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1.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0230483, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32218582

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pre-eclampsia shares pathophysiology with intrauterine growth restriction. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether delivery of a small for gestational age (SGA) infant in the 1st pregnancy increases the risk of early and late onset pre-eclampsia in the 2nd pregnancy. Conversely, we investigated whether pre-eclampsia in the 1st pregnancy impacts SGA risk in the 2nd pregnancy. STUDY DESIGN: We studied a cohort from the Dutch Perinatal Registry of 265,031 women with 1st and 2nd singleton pregnancies who delivered between 2000 and 2007. We analyzed 2nd pregnancy risks of early and late onset pre-eclampsia-defined by delivery before or after 34 gestational weeks-as well as SGA below the 5th and between the 5th and 10th percentiles risks with multivariable logistic regressions. Interaction terms between 1st pregnancy hypertension, pre-eclampsia, SGA, and delivery before or after 34 gestational weeks were included in the regressions. RESULTS: First pregnancy early onset pre-eclampsia increased risk of SGA <5th percentile (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.7-2.7) in the 2nd pregnancy. Late onset pre-eclampsia increased the SGA <5th percentile marginally (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.3). In the absence of 1st pregnancy hypertensive disorder, women who delivered an SGA infant in their 1st pregnancy were at increased risk of 2nd pregnancy late onset pre-eclampsia (SGA <5th: OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.58-2.66; SGA 5-10th: OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.01-1.93). Early onset 2nd pregnancy pre-eclampsia risk was also increased, but this was only statistically significant for women who delivered an SGA infant below the 5th percentile in the 1st pregnancy (SGA <5th: OR 2.44, 95% CI 1.19-5.00; SGA 5-10th: OR 1.69, 95% CI 0.68-4.24;). CONCLUSION: Women with 1st pregnancy early onset pre-eclampsia have increased risk of SGA <5th percentile in the 2nd pregnancy. SGA in the 1st pregnancy increases pre-eclampsia risk in the 2nd pregnancy even in the absence of hypertensive disorders in the 1st pregnancy, although absolute risks remain low. These findings strengthen the evidence base associating intrauterine growth restriction with early onset pre-eclampsia.

2.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 7(1)2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32075781

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Although bacteria contribute significantly to acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD), the added value of antibiotics remains controversial, especially in outpatient settings. Age may affect antibiotic effectiveness, but real-world evidence is lacking. We aimed to assess the influence of age on the effectiveness of doxycycline for AECOPD. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study among outpatients with the first recorded AECOPD treated with oral corticosteroids was conducted using a large pharmacy dispensing database. The primary outcome was treatment failure within 15-31 days after treatment start. Secondary outcome was time to second exacerbation. All analyses were stratified by age groups. RESULTS: We identified 6300 outpatients with the first AECOPD. 2261 (36%) received doxycycline and 4039 (64%) did not receive any antibiotic (reference group). Overall, there was no difference in treatment failure (adjusted OR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.84 to 1.12) between two groups. Similarly, no difference in treatment failure was observed in younger groups. However, in patients with advanced age (≥75 years), treatment failure was significantly reduced by doxycycline compared with reference (16% vs 20%, adjusted OR: 0.77, 95% CI: 0.62 to 0.97). Overall, median time to second exacerbation was 169 days (95% CI: 158 to 182 days) in doxycycline group compared with 180 days (95% CI: 169 to 191 days) in reference group (adjusted HR: 1.06, 95% CI: 0.99 to 1.12). Although in older patients there was a trend within 3 months towards longer time of next exacerbation by doxycycline, it did not achieve statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings showed short-term treatment benefit of doxycycline added to oral corticosteroids for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with advanced age. This value remains unclear for persons aged under 75 years in current primary care. Long-term preventive benefits of doxycycline for the next exacerbation were not observed, irrespective of age.

