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1.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(9): e914, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31368241

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: RNA polymerase III (Pol III)-related leukodystrophies are a group of autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorders caused by mutations in POLR3A and POLR3B. Recently a recessive mutation in POLR1C causative of Pol III-related leukodystrophies was identified. METHODS: We report the case of a Tunisian girl of 14 years of age who was referred to our department for evaluation of progressive ataxia that began at the age of 5. Genetic diagnosis was performed by NGS and Sanger analysis. In silico predictions were performed using SIFT, PolyPhen-2, and Mutation Taster. RESULTS: Neurological examination showed cerebellar and tetrapyramidal syndrome, mixed movement disorders with generalized dystonia and severe myoclonus leading to death at 25 years. Brain MRI scans showed diffuse hypomyelination associated with cerebellar atrophy. It also showed bilateral T2 hypointensity of the ventrolateral thalamus, part of the posterior limb of the internal capsule, the substantia nigra and the subthalamic nucleus. Next generation sequencing leukodystrophy panel including POLR3A and POLR3B was negative. Sanger sequencing of the coding regions of POLR1C revealed a novel homozygous mutation. CONCLUSION: The clinical and imaging findings of patients with POLR1C hypomyelinating leukodystrophy are reviewed. Interestingly, severe myoclonic dystonia and T2 hypointensity of the substantia nigra and the subthalamic nucleus are not reported yet and could be helpful for the diagnosis of POLR1C hypomyelinating leukodystrophy.

2.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; 7(9): e839, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31393079

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The most common inherited peripheral neuropathy is Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), with a prevalence of 1/2500. Other symptoms can be associated to the condition, such as hearing loss. Currently, no global hearing impairment assessment has been determined, and the physiopathology is not well known. METHODS: The aim of the study was to analyze among a French series of 3,412 patients with inherited peripheral neuropathy (IPN), the ones who also suffer from hearing loss, to establish phenotype-genotype correlations. An NGS strategy for IPN one side and nonsyndromic hearing loss (NSHL) on the other side, were performed. RESULTS: Hearing loss (HL) was present in only 44 patients (1.30%). The clinical data of 27 patients were usable. Demyelinating neuropathy was diagnosed in 15 cases and axonal neuropathy in 12 cases. HL varied from mild to profound. Five cases of auditory neuropathy were noticed. Diagnosis was made for 60% of these patients. Seven novel pathogenic variants were discovered in five different genes: PRPS1; MPZ; SH3TC2; NEFL; and ABHD12. Two patients with PMP22 variant, had also an additional variant in COCH and MYH14 respectively. No pathogenic variant was found at the DFNB1 locus. Genotype-phenotype correlations do exist, especially with SH3TC2, PRPS1, ABHD12, NEFL, and TRPV4. CONCLUSION: Involvement of PMP22 is not enough to explain hearing loss in patients suffering from IPN. HL can be due to cochlear impairment and/or auditory nerve dysfunction. HL is certainly underdiagnosed, and should be evaluated in every patient suffering from IPN.

3.
Dev Med Child Neurol ; 61(12): 1439-1447, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410843

RESUMO

The aim of the study was to redefine the phenotype of Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome (AHDS), which is caused by mutations in the SLC16A2 gene that encodes the brain transporter of thyroid hormones. Clinical phenotypes, brain imaging, thyroid hormone profiles, and genetic data were compared to the existing literature. Twenty-four males aged 11 months to 29 years had a mutation in SLC16A2, including 12 novel mutations and five previously described mutations. Sixteen patients presented with profound developmental delay, three had severe intellectual disability with poor language and walking with an aid, four had moderate intellectual disability with language and walking abilities, and one had mild intellectual disability with hypotonia. Overall, eight had learned to walk, all had hypotonia, 17 had spasticity, 18 had dystonia, 12 had choreoathetosis, 19 had hypomyelination, and 10 had brain atrophy. Kyphoscoliosis (n=12), seizures (n=7), and pneumopathies (n=5) were the most severe complications. This study extends the phenotypic spectrum of AHDS to a mild intellectual disability with hypotonia. Developmental delay, hypotonia, hypomyelination, and thyroid hormone profile help to diagnose patients. Clinical course depends on initial severity, with stable acquisition after infancy; this may be adversely affected by neuro-orthopaedic, pulmonary, and epileptic complications. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS: Mild intellectual disability is associated with SLC16A2 mutations. A thyroid hormone profile with a free T3 /T4 ratio higher than 0.75 can help diagnose patients. Patients with SLC16A2 mutations present a broad spectrum of neurological phenotypes that are also observed in other hypomyelinating disorders. Axial hypotonia is a consistent feature of Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome and leads to specific complications.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31413903

