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1.
Neurobiol Aging ; 92: 92-97, 2020 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32408057

RESUMO

Association between the transactive response DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43), its newly described types (type α/type ß), and resilience to Alzheimer's disease neuropathological change (ADNC) defined as preservation of normal cognitive functioning despite advanced ADNC has been evaluated in this case-control study of 63 older adults. Twenty-one resilient to ADNC individuals were matched 1:2 to nonresilient (Alzheimer's dementia) using propensity scores, accounting for age at death, neuritic plaque density, and neurofibrillary tangle stage. Resilient and matched nonresilient participants were similar in terms of gender, apolipoprotein E ε4 carriership, education, occupation, AD, and other pathologies. Resilient participants had lower frequency of TDP-43 co-pathology compared to nonresilient (19% vs. 62%, p = 0.002). Among TDP-43-positive cases, TDP-43 type α inclusions were absent in resilient to ADNC participants and were dominant in matched nonresilient cases (65%, p = 0.03). TDP-43 and TDP-43 types appear to be one of the key pathological determinants of loss of cognitive resilience to ADNC and hence are important in the understanding of the clinical expression of ADNC.

2.
Neurobiol Aging ; 2020 Apr 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32409254

RESUMO

Mutations in the sphingomyelin phosphodiesterase 1 (SMPD1) gene were reported to be associated with Parkinson's disease and dementia with Lewy bodies. In the current study, we aimed to evaluate the role of SMPD1 variants in isolated rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD). SMPD1 and its untranslated regions were sequenced using targeted next-generation sequencing in 959 iRBD patients and 1287 controls from European descent. Our study reports no statistically significant association of SMPD1 variants and iRBD. It is hence unlikely that SMPD1 plays a major role in iRBD.

3.
Neurology ; 94(17): 743-755, 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241955

RESUMO

The prodromal phase of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) includes (1) mild cognitive impairment (MCI), (2) delirium-onset, and (3) psychiatric-onset presentations. The purpose of our review is to determine whether there is sufficient information yet available to justify development of diagnostic criteria for each of these. Our goal is to achieve evidence-based recommendations for the recognition of DLB at a predementia, symptomatic stage. We propose operationalized diagnostic criteria for probable and possible mild cognitive impairment with Lewy bodies, which are intended for use in research settings pending validation for use in clinical practice. They are compatible with current criteria for other prodromal neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer and Parkinson disease. Although there is still insufficient evidence to propose formal criteria for delirium-onset and psychiatric-onset presentations of DLB, we feel that it is important to characterize them, raising the index of diagnostic suspicion and prioritizing them for further investigation.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32293805

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationships between MRI volumetry and [18 F]flortaucipir PET of typical and atypical clinical phenotypes of Alzheimer's disease, by genarian (age by decade). METHODS: Five-hundred and sixty-four participants including those with typical (n = 86) or atypical (n = 80) Alzheimer's dementia and normal controls (n = 398) underwent apolipoprotein E genotyping, MRI, flortaucipir, and 11 C-PiB; all 166 Alzheimer's participants were beta-amyloid positive and all controls were beta-amyloid negative. Grey matter volume and flortaucipir standard uptake value ratios were calculated for hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, and neocortex. Ratios of hippocampal-to-neocortical and entorhinal-to-neocortical volume and flortaucipir uptake were also calculated. Linear regression models assessed relationships among regional volume, flortaucipir uptake, and ratios and phenotypes, within three genarians (50-59, 60-69, and 70+). Voxel-level analyses were also performed. RESULTS: For 50-59 greater medial temporal atrophy and flortaucipir uptake was observed in the typical compared with atypical phenotype. The typical phenotype also showed greater frontal neocortex uptake with the voxel-level analysis. For 60-69 and 70+ there was greater hippocampal volume loss in the typical compared with atypical phenotype while only the 60-69, but not the 70+ group, showed a difference in hippocampal flortaucipir uptake. We also observed a pattern for higher neocortical flortaucipir uptake to correlate with younger age decade for both phenotypes. INTERPRETATION: MRI volumetry versus flortaucipir PET relationships differ across Alzheimer's clinical phenotypes, and also within phenotype across age decades. This suggests that there is potential risk of masked effects by not accounting for genarian in participants with beta-amyloid and tau-positive biomarker defined Alzheimer's disease.