3.
Occup Environ Med ; 77(3): 172-178, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31949041

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the association between maternal occupational exposure to solvents and gastroschisis in offspring. METHODS: We used data from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a large population-based case-control study of major birth defects conducted in 10 US states from 1997 to 2011. Infants with gastroschisis were ascertained by active birth defects surveillance systems. Control infants without major birth defects were selected from vital records or birth hospital records. Self-reported maternal occupational histories were collected by telephone interview. Industrial hygienists reviewed this information to estimate exposure to aromatic, chlorinated and petroleum-based solvents from 1 month before conception through the first trimester of pregnancy. Cumulative exposure to solvents was estimated for the same period accounting for estimated exposure intensity and frequency, job duration and hours worked per week. ORs and 95% CIs were estimated to assess the association between exposure to any solvents or solvent classes, and gastroschisis risk. RESULTS: Among 879 cases and 7817 controls, the overall prevalence of periconceptional solvent exposure was 7.3% and 7.4%, respectively. Exposure to any solvent versus no exposure to solvents was not associated with gastroschisis after adjusting for maternal age (OR 1.00, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.32), nor was an association noted for solvent classes. There was no exposure-response relationship between estimated cumulative solvent exposure and gastroschisis after adjusting for maternal age. CONCLUSION: Our study found no association between maternal occupational solvent exposure and gastroschisis in offspring. Further research is needed to understand risk factors for gastroschisis.

6.
Obes Rev ; 21(2): e12936, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833645

RESUMO

Evidence on the association between physical activity (PA) and adiposity in young children is inconclusive. A systematic review and meta-analyses were conducted to examine associations between accelerometer-derived PA and varying adiposity outcomes in preschool children. Searches were conducted in Embase, MEDLINE and Web of Science to identify studies on the association between total PA, sedentary behaviour or different PA intensities and adiposity in children aged 2 to 7 years. Separate random effects meta-analyses were performed for varying PA intensities and adiposity outcomes. Fifty-six articles were included in the review and 48 in the meta-analyses. There was substantial evidence of an inverse association between moderate-to-vigorous- or vigorous PA and body fat percentage (stdß [SE] = -0.162[0.041]; 5 studies), weight status (r = -0.120, P<.001; 11 studies), fat mass (stdß [SE] = -0.103[0.051]; 5 studies), fat mass index (stdß [SE] = -0.121[0.036]; 2 studies) and skinfold thickness (stdß [SE] = -0.145[0.036]; 4 studies). However, total PA, sedentary behaviour, and different PA intensities were not associated with body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference. Adiposity levels were lower among preschool children engaged in more (moderate-to-) vigorous PA compared with their peers, but no associations between PA and BMI or waist circumference were found.

7.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 268, 2019 Dec 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31791327

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Active smoking is the main risk factor for COPD. Here, epigenetic mechanisms may play a role, since cigarette smoking is associated with differential DNA methylation in whole blood. So far, it is unclear whether epigenetics also play a role in subjects with COPD who never smoked. Therefore, we aimed to identify differential DNA methylation associated with lung function in never smokers. METHODS: We determined epigenome-wide DNA methylation levels of 396,243 CpG-sites (Illumina 450 K) in blood of never smokers in four independent cohorts, LifeLines COPD&C (N = 903), LifeLines DEEP (N = 166), Rotterdam Study (RS)-III (N = 150) and RS-BIOS (N = 206). We meta-analyzed the cohort-specific methylation results to identify differentially methylated CpG-sites with FEV1/FVC. Expression Quantitative Trait Methylation (eQTM) analysis was performed in the Biobank-based Integrative Omics Studies (BIOS). RESULTS: A total of 36 CpG-sites were associated with FEV1/FVC in never smokers at p-value< 0.0001, but the meta-analysis did not reveal any epigenome-wide significant CpG-sites. Of interest, 35 of these 36 CpG-sites have not been associated with lung function before in studies including subjects irrespective of smoking history. Among the top hits were cg10012512, cg02885771, annotated to the gene LTV1 Ribosome Biogenesis factor (LTV1), and cg25105536, annotated to Kelch Like Family Member 32 (KLHL32). Moreover, a total of 11 eQTMS were identified. CONCLUSIONS: With the identification of 35 CpG-sites that are unique for never smokers, our study shows that DNA methylation is also associated with FEV1/FVC in subjects that never smoked and therefore not merely related to smoking.