RESUMO

Background: KIF1C (Kinesin Family Member 1C) variants have been associated with hereditary spastic paraplegia and spastic ataxia. Case report: We report fraternal twins presenting with cerebellar ataxia and dystonic tremor. Their brain MRI showed a hypomyelinating leukoencephalopathy. Whole exome sequencing identified a homozygous KIF1C variant in both patients. Discussion: KIF1C variants can manifest as a complex movement disorder with cerebellar ataxia and dystonic tremor. KIF1C variants may also cause a hypomyelinating leukoencephalopathy.

6.
J Clin Invest ; 129(3): 1240-1256, 2019 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30620337

RESUMO

Sphingolipid imbalance is the culprit in a variety of neurological diseases, some affecting the myelin sheath. We have used whole-exome sequencing in patients with undetermined leukoencephalopathies to uncover the endoplasmic reticulum lipid desaturase DEGS1 as the causative gene in 19 patients from 13 unrelated families. Shared features among the cases include severe motor arrest, early nystagmus, dystonia, spasticity, and profound failure to thrive. MRI showed hypomyelination, thinning of the corpus callosum, and progressive thalamic and cerebellar atrophy, suggesting a critical role of DEGS1 in myelin development and maintenance. This enzyme converts dihydroceramide (DhCer) into ceramide (Cer) in the final step of the de novo biosynthesis pathway. We detected a marked increase of the substrate DhCer and DhCer/Cer ratios in patients' fibroblasts and muscle. Further, we used a knockdown approach for disease modeling in Danio rerio, followed by a preclinical test with the first-line treatment for multiple sclerosis, fingolimod (FTY720, Gilenya). The enzymatic inhibition of Cer synthase by fingolimod, 1 step prior to DEGS1 in the pathway, reduced the critical DhCer/Cer imbalance and the severe locomotor disability, increasing the number of myelinating oligodendrocytes in a zebrafish model. These proof-of-concept results pave the way to clinical translation.

7.
Ann Neurol ; 85(3): 385-395, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30635937

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: SLC13A3 encodes the plasma membrane Na+ /dicarboxylate cotransporter 3, which imports inside the cell 4 to 6 carbon dicarboxylates as well as N-acetylaspartate (NAA). SLC13A3 is mainly expressed in kidney, in astrocytes, and in the choroid plexus. We describe two unrelated patients presenting with acute, reversible (and recurrent in one) neurological deterioration during a febrile illness. Both patients exhibited a reversible leukoencephalopathy and a urinary excretion of α-ketoglutarate (αKG) that was markedly increased and persisted over time. In one patient, increased concentrations of cerebrospinal fluid NAA and dicarboxylates (including αKG) were observed. Extensive workup was unsuccessful, and a genetic cause was suspected. METHODS: Whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed. Our teams were connected through GeneMatcher. RESULTS: WES analysis revealed variants in SLC13A3. A homozygous missense mutation (p.Ala254Asp) was found in the first patient. The second patient was heterozygous for another missense mutation (p.Gly548Ser) and an intronic mutation affecting splicing as demonstrated by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction performed in muscle tissue (c.1016 + 3A > G). Mutations and segregation were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. Functional studies performed on HEK293T cells transiently transfected with wild-type and mutant SLC13A3 indicated that the missense mutations caused a marked reduction in the capacity to transport αKG, succinate, and NAA. INTERPRETATION: SLC13A3 deficiency causes acute and reversible leukoencephalopathy with marked accumulation of αKG. Urine organic acids (especially αKG and NAA) and SLC13A3 mutations should be screened in patients presenting with unexplained reversible leukoencephalopathy, for which SLC13A3 deficiency is a novel differential diagnosis. ANN NEUROL 2019;85:385-395.