5.
Neurology ; 94(17): e1793-e1802, 2020 Apr 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32217775

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether informant-reported apneas during sleep (witnessed apneas) in cognitively unimpaired (CU) elderly persons are associated with higher levels of brain tau. METHODS: From the population-based Mayo Clinic Study of Aging, we identified 292 CU elderly ≥65 years of age with both AV-1451 tau-PET and Pittsburgh compound B (PiB)-PET scans and whose bed partners and close relatives had completed a questionnaire that assessed whether participants had witnessed apneas during sleep. For this cross-sectional analysis, we selected the entorhinal and inferior temporal cortices as our regions of interest (ROIs) because they are highly susceptible to tau accumulation. PET signal was scaled to the cerebellum crus to calculate standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR). We fit linear models to assess the association between regional tau and witnessed apneas while controlling for age, sex, years of education, body mass index, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, reduced sleep, excessive daytime sleepiness, and global PiB. RESULTS: Forty-three participants (14.7%) were found to have witnessed apneas during sleep. The report of witnessed apneas was associated with higher tau-PET SUVR elevation in our ROIs: 0.049 SUVR (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.010-0.087, p = 0.015) in the entorhinal cortex and 0.037 SUVR (95% CI 0.006-0.067, p = 0.019) in the inferior temporal cortex after controlling for confounders. CONCLUSION: We identified a significant association between witnessed apneas in CU elderly and elevated tau-PET signal in tau-susceptible brain regions. These results suggest a plausible mechanism that could contribute to cognitive impairment and the development of Alzheimer disease. Longitudinal observations are necessary to determine direction of causality.

6.
Clin Auton Res ; 2020 Mar 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32193800

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a common finding among patients with synucleinopathies. We aimed to determine the degree of autonomic dysfunction in patients presenting with idiopathic RBD (iRBD), and the predictive value of autonomic dysfunction for phenoconversion to a defined neurodegenerative disease. METHODS: We searched our electronic medical record for patients diagnosed with iRBD who also underwent standardized autonomic function testing within 6 months of iRBD diagnosis, and who had clinical follow-up of at least 3 years following iRBD diagnosis. The composite autonomic severity score (CASS) was derived and compared between phenoconverters and non-converters using chi-square and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests. RESULTS: We identified 18 patients who fulfilled inclusion and exclusion criteria. Average age at autonomic testing was 67 ± 6.6 years. Twelve (67%) patients phenoconverted during the follow-up period; six developed Parkinson's disease (PD), and the other six, dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Fifteen (83%) patients had at least mild autonomic dysfunction. There were no significant differences between overall converters and non-converters in total CASS or CASS subscores. However, iRBD patients who developed DLB had significantly higher total and cardiovagal CASS scores compared with those who developed PD (p < 0.05), and a trend for higher adrenergic CASS scores compared to those who developed PD and those who did not phenoconvert. DISCUSSION: Autonomic dysfunction was seen in 83% of iRBD patients, and more severe baseline cardiovagal autonomic dysfunction in iRBD was associated with phenoconversion to DLB but not PD. Prospective studies are needed to confirm the value of autonomic testing for predicting phenoconversion and disease phenotype in iRBD.

