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2.
BMJ Open ; 10(9): e037139, 2020 09 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32994237

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This systematic review aimed to assess the role of physician's sex and gender in relation to processes of care and/or clinical outcomes within the context of cardiac operative care. DESIGN: A systematic review. DATA SOURCES: Searches were conducted in PsycINFO, Embase and Medline from inception to 6 September 2018. The reference lists of relevant systematic reviews and included studies were also searched. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR SELECTING STUDIES: Quantitative studies of any design were included if they were published in English or French, involved patients of any age undergoing a cardiac surgical procedure and specifically assessed differences in processes of care or clinical patient outcomes by physician's sex or gender. Studies were screened in duplicate by two pairs of independent reviewers. OUTCOME MEASURES: Processes of care, patient morbidity and patient mortality. RESULTS: The search yielded 2095 publications after duplicate removal, of which two were ultimately included. These studies involved various types of surgery, including cardiac. One study found that patients treated by female surgeons compared with male surgeons had a lower 30-day mortality. The other study, however, found no differences in patient outcomes by surgeon's sex. There were no studies that investigated anaesthesiologist's sex/gender. There were also no studies investing physician's sex or gender exclusively in the cardiac operating room. CONCLUSIONS: The limited data surrounding the impact of physician's sex/gender on the outcomes of cardiac surgery inhibits drawing a robust conclusion at this time. Results highlight the need for primary research to determine how these factors may influence cardiac operative practice, in order to optimise provider's performance and improve outcomes in this high-risk patient group.

3.
J Surg Educ ; 2020 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32839149

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Nontechnical skills (NTS) encompass interpersonal, cognitive, and personal resource skills that can mitigate surgical errors and improve patient outcomes. However, inconsistencies in medical student awareness around NTS suggest limited exposure to these skills. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and content of NTS in medical school surgery and anesthesiology education. DESIGN AND SETTING: Learning objectives from clerkship core surgery and anesthesiology rotations were collected from Canadian anglophone medical schools. Two raters independently classified each objective under one of the Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons (NOTSS) or Anaesthetists' Non-Technical Skills (ANTS) "Categories" and "Elements" of NTS, or as a non-NTS objective. Rater disagreements were resolved by group consensus. Group discussion was also held to identify examples of objectives that could help develop future curricula. Descriptive statistics were used to determine the number of NTS objectives from each school and within each NOTSS and ANTS Categories and Elements. RESULTS: Learning objectives were obtained from 12 out of 14 Canadian medical schools. A total of 2116 surgery objectives and 571 anesthesiology objectives were reviewed. Of these, 16 (0.76%) and 26 (4.55%) were identified as NTS objectives in surgery and anesthesiology, respectively. Of the NOTSS and ANTS Categories, "Situation Awareness" and "Decision Making" were represented by only one objective each in both specialties. Approximately half of the NOTSS and ANTS Elements were not represented by a single objective. Group discussion yielded examples of NTS objectives that were excellent, could use improvement, or were too vague to be classified as NTS. CONCLUSIONS: A paucity of objectives in the clerkship perioperative curricula involve NTS. These findings suggest that NTS are unlikely being adequately introduced as critical skillsets of surgeons and anesthesiologists in undergraduate perioperative education. Future curriculum development should involve greater medical student exposure to NTS as key components of their surgery and anesthesiology education.

4.
Br J Anaesth ; 125(4): 605-613, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32682560

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Handover of anaesthesia patient care during surgery is common; however, its association with patient outcome is unclear. This systematic review aimed to assess the impact of anaesthesia handover during surgery on patient outcome. METHODS: All prospective and retrospective clinical studies specifically investigating the association of intraoperative transfer of anaesthesia care between anaesthesia providers in the operating room with patient morbidity and mortality were included. Searches were conducted from inception to April 24, 2019 in Medline, Medline in Process, CINAHL, and Embase. Reference lists of included studies were searched. Studies were assessed for eligibility and data were extracted by independent reviewers in duplicate with disagreements resolved by consensus or a third reviewer. Risk of bias was assessed in duplicate using the National Institutes of Health Quality Assessment Tool for Observational Cohort and Cross-Sectional Studies. Data were summarised narratively given substantial heterogeneity. An exploratory meta-analysis was conducted using a random-effects model for a subset of comparable studies. RESULTS: Eight studies met the inclusion criteria. Six studies focused on patients as the unit of analysis (npatients=605 678) and two focused on anaesthesia providers as the unit of analysis (nproviders=307). Seven studies identified a relationship between anaesthesia handovers and adverse patient outcomes, whereas one suggested that handover may be beneficial to error detection or rectification. Included studies were of fair or good quality. Meta-analysis of four studies found a 40% increased risk of patients experiencing an adverse event when an anaesthesia handover occurs during the procedure (pooled risk ratio=1.40; 95% confidence interval, 1.19 to 1.65; P<0.001; I2=98%). CONCLUSIONS: Intraoperative anaesthesia handovers generally increase morbidity and mortality for surgical patients but could have the potential to improve safety in certain contexts. Future research should determine the specific handover characteristics that impact safety.