8.
Dev Neurosci ; : 1-11, 2018 Sep 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30261498

RESUMO

AIMS: We performed quantitative diffusion tensor imaging and brain tractography to distinguish clinical severity in a series of 35 patients with hypomyelinating PLP1-related disorders classified using the Motor Developmental Score according to the best motor function acquired before the age of 5 years and the gross motor function measure (GMFM) at the time of magnetic resonance imaging acquisition. METHODS: We calculated fractional anisotropy and diffusivity values in 26 regions of interest and the numbers of fibers and volumes of hemisphere tractograms. Fiber bundles on tractograms were characterized according to 3 criteria: size, direction of main-stream fibers, and connectivity of bundles (extratelencephalic projections, commissural fibers, and intrahemispheric connections). RESULTS: Age-adjusted multivariate analysis in 3 severity groups revealed increased isotropic diffusion in the superior cerebellar peduncle and grey matter in the most severe group, and larger tractogram volumes and increased numbers of fibers in the least severely affected group. Tractogram patterns showed preserved extratelencephalic projections and a main anterior-posterior aspect of intrahemispheric fibers in most patients, whereas interhemispheric connectivity was variable. The most severely affected and intermediate patients had less intrahemispheric connectivity, with a frequent predominant anterior-posterior direction of main-stream fibers. INTERPRETATION: Diffusion tensor imaging and tractographic parameters can operate as biomarkers to distinguish clinical severity in PLP1-related disorders and could improve our understanding of hypomyelinating leukodystrophies.

9.
Blood ; 132(12): 1318-1331, 2018 Sep 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29914977

RESUMO

Congenital neutropenias (CNs) are rare heterogeneous genetic disorders, with about 25% of patients without known genetic defects. Using whole-exome sequencing, we identified a heterozygous mutation in the SRP54 gene, encoding the signal recognition particle (SRP) 54 GTPase protein, in 3 sporadic cases and 1 autosomal dominant family. We subsequently sequenced the SRP54 gene in 66 probands from the French CN registry. In total, we identified 23 mutated cases (16 sporadic, 7 familial) with 7 distinct germ line SRP54 mutations including a recurrent in-frame deletion (Thr117del) in 14 cases. In nearly all patients, neutropenia was chronic and profound with promyelocytic maturation arrest, occurring within the first months of life, and required long-term granulocyte colony-stimulating factor therapy with a poor response. Neutropenia was sometimes associated with a severe neurodevelopmental delay (n = 5) and/or an exocrine pancreatic insufficiency requiring enzyme supplementation (n = 3). The SRP54 protein is a key component of the ribonucleoprotein complex that mediates the co-translational targeting of secretory and membrane proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We showed that SRP54 was specifically upregulated during the in vitro granulocytic differentiation, and that SRP54 mutations or knockdown led to a drastically reduced proliferation of granulocytic cells associated with an enhanced P53-dependent apoptosis. Bone marrow examination of SRP54-mutated patients revealed a major dysgranulopoiesis and features of cellular ER stress and autophagy that were confirmed using SRP54-mutated primary cells and SRP54 knockdown cells. In conclusion, we characterized a pathological pathway, which represents the second most common cause of CN with maturation arrest in the French CN registry.