7.
J Nucl Med ; 2020 Mar 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32198310

RESUMO

Rationale: To conduct a retrospective study comparing three 123I-FP-CIT-SPECT quantitative methods in patients with neurodegenerative syndromes as referenced to neuropathological findings. Methods: 123I-FP-CIT-SPECT and neuropathological findings among patients with neurodegenerative syndromes from the Mayo Alzheimer's Disease Research Center and Mayo Clinic Study of Aging were examined. Three 123I-FP-CIT-SPECT quantitative assessment Methods: MIMneuro (MIM Software Inc.), DaTQUANT (GE Healthcare), and manual region of interest (ROI) creation on an Advantage Workstation (GE Healthcare) were compared to neuropathological findings describing the presence or absence of Lewy body disease (LBD). Striatum to background ratios (SBRs) generated by DaTQUANT were compared to the calculated SBRs of the manual method and MIMneuro. The left and right SBRs for caudate, putamen and striatum were evaluated with the manual method. For DaTQUANT and MIMneuro the left, right, total and average SBRs and z-scores for whole striatum, caudate, putamen, anterior putamen, and posterior putamen were calculated. Results: The cohort included 24 patients [20 (83%) male, aged 75.4 +/- 10.0 at death]. The antemortem clinical diagnoses were Alzheimer's disease dementia (ADem, N = 6), probable dementia with Lewy bodies (pDLB, N = 12), mixed ADem/pDLB (N = 1), Parkinson's disease with mild cognitive impairment (N = 2), corticobasal syndrome (N = 1), idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) (N = 1) and behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (N = 1). Seventeen (71%) had LBD pathology. All three 123I-FP-CIT-SPECT quantitative methods had area under the receiver operating characteristics (AUROC) values above 0.93 and up to 1.000 (p<0.001) and showed excellent discrimination between LBD and non-LBD patients in each region assessed, p<.001. There was no significant difference between the accuracy of the regions in discriminating the two groups, with good discrimination for both caudate and putamen. Conclusion: All three 123I-FP-CIT-SPECT quantitative methods showed excellent discrimination between LBD and non-LBD patients in each region assessed, using both SBRs and z-scores.

8.
Nat Med ; 26(3): 387-397, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32123386

RESUMO

With the potential development of new disease-modifying Alzheimer's disease (AD) therapies, simple, widely available screening tests are needed to identify which individuals, who are experiencing symptoms of cognitive or behavioral decline, should be further evaluated for initiation of treatment. A blood-based test for AD would be a less invasive and less expensive screening tool than the currently approved cerebrospinal fluid or amyloid ß positron emission tomography (PET) diagnostic tests. We examined whether plasma tau phosphorylated at residue 181 (pTau181) could differentiate between clinically diagnosed or autopsy-confirmed AD and frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Plasma pTau181 concentrations were increased by 3.5-fold in AD compared to controls and differentiated AD from both clinically diagnosed (receiver operating characteristic area under the curve of 0.894) and autopsy-confirmed frontotemporal lobar degeneration (area under the curve of 0.878). Plasma pTau181 identified individuals who were amyloid ß-PET-positive regardless of clinical diagnosis and correlated with cortical tau protein deposition measured by 18F-flortaucipir PET. Plasma pTau181 may be useful to screen for tau pathology associated with AD.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/sangue , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Degeneração Lobar Frontotemporal/sangue , Degeneração Lobar Frontotemporal/diagnóstico , Proteínas tau/sangue , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Amiloide/metabolismo , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/sangue , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Cognição , Feminino , Degeneração Lobar Frontotemporal/genética , Degeneração Lobar Frontotemporal/patologia , Substância Cinzenta/diagnóstico por imagem , Substância Cinzenta/patologia , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação/genética , Proteínas de Neurofilamentos/sangue , Fosforilação , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Proteínas tau/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Proteínas tau/genética
9.
J Neurol ; 267(5): 1444-1453, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32006160