Assuntos
Anestesia/normas , Transferência da Responsabilidade pelo Paciente/normas , Segurança do Paciente , Humanos , Morbidade , Salas Cirúrgicas/normas , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/mortalidade
6.
Eur J Anaesthesiol ; 37(8): 636-648, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32355046

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A primary underlying cause of postoperative complications is related to the surgical stress response, which may be mitigated by hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT), the intermittent administration of oxygen at a pressure higher than the atmospheric pressure at sea level. Promising clinical studies have emerged suggesting HBOT's efficacy for reducing some postoperative complications. Notwithstanding, the effectiveness (if any) of HBOT across a range of procedures and postoperative outcomes has yet to be clearly quantified. OBJECTIVE: This systematic review aimed to summarise the existing literature on peri-operative HBOT to investigate its potential to optimise surgical patient outcome. DESIGN: A systematic review of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with narrative summary of results. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched without language restrictions through to 19 June 2018. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Studies were included if they involved patients of any age undergoing any surgical procedure and provided with at least one HBOT session in the peri-operative period. Two independent reviewers screened the initial identified trials and determined those to be included. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool for RCTs. RESULTS: The search retrieved 775 references, of which 13 RCTs were included (627 patients). Ten RCTs (546 patients) reported treatment was effective for improving at least one of the patient outcomes assessed, while two studies (55 patients) did not find any benefit and one study (26 patients) found a negative effect. A wide range of patient outcomes were reported, and several other methodological limitations were observed among the included studies, such as limited use of sham comparator and lack of blinding. CONCLUSION: Peri-operative preventive HBOT may be a promising intervention to improve surgical patient outcome. However, future work should consider addressing the methodological weaknesses identified in this review. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The protocol (CRD42018102737) was registered with the International ProspectiveRegister of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO).

7.
Can J Anaesth ; 67(8): 949-958, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32377936

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While the operating room (OR) has significantly benefited from aviation strategies to improve safety, the rate of avoidable human errors remains relatively high. One key aviation strategy that has yet to be formally established in the OR is the "sterile cockpit" rule, which prohibits all non-essential behaviours during critical moments of a flight. Applying this rule to the OR may enhance patient safety, but the critical moments of surgery need to be defined first. METHODS: This study used a modified Delphi methodology to determine critical moments during surgery according to OR team members across institutions, professions, and specialties. Analysis occurred after each round. The stopping criterion was consensus on 80% of survey items or no change in the mean score for any individual item between two consecutive rounds. RESULTS: The first round included 304 respondents. Of these, 115 completed the second-round survey, and 75 completed all three rounds (27 nurses, 29 anesthesiologists, 19 surgeons). Critical moments obtained by consensus were: induction of anesthesia; emergence from anesthesia; preoperative briefing; final counts at the end of the procedure; anesthesiologist- or surgeon-relevant intraoperative event; handovers; procedure-specific high-risk surgical moments; crisis resource management situations; medication and equipment preparation; and key medication administration. CONCLUSIONS: By defining the most critical moments of surgery, future research can determine the relative importance of behaviour and actions at each stage and target interventions to these stages.