10.
Clin Neurophysiol ; 129(6): 1121-1129, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29625343

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: In patients with Friedreich ataxia (FRDA), mitochondrial failure leads to impaired cellular energetics. Since many FRDA patients have impaired hearing in noise, we investigated the objective consequences on standard auditory brainstem-evoked responses (ABRs). METHODS: In 37 FRDA patients, among whom 34 with abnormal standard ABRs, hearing sensitivity, speech-in-noise intelligibility and otoacoustic emissions were controlled. ABR recordings were split into four consecutive segments of the total time frame used for data collection, thus allowing the dynamics of ABR averaging to be observed. RESULTS: Most ears showed features of an auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder with flattened ABRs and impaired speech-in-noise intelligibility contrasting with near-normal hearing sensitivity and normal preneural responses. Yet split-ABRs revealed short-lived wave patterns in 26 out of 68 ears with flattened standard ABRs (38%). While averaging went on, the pattern of waves shifted so that interwave latencies increased by 35% on average. CONCLUSIONS: In FRDA, the assumption of stationarity used for extracting standard ABRs is invalid. The preservation of early split-ABRs indicates no short-term dyssynchrony of action potentials. A large decrease in conduction velocity along auditory neurons occurs within seconds, attributed to fast energetic failure. SIGNIFICANCE: This model of metabolic sensory neuropathy warns against exposure of metabolically-impaired patients to sustained auditory stimulation.

11.
J Med Genet ; 55(6): 359-371, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29618507

RESUMO

The Xq28 duplication involving the MECP2 gene (MECP2 duplication) has been mainly described in male patients with severe developmental delay (DD) associated with spasticity, stereotypic movements and recurrent infections. Nevertheless, only a few series have been published. We aimed to better describe the phenotype of this condition, with a focus on morphological and neurological features. Through a national collaborative study, we report a large French series of 59 affected males with interstitial MECP2 duplication. Most of the patients (93%) shared similar facial features, which evolved with age (midface hypoplasia, narrow and prominent nasal bridge, thick lower lip, large prominent ears), thick hair, livedo of the limbs, tapered fingers, small feet and vasomotor troubles. Early hypotonia and global DD were constant, with 21% of patients unable to walk. In patients able to stand, lower limbs weakness and spasticity led to a singular standing habitus: flexion of the knees, broad-based stance with pseudo-ataxic gait. Scoliosis was frequent (53%), such as divergent strabismus (76%) and hypermetropia (54%), stereotypic movements (89%), without obvious social withdrawal and decreased pain sensitivity (78%). Most of the patients did not develop expressive language, 35% saying few words. Epilepsy was frequent (59%), with a mean onset around 7.4 years of age, and often (62%) drug-resistant. Other medical issues were frequent: constipation (78%), and recurrent infections (89%), mainly lung. We delineate the clinical phenotype of MECP2 duplication syndrome in a large series of 59 males. Pulmonary hypertension appeared as a cause of early death in these patients, advocating its screening early in life.

12.
Orphanet J Rare Dis ; 13(1): 45, 2018 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29615062

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: KARS encodes lysyl- transfer ribonucleic acid (tRNA) synthetase, which catalyzes the aminoacylation of tRNA-Lys in the cytoplasm and mitochondria. Eleven families/sporadic patients and 16 different mutations in KARS have been reported to date. The associated clinical phenotype is heterogeneous ranging from early onset encephalopathy to isolated peripheral neuropathy or nonsyndromic hearing impairment. Recently additional presentations including leukoencephalopathy as predominant cerebral involvement or cardiomyopathy, isolated or associated with muscular and cerebral involvement, have been reported. A progressive Leukoencephalopathy with brainstem and spinal cord calcifications was previously described in a singleton patient and in two siblings, without the identification of the genetic cause. We reported here about a new severe phenotype associated with biallelic KARS mutations and sharing some common points with the other already reported phenotypes, but with a distinct clinical and neuroimaging picture. Review of KARS mutant patients published to date will be also discussed. RESULTS: Herein, we report the clinical, biochemical and molecular findings of 2 unreported Italian patients affected by developmental delay, acquired microcephaly, spastic tetraparesis, epilepsy, sensory-neural hypoacusia, visual impairment, microcytic hypochromic anaemia and signs of hepatic dysfunction. MRI pattern in our patients was characterized by progressive diffuse leukoencephalopathy and calcifications extending in cerebral, brainstem and cerebellar white matter, with spinal cord involvement. Genetic analysis performed on these 2 patients and in one subject previously described with similar MRI pattern revealed the presence of biallelic mutations in KARS in all 3 subjects. CONCLUSIONS: With our report we define the molecular basis of the previously described Leukoencephalopathy with Brainstem and Spinal cord Calcification widening the spectrum of KARS related disorders, particularly in childhood onset disease suggestive for mitochondrial impairment. The review of previous cases does not suggest a strict and univocal genotype/phenotype correlation for this highly heterogeneous entity. Moreover, our cases confirm the usefulness of search for common brain and spine MR imaging pattern and of broad genetic screening, in syndromes clinically resembling mitochondrial disorders in spite of normal biochemical assay.