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Trans-active response DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) can be detected in up to 63% of autopsy-confirmed Lewy body disease (LBD) cases. It is unclear whether TDP-43 is associated with a decreased likelihood of a clinical diagnosis of probable dementia with Lewy bodies (pDLB) during life. METHODS: In an autopsy cohort of 395 cognitively impaired patients from the Mayo Clinic Alzheimer's Disease Research Center, we determined the presence of TDP-43 in the hippocampus [hTDP-43(+)] and examined associations between hTDP-43 and an antemortem pDLB clinical diagnosis with multiple regression analyses. For this study, given our specific question, we only counted transitional and diffuse Lewy body disease as LBD positive (LBD+). RESULTS: One-hundred forty-five cases (37%) were hTDP-43(+) and 156 (39%) were LBD+; co-pathology was noted in 63 (16%) cases. Patients with pDLB- LBD+ were more likely to be older, hTDP-43(+) and have high Braak neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) status compared to the pDLB+ LBD+ patients. After accounting for older age at death and high Braak NFT status, hTDP-43(+) status was associated with the absence of a clinical diagnosis of pDLB despite LBD+ status (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The absence of a diagnosis of pDLB during life in patients with LBD is associated with older age, high Braak NFT stage and hTDP-43, each feature contributing independently to a lower likelihood of a clinical diagnosis of pDLB during life.

10.
Neurobiol Aging ; 88: 42-50, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31918955

RESUMO

Loss-of-function mutations in the progranulin gene (GRN) are one of the major causes of familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration. Our objective was to determine the rates and trajectories of lobar cortical atrophy from longitudinal structural magnetic resonance imaging in both asymptomatic and symptomatic GRN mutation carriers. Individuals in this study were from the ADRC and LEFFTDS studies at the Mayo Clinic. We identified 13 GRN mutation carriers (8 asymptomatic, 5 symptomatic) and noncarriers (n = 10) who had at least 2 serial T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance images and were followed annually with a median of 3 years (range 1.0-9.8 years). Longitudinal changes in lobar cortical volume were analyzed using the tensor-based morphometry with symmetric normalization (TBM-SyN) algorithm. Linear mixed-effect models were used to model cortical volume change over time among 3 groups. The annual rates of frontal (p < 0.05) and parietal (p < 0.01) lobe cortical atrophy were higher in asymptomatic GRN mutation carriers than noncarriers. The symptomatic GRN mutation carriers also had increased rates of atrophy in the frontal (p < 0.01) and parietal lobe (p < 0.01) cortices than noncarriers. In addition, greater rates of cortical atrophy were observed in the temporal lobe cortices of symptomatic GRN mutation carriers than noncarriers (p < 0.001). We found that a decline in frontal and parietal lobar cortical volume occurs in asymptomatic GRN mutation carriers and continues in the symptomatic GRN mutation carriers, whereas an increased rate of temporal lobe cortical atrophy is observed only in symptomatic GRN mutation carriers. This sequential pattern of cortical involvement in GRN mutation carriers has important implications for using imaging biomarkers of neurodegeneration as an outcome measure in potential treatment trials involving GRN mutation carriers.

11.
Ann Neurol ; 87(4): 584-598, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31976583

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) is a prodromal synucleinopathy, as >80% will eventually convert to overt synucleinopathy. We performed an in-depth analysis of the SNCA locus to identify RBD-specific risk variants. METHODS: Full sequencing and genotyping of SNCA was performed in isolated/idiopathic RBD (iRBD, n = 1,076), Parkinson disease (PD, n = 1,013), dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB, n = 415), and control subjects (n = 6,155). The iRBD cases were diagnosed with RBD prior to neurodegeneration, although some have since converted. A replication cohort from 23andMe of PD patients with probable RBD (pRBD) was also analyzed (n = 1,782 cases; n = 131,250 controls). Adjusted logistic regression models and meta-analyses were performed. Effects on conversion rate were analyzed in 432 RBD patients with available data using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. RESULTS: A 5'-region SNCA variant (rs10005233) was associated with iRBD (odds ratio [OR] = 1.43, p = 1.1E-08), which was replicated in pRBD. This variant is in linkage disequilibrium (LD) with other 5' risk variants across the different synucleinopathies. An independent iRBD-specific suggestive association (rs11732740) was detected at the 3' of SNCA (OR = 1.32, p = 4.7E-04, not statistically significant after Bonferroni correction). Homozygous carriers of both iRBD-specific SNPs were at highly increased risk for iRBD (OR = 5.74, p = 2E-06). The known top PD-associated variant (3' variant rs356182) had an opposite direction of effect in iRBD compared to PD. INTERPRETATION: There is a distinct pattern of association at the SNCA locus in RBD as compared to PD, with an opposite direction of effect at the 3' of SNCA. Several 5' SNCA variants are associated with iRBD and with pRBD in overt synucleinopathies. ANN NEUROL 2020;87:584-598.