8.
Can J Anaesth ; 67(8): 970-980, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32415478

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Patient outcome during an obstetrical emergency depends on prompt coordination of an interprofessional team. The cognitive aids with roles defined (CARD) is a cognitive aid that addresses the issue of teamwork in crisis management. This study evaluated the clinical impact of implementing the CARD cognitive aid during emergency Cesarean deliveries. METHODS: We conducted a prospective before-and-after cohort trial at the maternity units of two Canadian academic hospital campuses. Both sites received didactic online training regarding teamwork during crises, which involved training on using CARD for the "CARD" campus (intervention) and no mention of CARD at the "no CARD" campus (control). The primary outcome was the total time to delivery after the call for an emergency Cesarean delivery. Secondary outcomes included specific intervals of time within the time to delivery and clinical outcomes for both the babies and mothers. RESULTS: We analyzed data from 267 eligible emergency Cesarean deliveries that occurred between January 11 2014 and December 31 2017. The use of CARD did not significantly change the median [interquartile range] time to delivery of the baby during an emergency Cesarean delivery from the pre-intervention to the post-intervention time period (17 [12-28] vs 15 [13-20], respectively; median difference, 2; 95% confidence interval, -1 to 5; P = 0.36). The clinical outcomes for the baby or the mother and other secondary outcomes also did not change. CONCLUSIONS: The CARD cognitive aid did not significantly improve time-based or clinical maternal and neonatal outcomes of emergency Cesarean delivery at our academic maternity unit.

9.
Emergencias (Sant Vicenç dels Horts) ; 32(2): 111-117, abr. 2020. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | IBECS | ID: ibc-188159

RESUMO

Objetivo: La simulación interprofesional (SIP) es eficaz para aprender gestión de recursos de crisis. La modalidad de debriefing utilizada en la SIP puede influir en el rendimiento de los participantes y en su integridad psicológica. Se evalúa y compara el rendimiento de un debriefing estándar (DE) –colectivo– con un debriefing combinado (DC) –individual y colectivo– en cursos de SIP en escenarios que simulan pacientes con patología aguda y grave. Método: Ensayo controlado, aleatorizado y multicéntrico. Se aleatorizó el tipo de debriefing realizado (DE o DC) en las sesiones de SIP. El rendimiento del debriefing se evaluó con la escala TEAM (Team Emergency Assessment Measure). La calidad de la SIP fue valorada por los participantes con la escala DASH (Debriefing Assessment for Simulation in Healthcare©). Resultados. Se aleatorizaron 40 cursos de SIP de los que se analizaron 30. Quince realizaron DE y 15 DC. Ambos grupos mejoraron entre la pre y la posprueba (p < 0,01), pero no hubo diferencias en el rendimiento global entre ambas modalidades de debriefing (p = 0,64). El DC obtuvo mejores resultados que el DE en la capacidad de liderazgo (p < 0,05), en la percepción de seguridad psicológica y en la experiencia de aprendizaje eficaz (p < 0,05). Conclusiones: Durante la SIP en situaciones de crisis, el debriefing mejora el rendimiento de los participantes, sin diferencias entre un DE y un DC. El DC podría ser más efectivo para mejorar la capacidad de liderazgo, la seguridad psicológica y la experiencia del aprendizaje


Objective: Interprofessional simulation (IPS) training is an effective way to learn crisis resource management. The type of debriefing used in IPS training may affect participants' performance and their level of psychological safety. We aimed to assess and compare performance after standard collective debriefing versus a combination of individual and collective debriefing ("combined" approach). Methods: Randomized, controlled multicenter trial. IPS sessions were randomized to have either standard or combined debriefing. Each team's performance in the IPS session was assessed with the Team Emergency Assessment Measure. The participants assessed the debriefing quality with the Debriefing Assessment for Simulation in Healthcare. Results: Forty IPS sessions were randomized, and 30 were analyzed, 15 using standard collective debriefing and 15 the combined individual–collective method. Teams' performance improved with both types of debriefing, based on pre-post testing (P<.01), and there were no significant differences in overall performance scores between the 2 types of debriefing (P=.64). However, the combined approach was associated with higher scores for leadership skills (P<.05) and psychological safety, and the participants' learning experience was better (P<.05). Conclusions: During IPS courses on crisis resource management, debriefing improves participants' performance, but similar overall results can be obtained with both debriefing methods. Combined debriefing might be more effective for improving participants' leadership skills and psychological safety and also provide a better learning experience


Assuntos
Humanos , Educação Interprofissional/métodos , Gestão de Recursos , Recursos Humanos em Desastres , Simulação/métodos , Liderança , Estudos Prospectivos , Análise de Variância
10.
Korean J Anesthesiol ; 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164399