13.
Brain Pathol ; 28(5): 611-630, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29027761

RESUMO

Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) is a fatal hypomyelinating disorder characterized by early impairment of motor development, nystagmus, choreoathetotic movements, ataxia and progressive spasticity. PMD is caused by variations in the proteolipid protein gene PLP1, which encodes the two major myelin proteins of the central nervous system, PLP and its spliced isoform DM20, in oligodendrocytes. Large duplications including the entire PLP1 gene are the most frequent causative mutation leading to the classical form of PMD. The Plp1 overexpressing mouse model (PLP-tg66/66 ) develops a phenotype very similar to human PMD, with early and severe motor dysfunction and a dramatic decrease in lifespan. The sequence of cellular events that cause neurodegeneration and ultimately death is poorly understood. In this work, we analyzed patient-derived fibroblasts and spinal cords of the PLP-tg66/66 mouse model, and identified redox imbalance, with altered antioxidant defense and oxidative damage to several enzymes involved in ATP production, such as glycolytic enzymes, creatine kinase and mitochondrial proteins from the Krebs cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. We also evidenced malfunction of the mitochondria compartment with increased ROS production and depolarization in PMD patient's fibroblasts, which was prevented by the antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine. Finally, we uncovered an impairment of mitochondrial dynamics in patient's fibroblasts which may help explain the ultrastructural abnormalities of mitochondria morphology detected in spinal cords from PLP-tg66/66 mice. Altogether, these results underscore the link between redox and metabolic homeostasis in myelin diseases, provide insight into the pathophysiology of PMD, and may bear implications for tailored pharmacological intervention.

14.
Brain ; 140(10): 2550-2556, 2017 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28969374

RESUMO

Hypomyelinating leukodystrophies are genetically heterogeneous disorders with overlapping clinical and neuroimaging features reflecting variable abnormalities in myelin formation. We report on the identification of biallelic inactivating mutations in NKX6-2, a gene encoding a transcription factor regulating multiple developmental processes with a main role in oligodendrocyte differentiation and regulation of myelin-specific gene expression, as the cause underlying a previously unrecognized severe variant of hypomyelinating leukodystrophy. Five affected subjects (three unrelated families) were documented to share biallelic inactivating mutations affecting the NKX6-2 homeobox domain. A trio-based whole exome sequencing analysis in the first family detected a homozygous frameshift change [c.606delinsTA; p.(Lys202Asnfs*?)]. In the second family, homozygosity mapping coupled to whole exome sequencing identified a homozygous nucleotide substitution (c.565G>T) introducing a premature stop codon (p.Glu189*). In the third family, whole exome sequencing established compound heterozygosity for a non-conservative missense change affecting a key residue participating in DNA binding (c.599G>A; p.Arg200Gln) and a nonsense substitution (c.589C>T; p.Gln197*), in both affected siblings. The clinical presentation was homogeneous, with four subjects having severe motor delays, nystagmus and absent head control, and one individual showing gross motor delay at the age of 6 months. All exhibited neuroimaging that was consistent with hypomyelination. These findings define a novel, severe form of leukodystrophy caused by impaired NKX6-2 function.


