criança , Doenças Transmissíveis , Feminino , Humanos , Desnutrição , Saúde Mental , Doenças não Transmissíveis , Saúde Reprodutiva , Ferimentos e Lesões
16.
Bull World Health Organ ; 98(6): 394-405, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32514213

RESUMO

Objective: To investigate whether sub-Saharan African countries have succeeded in reducing wealth-related inequalities in the coverage of reproductive, maternal, newborn and child health interventions. Methods: We analysed survey data from 36 countries, grouped into Central, East, Southern and West Africa subregions, in which at least two surveys had been conducted since 1995. We calculated the composite coverage index, a function of essential maternal and child health intervention parameters. We adopted the wealth index, divided into quintiles from poorest to wealthiest, to investigate wealth-related inequalities in coverage. We quantified trends with time by calculating average annual change in index using a least-squares weighted regression. We calculated population attributable risk to measure the contribution of wealth to the coverage index. Findings: We noted large differences between the four regions, with a median composite coverage index ranging from 50.8% for West Africa to 75.3% for Southern Africa. Wealth-related inequalities were prevalent in all subregions, and were highest for West Africa and lowest for Southern Africa. Absolute income was not a predictor of coverage, as we observed a higher coverage in Southern (around 70%) compared with Central and West (around 40%) subregions for the same income. Wealth-related inequalities in coverage were reduced by the greatest amount in Southern Africa, and we found no evidence of inequality reduction in Central Africa. Conclusion: Our data show that most countries in sub-Saharan Africa have succeeded in reducing wealth-related inequalities in the coverage of essential health services, even in the presence of conflict, economic hardship or political instability.


Assuntos
Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/economia , Serviços de Saúde Materno-Infantil/organização & administração , África , África ao Sul do Saara , Conflitos Armados , Humanos , Serviços de Saúde Materno-Infantil/economia , Política , Pobreza , Fatores de Tempo
17.
Confl Health ; 14: 29, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32514294

RESUMO

Globally, the number of people affected by conflict is the highest in history, and continues to steadily increase. There is currently a pressing need to better understand how to deliver critical health interventions to women and children affected by conflict. The compendium of articles presented in this Conflict and Health Collection brings together a range of case studies recently undertaken by the BRANCH Consortium (Bridging Research & Action in Conflict Settings for the Health of Women and Children). These case studies describe how humanitarian actors navigate and negotiate the multiple obstacles and forces that challenge the delivery of health and nutrition interventions for women, children and adolescents in conflict-affected settings, and to ultimately provide some insight into how service delivery can be improved.

18.
Confl Health ; 14: 31, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32514296

RESUMO

Background: Insecurity has characterized the Eastern regions of the Democratic Republic of Congo for decades. Providing health services to sustain women's and children's health during protracted conflict is challenging. This mixed-methods case study aimed to describe how reproductive, maternal, newborn, child, adolescent health and nutrition (RMNCAH+N) services have been offered in North and South Kivu since 2000 and how successful they were. Methods: We conducted a case study using a desk review of publicly available literature, secondary analysis of survey and health information system data, and primary qualitative interviews. The qualitative component provides insights on factors shaping RMNCAH+N design and implementation. We conducted 49 interviews with government officials, humanitarian agency staff and facility-based healthcare providers, and focus group discussions with community health workers in four health zones (Minova, Walungu, Ruanguba, Mweso). We applied framework analysis to investigate key themes across informants.The quantitative component used secondary data from nationwide surveys and the national health facility information system to estimate coverage of RMNCAH+N interventions at provincial and sub-provincial level. The association between insecurity on service provision was examined with random effects generalized least square models using health facility data from South Kivu. Results: Coverage of selected preventive RMNCAH+N interventions seems high in North and South Kivu, often higher than the national level. Health facility data show a small negative association of insecurity and preventive service coverage within provinces. However, health outcomes are poorer in conflict-affected territories than in stable ones. The main challenges to service provisions identified by study respondents are the availability and retention of skilled personnel, the lack of basic materials and equipment as well as the insufficient financial resources to ensure health workers' regular payment, medicaments' availability and facilities' running costs. Insecurity exacerbates pre-existing challenges, but do not seem to represent the main barrier to service provision in North and South Kivu. Conclusions: Provision of preventive schedulable RMNCAH+N services has continued during intermittent conflict in North and South Kivu. The prolonged effort by non-governmental organizations and UN agencies to respond to humanitarian needs was likely key in maintaining intervention coverage despite conflict. Health actors and communities appear to have adapted to changing levels and nature of insecurity and developed strategies to ensure preventive services are provided and accessed. However, emergency non-schedulable RMNCAH+N interventions do not appear to be readily accessible. Achieving the Sustainable Development Goals will require increased access to life-saving interventions, especially for newborn and pregnant women.