12.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 73(4): 1511-1523, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31929165

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transactive response DNA-binding protein of 43 kDa (TDP-43) is associated with hippocampal atrophy in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but whether the association is modified by other factors is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the associations between TDP-43 and hippocampal volume and atrophy rate are affected by age, gender, apolipoprotein E (APOE) ɛ4, Lewy bodies (LBs), amyloid-ß (Aß), or Braak neurofibrillary tangle (NFT) stage. METHODS: In this longitudinal neuroimaging-clinicopathological study of 468 cases with AD neuropathological changes (Aß-positive) that had completed antemortem head MRI, we investigated how age, gender, APOEɛ4, presence of LBs, Aß, TDP-43, and Braak NFT stages are associated with hippocampal volumes and rates of atrophy over time. We included field strength in the models since our cohort included 1.5T and 3T scans. We then determined whether the associations between hippocampal atrophy and TDP-43 are modified by these factors using mixed effects models. RESULTS: Older age, female gender, APOEɛ4, higher field strength, higher TDP-43, and Braak NFT stages were associated with smaller hippocampi. Rate of atrophy was greater with higher TDP-43 and Braak NFT stage, but lower in older patients. The association of TDP-43 with greater rate of atrophy was enhanced in APOEɛ4 carriers (p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: Neurodegenerative effects of TDP-43 seem to be independent of most factors except perhaps APOE in cases with AD neuropathological changes. TDP-43 and tau appear to behave independently of one another.

13.
Alzheimers Dement ; 16(1): 71-78, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914219

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Familial frontotemporal lobar degeneration (f-FTLD) due to autosomal dominant mutations is an important entity for developing treatments for FTLD. The Advancing Research and Treatment for Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (ARTFL) and Longitudinal Evaluation of Familial Frontotemporal Dementia Subjects (LEFFTDS) longitudinal studies were designed to describe the natural history of f-FTLD. METHODS: We summarized recent publications from the ARTFL and LEFFTDS studies, along with other recent publications describing the natural history of f-FTLD. RESULTS: Published and emerging studies are producing data on all phases of f-FTLD, including the asymptomatic and symptomatic phases of disease, as well as the transitional phase when symptoms are just beginning to develop. These data indicate that rates of change increase along with disease severity, which is consistent with commonly cited models of neurodegeneration, and that measurement of biomarkers may predict onset of symptoms. DISCUSSION: Data from large multisite studies are producing important data on the natural history of f-FTLD that will be critical for planning intervention trials.

14.
Alzheimers Dement ; 16(1): 106-117, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31914218

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We created global rating scoring rules for the CDR® plus NACC FTLD to detect and track early frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) and to conduct clinical trials in FTLD. METHODS: The CDR plus NACC FTLD rating was applied to 970 sporadic and familial participants from the baseline visit of Advancing Research and Treatment in Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (ARTFL)/Longitudinal Evaluation of Familial Frontotemporal Dementia Subjects (LEFFTDS). Each of the eight domains of the CDR plus NACC FTLD was equally weighed in determining the global score. An interrater reliability study was completed for 40 participants. RESULTS: The CDR plus NACC FTLD showed very good interrater reliability. It was especially useful in detecting clinical features of mild non-fluent/agrammatic variant primary progressive aphasia participants. DISCUSSION: The global CDR plus NACC FTLD score could be an attractive outcome measure for clinical trials in symptomatic FTLD, and may be useful in natural history studies and clinical trials in FTLD spectrum disorders.