Assuntos
Genes Homeobox/genética , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Leucoencefalopatias/genética , Mutação/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Consanguinidade , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Potenciais Evocados Auditivos do Tronco Encefálico , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Humanos , Leucoencefalopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Leucoencefalopatias/patologia , Leucoencefalopatias/fisiopatologia , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Modelos Moleculares
15.
Metab Brain Dis ; 32(6): 2149-2154, 2017 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28868593

RESUMO

Sengers syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive metabolic disorder caused by lack of acylglycerol kinase due to mutations in the AGK gene. It is characterized by congenital cataract, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, myopathy and lactic acidosis. Two clinical forms have been described: a severe neonatal form, and a more benign form displaying exercise intolerance. We describe two siblings with congenital cataract, cardiomyopathy, hypotonia, intellectual disability and lactic acidosis. Whole exome sequencing revealed a homozygous c.1035dup mutation in the two siblings, supporting a diagnosis of Sengers syndrome. Our patients presented an intermediate form with intellectual deficiency, an unusual feature in Sengers syndrome. This permitted a prenatal diagnosis for a following pregnancy.


Assuntos
Cardiomiopatias/genética , Catarata/genética , Deficiência Intelectual/genética , Mutação , Fosfotransferases (Aceptor do Grupo Álcool)/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Irmãos
16.
Ann Neurol ; 82(1): 133-138, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28556183

RESUMO

Glucose transporter type 1 (GLUT1) deficiency syndrome (GLUT1-DS) leads to a wide range of neurological symptoms. Ketogenic diets are very efficient to control epilepsy and movement disorders. We tested a novel simple and rapid blood test in 30 patients with GLUT1-DS with predominant movement disorders, 18 patients with movement disorders attributed to other genetic defects, and 346 healthy controls. We detected significantly reduced GLUT1 expression only on red blood cells from patients with GLUT1-DS (23 patients; 78%), including patients with inconclusive genetic analysis. This test opens perspectives for the screening of GLUT1-DS in children and adults with cognitive impairment, movement disorder, or epilepsy. Ann Neurol 2017;82:133-138.


Assuntos
Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/diagnóstico , Transportador de Glucose Tipo 1/biossíntese , Testes Hematológicos , Proteínas de Transporte de Monossacarídeos/deficiência , Adolescente , Adulto , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Carboidratos/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Transporte de Monossacarídeos/sangue , Transtornos dos Movimentos/sangue , Transtornos dos Movimentos/diagnóstico , Adulto Jovem
18.
Pediatr Neurol ; 66: 59-62, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27843092