RESUMO

Sex and gender, among other equity-related characteristics, influence process of care and patients' outcomes. Currently, the extent to which these characteristics are considered in the anesthesia literature remains unknown. This study assesses their incorporation in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on anaesthesia-related interventions, for both patients and healthcare providers. This is a cross-sectional analysis using an existing dataset derived from the anesthesia literature. The dataset originated from a scoping review searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, CENTRAL, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic reviews. RCTs investigating the effect of anesthesia-related interventions on mortality for adults undergoing surgery were included. Equity outcome measures were recorded for both patients and providers and assessed for inclusion in study design, reporting of results, and analysis of intervention effects. Three-hundred sixty-one RCTs (n patients = 144 674) were included. Most RCTs (91%) reported patient sex/gender, with 58% of patients identified as male. There were 139 studies (39%), where 70% or more of the sample was male, compared to just 14 studies (4%), where 70% or more of the sample was female. Only 10 studies (3%) analyzed results by patient sex/gender, with one reporting a significant effect. There was substantial variation in how age was reported, although nearly all studies (98%) reported some measure of age. For healthcare providers, equity-related information was never available. Better consideration of sex/gender and additional health equity parameters for both patients and providers in RCTs is needed to improve evidence quality, and ultimately, patient care and outcome.

11.
Emergencias ; 32(2): 111-117, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125110

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Interprofessional simulation (IPS) training is an effective way to learn crisis resource management. The type of debriefing used in IPS training may affect participants' performance and their level of psychological safety. We aimed to assess and compare performance after standard collective debriefing versus a combination of individual and collective debriefing ("combined" approach). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Randomized, controlled multicenter trial. IPS sessions were randomized to have either standard or combined debriefing. Each team's performance in the IPS session was assessed with the Team Emergency Assessment Measure. The participants assessed the debriefing quality with the Debriefing Assessment for Simulation in Healthcare. RESULTS: Forty IPS sessions were randomized, and 30 were analyzed, 15 using standard collective debriefing and 15 the combined individual-collective method. Teams' performance improved with both types of debriefing, based on pre-post testing (P<.01), and there were no significant differences in overall performance scores between the 2 types of debriefing (P=.64). However, the combined approach was associated with higher scores for leadership skills (P<.05) and psychological safety, and the participants' learning experience was better (P<.05). CONCLUSION: During IPS courses on crisis resource management, debriefing improves participants' performance, but similar overall results can be obtained with both debriefing methods. Combined debriefing might be more effective for improving participants' leadership skills and psychological safety and also provide a better learning experience.

12.
BMJ Qual Saf ; 29(1): 77-85, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601734

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The labour and delivery environment relies heavily on interdisciplinary collaboration from anaesthesiologists, obstetricians and nurses or midwives to deliver optimal patient care. A large number of adverse events in obstetrics are associated with failure in communication and teamwork among team members, with substantive consequences. The objective of this study is to perform a systematic review of interventions aimed at improving teamwork in obstetrics. METHODS: This systematic review identified and assessed randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions aimed at improving teamwork among interdisciplinary teams in obstetrical care. Medline, CENTRAL, CINAHL and Embase were searched for studies evaluating one of: patient outcomes, team performance or processes of clinical efficiency. Identified citations were reviewed in duplicate for eligibility. RESULTS: Nine RCTs met the inclusion criteria; five of these RCTs were conducted under simulated clinical environments. Simulation-based teamwork training interventions were the most represented (n=7 studies, 3047 healthcare providers (HCPs), 107 782 births), followed by checklists (n=1 study, 136 HCPs) and an electronic-based decision support tool (n=1 study, 296 HCPs). Simulation-based teamwork training was found to improve team performance in 100% of relevant studies (3 of 3 studies assessing team performance) and patient morbidity in 75% of relevant studies (3 of 4 studies assessing patient morbidity). However, no direct mortality benefit was identified among all the studies reviewed. Studies were assessed to be of low-moderate quality and had significant limitations in their study designs. CONCLUSION: While the evidence is still limited and from low to moderate quality RCTs, simulation-based teamwork interventions appear to improve team performance and patient morbidity in labour and delivery care. PROSPERO TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42018090452.