19.
Confl Health ; 14: 34, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32514299

RESUMO

Background: Decades of war left the Republic of South Sudan with a fragile health system that has remained deprived of resources since the country's independence. We describe the coverage of interventions for women's and children's health in Upper Nile and Unity states, and explore factors that affected service provision during a protracted conflict. Methods: We conducted a case study using a desk review of publicly available literature since 2013 and a secondary analysis of intervention coverage and conflict-related events from 2010 to 2017. During June through September 2018, we conducted 26 qualitative interviews with technical leads and 9 focus groups among health workers working in women and children's health in Juba, Malakal, and Bentiu. Results: Coverage for antenatal care, institutional delivery, and childhood vaccines were low prior to the escalation of conflict in 2013, and the limited data indicate that coverage remained low through 2017. Key factors that determined the delivery of services for women and children in our study sites were government leadership, coordination of development and humanitarian efforts, and human resource capacity. Participants felt that national and local health officials had a limited role in the delivery of services, and financial tracking data showed that funding stagnated or declined for humanitarian health and development programming during 2013-2014. Although health services were concentrated in camp settings, the availability of healthcare providers was negatively impacted by the protracted nature of the conflict and insecurity in the region. Conclusions: Health care for women and children should be prioritized during acute and protracted periods of conflict by strengthening surveillance systems, coordinating short and long term activities among humanitarian and development organizations, and building the capacity of national and local government officials to ensure sustainability.

20.
AIDS Res Ther ; 17(1): 17, 2020 05 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32410634

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Data on the survival status of older adults on antiretroviral treatment (ART) are scarce in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to determine the survival status of people aged 50 years and older who were HIV-negative, HIV-positive not on ART, and HIV-positive on ART. METHODS: We used three waves of data from the World Health Organisation Study on Global Ageing and adult health- Well Being of Older People Study cohort in Uganda, conducted in 2009, 2012-2013 and 2015-2016. The cohort included HIV-negative and HIV-positive persons aged 50 years and older recruited from multiple rural and peri-urban sites in Uganda. Data were collected using interviewer-administered questionnaire. Time-dependent ART data were collected from medical records using a data-abstraction form. This study was conducted before the universal test and treat policy came into effect. We fitted Cox survival models to estimate hazard ratios to compare the risk of death between groups, adjusted for age, sex, marital status and hypertension. RESULTS: Of 623 participants, 517 (82.9%) of respondents had follow-up data and were included in this analysis. We observed 1571 person-years of follow-up from 274 people who were HIV-negative, and 1252 from 243 who were HIV-positive. The estimated mortality adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) was 1.89 (95% CI 1.0-3.4; p = 0.04) among people living with HIV compared to HIV-negative people. The aHR for mortality among people receiving ART compared with HIV-negative people was 1.75 (95% CI 0.9-3.5). People who were HIV-positive and not receiving ART had the greatest risk of death (aHR = 2.09, 95% CI 1.0-4.4 compared with HIV negative participants). The aHR for HIV-positive people not receiving ART, compared to those who were on treatment, was 1.19 (95% CI 0.6-2.5). CONCLUSION: Older adults living with HIV on ART had a risk of mortality that was nearly twice as high as HIV-negative adults. Further analyses of longitudinal data should be done to understand factors that affect the survival of older adults on ART.

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