15.
J Parkinsons Dis ; 10(1): 179-184, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have investigated the incidence of PSP and CBS in the population. OBJECTIVE: To examine the incidence of and trends in progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) and corticobasal syndrome (CBS) in a population-based cohort of residents of Olmsted County, MN. METHODS: We used the 1991-2005 population-based, Olmsted County Parkinsonism-cohort study, defined via the Rochester Epidemiology Project. A movement-disorder specialist reviewed medical records, to confirm PSP and CBS diagnoses. RESULTS: We identified 21 patients with these diagnoses 1991-2005 : 18 (85.7%), PSP; 3 (14.3%), CBS. The median diagnosis age was 78 (range: 66-88). 13/21 (62.0%) were male. MRI was performed pre-diagnosis in 11 patients (8 PSP and 3 CBD); 10 showed atrophy consistent with clinical diagnoses. We observed concordance between clinical and pathological diagnoses in two PSP patients who underwent autopsy. Combined incidence for PSP and CBS in Olmsted County was 3.1 per 100,000 person-years (2.6 per 100,000 person-years, PSP; 0.4 per 100,000 person-years, CBS). Incidence was higher in men (4.5, 95% CI, 2.0-7.0) than women (1.8, 95% CI, 0.5-2.9). A combined, significant trend of increasing incidence was observed between 1991 and 2005 (B=0.69, 95% CI 0.42, 0.96, p<0.001). Median time from symptom onset to death among both groups was 6 years (range PSP, 1-10 years; range CBS, 3-8 years). CONCLUSIONS: The combined incidence for PSP and CBS was 3.1 per 100,000 person-years, higher in men than women. We observed a significant increase in both PSP and CBS, likely due to advancing imaging technology and improved diagnostic ability among physicians.

16.
Lancet Neurol ; 19(2): 145-156, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Frontotemporal dementia is a heterogenous neurodegenerative disorder, with about a third of cases being genetic. Most of this genetic component is accounted for by mutations in GRN, MAPT, and C9orf72. In this study, we aimed to complement previous phenotypic studies by doing an international study of age at symptom onset, age at death, and disease duration in individuals with mutations in GRN, MAPT, and C9orf72. METHODS: In this international, retrospective cohort study, we collected data on age at symptom onset, age at death, and disease duration for patients with pathogenic mutations in the GRN and MAPT genes and pathological expansions in the C9orf72 gene through the Frontotemporal Dementia Prevention Initiative and from published papers. We used mixed effects models to explore differences in age at onset, age at death, and disease duration between genetic groups and individual mutations. We also assessed correlations between the age at onset and at death of each individual and the age at onset and at death of their parents and the mean age at onset and at death of their family members. Lastly, we used mixed effects models to investigate the extent to which variability in age at onset and at death could be accounted for by family membership and the specific mutation carried. FINDINGS: Data were available from 3403 individuals from 1492 families: 1433 with C9orf72 expansions (755 families), 1179 with GRN mutations (483 families, 130 different mutations), and 791 with MAPT mutations (254 families, 67 different mutations). Mean age at symptom onset and at death was 49·5 years (SD 10·0; onset) and 58·5 years (11·3; death) in the MAPT group, 58·2 years (9·8; onset) and 65·3 years (10·9; death) in the C9orf72 group, and 61·3 years (8·8; onset) and 68·8 years (9·7; death) in the GRN group. Mean disease duration was 6·4 years (SD 4·9) in the C9orf72 group, 7·1 years (3·9) in the GRN group, and 9·3 years (6·4) in the MAPT group. Individual age at onset and at death was significantly correlated with both parental age at onset and at death and with mean family age at onset and at death in all three groups, with a stronger correlation observed in the MAPT group (r=0·45 between individual and parental age at onset, r=0·63 between individual and mean family age at onset, r=0·58 between individual and parental age at death, and r=0·69 between individual and mean family age at death) than in either the C9orf72 group (r=0·32 individual and parental age at onset, r=0·36 individual and mean family age at onset, r=0·38 individual and parental age at death, and r=0·40 individual and mean family age at death) or the GRN group (r=0·22 individual and parental age at onset, r=0·18 individual and mean family age at onset, r=0·22 individual and parental age at death, and r=0·32 individual and mean family age at death). Modelling showed that the variability in age at onset and at death in the MAPT group was explained partly by the specific mutation (48%, 95% CI 35-62, for age at onset; 61%, 47-73, for age at death), and even more by family membership (66%, 56-75, for age at onset; 74%, 65-82, for age at death). In the GRN group, only 2% (0-10) of the variability of age at onset and 9% (3-21) of that of age of death was explained by the specific mutation, whereas 14% (9-22) of the variability of age at onset and 20% (12-30) of that of age at death was explained by family membership. In the C9orf72 group, family membership explained 17% (11-26) of the variability of age at onset and 19% (12-29) of that of age at death. INTERPRETATION: Our study showed that age at symptom onset and at death of people with genetic frontotemporal dementia is influenced by genetic group and, particularly for MAPT mutations, by the specific mutation carried and by family membership. Although estimation of age at onset will be an important factor in future pre-symptomatic therapeutic trials for all three genetic groups, our study suggests that data from other members of the family will be particularly helpful only for individuals with MAPT mutations. Further work in identifying both genetic and environmental factors that modify phenotype in all groups will be important to improve such estimates. FUNDING: UK Medical Research Council, National Institute for Health Research, and Alzheimer's Society.