Assuntos
Parto Obstétrico , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Assistência Perinatal/organização & administração , Melhoria de Qualidade/organização & administração , Comunicação , Processos Grupais , Humanos , Capacitação em Serviço , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Assistência Perinatal/normas , Melhoria de Qualidade/normas , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Treinamento por Simulação
13.
Ann Surg ; 272(6): 1158-1163, 2020 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30817354

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To validate the Non-Technical Skills for Surgeons (NOTSS) system for assessment of the collective surgical teams' nontechnical skills after observing recordings of actual OR environment. BACKGROUND: The NOTSS system is a widely accepted tool to measure nontechnical skills of individual surgeons, and has mostly been used in the simulated setting. Surgical procedures are rarely performed by a single surgeon, but by a surgical team of attending surgeons, surgical assistants, and surgical trainees. Therefore, assessment of nontechnical skills may benefit from holistic assessment of the collective surgical teams. METHODS: Five trained participants assessed surgical team and attending surgeon using the NOTSS system after watching ten 20-minute long videos obtained from live OR. A set of reference ratings was provided by a multidisciplinary expert committee. We performed analyses to assess system sensitivity; examine inter-rater reliability of ratings; investigate concurrent construct validity; and assess feasibility and acceptability of using the NOTSS system to measure surgical team performance. RESULTS: There was adequate system sensitivity when comparing participants' and reference ratings. Inter-rater reliability among the participants' ratings was good except for decision-making category. The level of inter-rater reliability was similar when rating teams and attending surgeons. There was strong positive correlation between teams' and attending surgeons' NOTSS ratings at category [Pearson coefficient 0.86, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.82-0.89] and element levels (0.83, 95% CI 0.80-0.85), demonstrating evidence of concurrent construct validity. The participants felt that the use of NOTSS system to measure teams' nontechnical skills was acceptable and feasible to a fair extent. CONCLUSION: The NOTSS system, although developed for assessment of individual surgeons, is a useful tool for observing and rating surgical teams.

15.
J Interprof Care ; : 1-9, 2019 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865827

RESUMO

Teamwork is fundamental to surgical patient safety but is inconsistently measured. While many tools have been developed for elective intraoperative situations, it is unclear which is the most robust. This systematic review aimed to identify tools to measure the teamwork of operating room teams. Studies were included if they examined the measurement properties of these tools. PsycINFO, Embase (via OVID), CINAHL, ERIC, Medline and Medline in Process (via OVID) were searched through to May 3, 2019, as were reference lists of included studies and previously published relevant reviews. Retrieved articles were screened and data extracted in duplicate by two independent reviewers. Quality was assessed using the COSMIN checklist. Of the 2121 references identified, 14 studies of six assessment tools were included. Tools were validated across various specialties, mostly in clinical rather than simulated settings. The Observational Teamwork Assessment for Surgery (OTAS) and Operating Theater Team Non-Technical Skills Assessment Tool (NOTECHS) were the most frequently investigated tools. Though acceptable for assessing teamwork, both NOTECHS and OTAS rely on the questionable assumption that the teamwork of a team is equivalent to the sum of individual performances. Future studies may investigate other assessment tools that assess the whole team as the unit of analysis along with the potential of these tools to provide healthcare providers with meaningful feedback in clinical practice.

16.
Diving Hyperb Med ; 49(3): 209-215, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31523796

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Evidence from many areas of healthcare suggests that skills learned during simulation transfer to clinical settings; however, this has not yet been investigated in hyperbaric medicine. This systematic review aimed to identify, summarize, and assess the impact of simulation-based education in hyperbaric medicine. METHODS: Eligible studies investigated the effect of simulation-based education for learning in hyperbaric medicine, used any design, and were published in English in a peer-reviewed journal. Learning outcomes across all Kirkpatrick levels were included. MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched. Pairs of independent reviewers assessed references for study eligibility. RESULTS: We found no article assessing the impact of simulation-based education in hyperbaric medicine published in English. Only one potentially relevant paper published in German was found. CONCLUSIONS: More research is needed to determine how the hyperbaric medicine community and their patients may benefit from simulation-based education to optimize both practice and patient care.