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leukoencephalopathy with temporal lobe cysts may be associated with monogenetic conditions such as Aicardi-Goutières syndrome or RNASET2 mutations and with congenital infections such as cytomegalovirus. In view of the fact that congenital cytomegalovirus is difficult to confirm outside the neonatal period, excluding a Mendelian disorder is extremely relevant, changing family planning and medical management in affected families. We performed diagnostic testing in individuals with leukoencephalopathy with temporal lobe cysts without a definitive diagnosis of congenital cytomegalovirus infection. METHODS: We reviewed a large-scale biorepository of patients with unsolved leukodystrophies and identified two individuals with required for meiotic nuclear division 1 (RMND1) mutations and similar magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features, including temporal lobe cysts. Ten additional subjects with confirmed RMND1 mutations were identified as part of a separate disease specific cohort. Brain MRIs from all 12 individuals were reviewed for common neuroradiological features. RESULTS: MRI features in RMND1 mutations included temporal lobe swelling, with rarefaction and cystic evolution, enlarged tips of the temporal lobes, and multifocal subcortical white matter changes with confluent periatrial T2 signal hyperintensity. A combination of these features was present in ten of the 12 individuals reviewed. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the small number of reported individuals with RMND1 mutations, a clinically recognizable phenotype of leukoencephalopathy with temporal lobe swelling, rarefaction, and cystic changes has emerged in a subset of individuals. Careful clinical phenotyping, including for lactic acidosis, deafness, and severe muscle involvement seen in RMND1 mutation positive individuals, and MRI pattern recognition will be important in differentiating these patients from children with congenital infections like cytomegalovirus.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Encefálicas/genética , Proteínas de Ciclo Celular/genética , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/congênito , Surdez/genética , Leucoencefalopatias/genética , Neoplasias Encefálicas/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Cistos/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/diagnóstico por imagem , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/genética , Surdez/diagnóstico por imagem , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Humanos , Lactente , Leucoencefalopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Mutação , Fenótipo , Lobo Temporal/diagnóstico por imagem
19.
Mol Genet Metab Rep ; 7: 8-10, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27331002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: MEGDEL (3-methylglutaconic aciduria with deafness, encephalopathy, and Leigh-like syndrome) syndrome is a mitochondrial disorder associated with recessive mutations in SERAC1. OBJECTIVES: To report transient neonatal renal findings in MEGDEL syndrome. RESULTS: This 7 year-old girl was the first child of consanguineous Turkish parents. She exhibited an acute neonatal deterioration with severe lactic acidosis and liver failure. Initial evaluation revealed massive polyuria and renal failure with 3-methylglutaconic aciduria. Symptoms and biological findings progressively improved with symptomatic treatment but lactic acidosis and high lactate to pyruvate ratio along with 3-methylglutaconic aciduria persisted. At 8 months of age, a subacute neurological degradation occurred with severe hypotonia, dystonia with extrapyramidal movements and failure to thrive. Brain MRI revealed basal ganglia lesions suggestive of Leigh syndrome. At 3 years of age, sensorineural deafness was documented. MEGDEL syndrome was further confirmed by the identification of an already reported homozygous mutation in SERAC1. CONCLUSION: Transient neonatal polyuria and renal failure have not been reported to date in SERAC1 defective patients. Such neonatal kidney findings expand the clinical spectrum of MEGDEL syndrome.

20.
Eur J Paediatr Neurol ; 20(4): 604-10, 2016 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27091087

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cystic leukoencephalopathy without megalencephaly is a disorder related in some cases to RNASET2 mutations and characterized by bilateral anterior temporal subcortical cysts and multifocal lobar white matter lesions with sparing of central white matter structures. This phenotype significantly overlaps with the sequelae of in utero cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection, including the presence of intracranial calcification in some cases. Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) is another inherited leukodystrophy with cerebral calcification mimicking congenital infection. Clinical, radiological and biochemical criteria for the diagnosis of AGS have been established, although the breadth of phenotype associated with mutations in the AGS-related genes is much greater than previously envisaged. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We describe the clinical, biochemical and radiological findings of five patients demonstrating a phenotype reminiscent of AGS. RESULTS: All patients were found to carry biallelic mutations of RNASET2. CONCLUSIONS: Our patients illustrate the clinical and radiological overlap that can be seen between RNASET2-related leukodystrophy and AGS in some cases. Our data highlight the need to include both disorders in the same differential diagnosis, and hint at possible shared pathomechanisms related to auto-inflammation which are worthy of further investigation.


Assuntos
Doenças Autoimunes do Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Cistos/fisiopatologia , Leucoencefalopatias/fisiopatologia , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/fisiopatologia , Adolescente , Doenças Autoimunes do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças Autoimunes do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Calcinose/diagnóstico por imagem , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cistos/diagnóstico por imagem , Cistos/genética , Infecções por Citomegalovirus/congênito , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Leucoencefalopatias/diagnóstico por imagem , Leucoencefalopatias/genética , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Masculino , Mutação , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/diagnóstico por imagem , Malformações do Sistema Nervoso/genética , Fenótipo , Ribonucleases/genética , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adulto Jovem
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