17.
Neurology ; 94(5): e549-e556, 2020 Feb 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31748251

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the clinical utility of volume-based ratios with the standard linear ratio of Evans index (EI) by examining their associations with gait, cognition, and other patient and imaging variables. METHODS: From MRI scans of 1,774 participants in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging, we calculated 3 ventricle size measures: Evan index (frontal horn width divided by widest width of skull inner table), total ventricular volume, and frontal horn volume as ratios of total intracranial volume. Gait was measured by a timed 25-foot walk and cognition by a composite of psychometric tests. We also evaluated variables associated with the measures of ventricular size. Further, we evaluated gait and cognition associations with MRI of extraventricular findings seen in normal-pressure hydrocephalus: disproportionate enlargement of subarachnoid space (DESH) and focal sulcal dilations (FSD). RESULTS: Ventricular volume measures had stronger association with gait and cognition measures than EI. In decreasing order of strength of association with ventricle size were DESH, FSD, white matter hyperintensity volume ratio, age, male sex, cortical thickness, and education. Modest evidence was observed that FSD was associated with future decline in gait and cognition. CONCLUSION: Ventricular volume measures are clinically more useful than EI in indicating current and future gait and cognition. Multiple factors are associated with ventricle volume size, including FSD and DESH, suggesting that changes in CSF dynamics may go beyond simple ventriculomegaly.

18.
Alzheimers Dement ; 16(1): 131-143, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31668596

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is the most common form of dementia for those under 60 years of age. Increasing numbers of therapeutics targeting FTLD syndromes are being developed. METHODS: In March 2018, the Association for Frontotemporal Degeneration convened the Frontotemporal Degeneration Study Group meeting in Washington, DC, to discuss advances in the clinical science of FTLD. RESULTS: Challenges exist for conducting clinical trials in FTLD. Two of the greatest challenges are (1) the heterogeneity of FTLD syndromes leading to difficulties in efficiently measuring treatment effects and (2) the rarity of FTLD disorders leading to recruitment challenges. DISCUSSION: New personalized endpoints that are clinically meaningful to individuals and their families should be developed. Personalized approaches to analyzing MRI data, development of new fluid biomarkers and wearable technologies will help to improve the power to detect treatment effects in FTLD clinical trials and enable new, clinical trial designs, possibly leveraged from the experience of oncology trials. A computational visualization and analysis platform that can support novel analyses of combined clinical, genetic, imaging, biomarker data with other novel modalities will be critical to the success of these endeavors.