Assuntos
Competência Clínica , Simulação por Computador , Educação Médica Continuada , Oxigenação Hiperbárica , Humanos
17.
Presse Med ; 48(7-8 Pt 1): 780-787, 2019.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31383383

RESUMO

Interprofessional simulation-based education is effective for learning non-technical critical care skills and strengthening interprofessional team collaboration to optimize quality of care and patient outcome. Implementation of interprofessional simulation sessions in initial and continuing education is facilitated by a team of "champions" from each discipline/profession to ensure educational quality and logistics. Interprofessional simulation training must be integrated into a broader interprofessional curriculum supported by managers, administrators and clinical colleagues from different professional programs. When conducting interprofessional simulation training, it is essential to account for sociological factors (hierarchy, power, authority, interprofessional conflicts, gender, access to information, professional identity) both in scenario design and debriefing. Teamwork assessment tools in interprofessional simulation training may be used to guide debriefing. The interprofessional simulation setting (in-situ or simulation centre) will be chosen according to the learning objectives and the logistics.


Assuntos
Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Educação Médica/métodos , Relações Interprofissionais , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , Treinamento por Simulação , Competência Clínica , Cuidados Críticos/normas , Currículo/normas , Educação Médica/normas , Avaliação Educacional/métodos , Humanos , Ciência da Implementação , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/organização & administração , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente/normas , Treinamento por Simulação/métodos , Treinamento por Simulação/organização & administração , Treinamento por Simulação/normas
18.
BMJ Open Qual ; 8(3): e000686, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31428707

RESUMO

Background: Systematically observing clinical performance in the operating room (OR) to support patient safety initiatives faces numerous logistical and methodological challenges. These may be solved by new audio-video recording technologies like the OR Black Box, which is a tool similar to black boxes in aviation. This study aimed to identify barriers and enablers that may influence patients', clinicians' and senior leadership team members' support of the OR Black Box in order to guide its future implementation. Methods: Patients, clinicians and senior leadership team members were recruited to participate in semistructured interviews informed by the theoretical domains framework (TDF) to identify factors relevant to planning OR Black Box implementation. Deidentified interview transcripts were analysed in duplicate following a TDF coding structure. Results: Data saturation was achieved at 15 patients, 17 clinicians and 9 senior leadership team members. Seven domains were relevant for patients, nine for clinicians and four for senior leadership. Knowledge and Beliefs about consequences were barriers and enablers for all three groups. Memory, attention and decision processes and Social influences were enablers for both clinicians and senior leadership. Environmental context and resources, Emotion and Behavioural regulation were found to be barriers and enablers for both clinicians and patients. Social/professional role and identity and Reinforcement were enablers for patients only and Optimism and Intentions were barriers and enablers to clinicians. Conclusions: While most stakeholders were supportive of the OR Black Box, we identified many key areas that need to be addressed during its implementation. It is critical to ensure all stakeholders have adequate and accurate information about the OR Black Box system and research goals, and that the OR Black Box is positioned as a patient safety initiative for learning from and improving practice.

19.
Can J Anaesth ; 66(9): 1026-1037, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31240608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Personalized medicine aims to improve outcomes through application of therapy directed by individualized risk profiles. Whether personalized risk assessment is routinely applied in practice is unclear; the impact of personalized preoperative risk prediction and communication on outcomes has not been synthesized. Our objective was to perform a scoping review to examine the extent, range, and nature of studies where personalized risk was evaluated preoperatively and communicated to the patient and/or healthcare professional. METHODS: A systematic search was developed, peer-reviewed, and applied to Embase, Medline, CINAHL, and Cochrane databases to identify studies of individuals having or considering surgery, where a process to assess personalized risk was applied and where these estimates were communicated to a patient and/or healthcare professional. All stages of the review were completed in duplicate. We narratively synthesized and described identified themes. RESULTS: We identified 796 studies; 24 underwent full-text review. Seven studies were included; one communicated personalized risk to patients, four to a healthcare professional, and two to both. Cardiac (n = 2) and orthopedic surgery (n = 2) were the most common surgical specialties. Four studies used electronic risk calculators, and three used paper-based tools. Personalized preoperative risk assessment and communication may improve accuracy of information provided to patients, improve consent processes, and influence length of stay. Methodologic weaknesses in study design were common. CONCLUSIONS: Personalized preoperative risk assessment and communication may improve patient and system outcomes. This evidence is limited, however, by weaknesses in study design. Appropriately powered, low risk of bias evaluation of personalized risk communication before surgery is needed.


Assuntos
Assistência Perioperatória/métodos , Medicina de Precisão/métodos , Cuidados Pré-Operatórios/métodos , Comunicação , Pessoal de Saúde/organização & administração , Humanos , Projetos de Pesquisa , Medição de Risco/métodos , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Operatórios/métodos
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