19.
Neurology ; 94(1): e15-e29, 2020 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31831602

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether quantitative polysomnographic REM sleep without atonia (RSWA) distinguishes between cognitive impairment phenotypes. BACKGROUND: Neurodegenerative cognitive impairment in older adults predominantly correlates with tauopathy or synucleinopathy. Accurate antemortem phenotypic diagnosis has important prognostic and treatment implications; additional clinical tools might distinguish between dementia syndromes. METHODS: We quantitatively analyzed RSWA in 61 older adults who underwent polysomnography including 46 with cognitive impairment (20 probable synucleinopathy), 26 probable non-synucleinopathy (15 probable Alzheimer disease, 11 frontotemporal lobar dementia), and 15 age- and sex-matched controls. Submentalis and anterior tibialis RSWA metrics and automated REM atonia index were calculated. Group statistical comparisons and regression were performed, and receiver operating characteristic curves determined diagnostic RSWA thresholds that best distinguished synucleinopathy phenotype. RESULTS: Submentalis-but not anterior tibialis RSWA-was greater in synucleinopathy than nonsynucleinopathy; several RSWA diagnostic thresholds distinguished synucleinopathy with excellent specificity including submentalis tonic, 5.6% (area under the curve [AUC] 0.791); submentalis any, 15.0% (AUC 0.871); submentalis phasic, 10.8% (AUC 0.863); and anterior tibialis phasic, 31.4% (AUC 0.694). In the subset of patients without dream enactment behaviors, submentalis RSWA was also greater in patients with synucleinopathy than in those without synucleinopathy. RSWA was detected more frequently by quantitative than qualitative methods (p = 0.0001). CONCLUSION: Elevated submentalis RSWA distinguishes probable synucleinopathy from probable nonsynucleinopathy in cognitively impaired older adults, even in the absence of clinical dream enactment symptoms. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class III evidence that quantitative RSWA analysis is useful for distinguishing cognitive impairment phenotypes. Further studies with pathologic confirmation of dementia diagnoses are needed to confirm the diagnostic utility of RSWA in dementia.

20.
Brain Pathol ; 30(1): 63-74, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31199537

RESUMO

Chronic traumatic encephalopathy is a debilitating neurodegenerative disorder associated with repetitive traumatic brain injuries often sustained through prior contact sport participation. The frequency of this disorder in a diverse population, including amateur athletes, is unknown. Primary historical obituary and yearbook records were queried for 2566 autopsy cases in the Mayo Clinic Tissue Registry resulting in identification of 300 former athletes and 450 non-athletes. In these cases, neocortical tissue was screened for tau pathology with immunohistochemistry, including pathology consistent with chronic traumatic encephalopathy, blinded to exposure or demographic information. Using research infrastructure of the Rochester Epidemiology Project, a comprehensive and established medical records-linkage system of care providers in southern Minnesota and western Wisconsin, medical diagnostic billing codes pertaining to head trauma, dementia, movement disorders, substance abuse disorders and psychiatric disorders were recorded for cases and controls in a blinded manner. A total of 42 individuals had pathology consistent with, or features of, chronic traumatic encephalopathy. It was more frequent in athletes compared to non-athletes (27 cases versus 15 cases) and was largely observed in men (except for one woman). For contact sports, American football had the highest frequency of chronic traumatic encephalopathy pathology (15% of cases) and an odds ratio of 2.62 (P-value = 0.005). Cases with chronic traumatic encephalopathy pathology had higher frequencies of antemortem clinical features of dementia, psychosis, movement disorders and alcohol abuse compared to cases without chronic traumatic encephalopathy pathology. Understanding the frequency of chronic traumatic encephalopathy pathology in a large autopsy cohort with diverse exposure backgrounds provides a baseline for future prospective studies assessing the epidemiology and public health impact of chronic traumatic encephalopathy and sports-related repetitive head trauma.

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