8.
Eur J Cancer ; 121: 113-122, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31569066

RESUMO

AIM: Intensive treatment regimens have contributed to a marked increase in childhood cancer survival rates. Death due to treatment-related adverse effects becomes an increasingly important area to further improve overall survival. In this study, we examined 5-year survival in children with cancer to identify risk factors for treatment-related mortality (TRM). METHODS: All children (aged <18 years at diagnosis) diagnosed with cancer in 2 Dutch university hospitals between 2003 and 2013 were included, survival status was determined and causes of death were analysed. Various demographic and treatment factors were evaluated, for which a multivariable competing risks analysis was performed. RESULTS: A total of 1764 patients were included; overall 5-year survival was 78.6%. Of all 378 deaths, 81 (21.4%) were treatment-related, with infection being responsible for more than half of these deaths. Forty percent of TRM occurred in the first three months after initial diagnosis. Factors associated with TRM in the multivariable competing risks analysis were diagnosis of a haematological malignancy, age at diagnosis <1 year and receipt of allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell transplantation. In children suffering from haematological malignancies, TRM accounted for 56.3% of 103 deaths. CONCLUSION: Over one in five deaths in children with cancer death was related to treatment, mostly due to infection. In children suffering from a haematological malignancy, more children died due to their treatment than due to progression of their disease. To further increase overall survival, clinical and research focus should be placed on lowering TRM rates without compromising anti-tumour efficacy. The findings presented in this study might help identifying areas for improvement.

9.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2019 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31152171

RESUMO

Many workers are daily exposed to occupational agents like gases/fumes, mineral dust or biological dust, which could induce adverse health effects. Epigenetic mechanisms, such as DNA methylation, have been suggested to play a role. We therefore aimed to identify differentially methylated regions (DMRs) upon occupational exposures in never-smokers and investigated if these DMRs associated with gene expression levels. To determine the effects of occupational exposures independent of smoking, 903 never-smokers of the LifeLines cohort study were included. We performed three genome-wide methylation analyses (Illumina 450 K), one per occupational exposure being gases/fumes, mineral dust and biological dust, using robust linear regression adjusted for appropriate confounders. DMRs were identified using comb-p in Python. Results were validated in the Rotterdam Study (233 never-smokers) and methylation-expression associations were assessed using Biobank-based Integrative Omics Study data (n = 2802). Of the total 21 significant DMRs, 14 DMRs were associated with gases/fumes and 7 with mineral dust. Three of these DMRs were associated with both exposures (RPLP1 and LINC02169 (2×)) and 11 DMRs were located within transcript start sites of gene expression regulating genes. We replicated two DMRs with gases/fumes (VTRNA2-1 and GNAS) and one with mineral dust (CCDC144NL). In addition, nine gases/fumes DMRs and six mineral dust DMRs significantly associated with gene expression levels. Our data suggest that occupational exposures may induce differential methylation of gene expression regulating genes and thereby may induce adverse health effects. Given the millions of workers that are exposed daily to occupational exposures, further studies on this epigenetic mechanism and health outcomes are warranted.

10.
Eur Respir J ; 54(1)2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31073081

RESUMO

Previous reports link differential DNA methylation (DNAme) to environmental exposures that are associated with lung function. Direct evidence on lung function DNAme is, however, limited. We undertook an agnostic epigenome-wide association study (EWAS) on pre-bronchodilation lung function and its change in adults.In a discovery-replication EWAS design, DNAme in blood and spirometry were measured twice, 6-15 years apart, in the same participants of three adult population-based discovery cohorts (n=2043). Associated DNAme markers (p<5×10-7) were tested in seven replication cohorts (adult: n=3327; childhood: n=420). Technical bias-adjusted residuals of a regression of the normalised absolute ß-values on control probe-derived principle components were regressed on level and change of forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and their ratio (FEV1/FVC) in the covariate-adjusted discovery EWAS. Inverse-variance-weighted meta-analyses were performed on results from discovery and replication samples in all participants and never-smokers.EWAS signals were enriched for smoking-related DNAme. We replicated 57 lung function DNAme markers in adult, but not childhood samples, all previously associated with smoking. Markers not previously associated with smoking failed replication. cg05575921 (AHRR (aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor)) showed the statistically most significant association with cross-sectional lung function (FEV1/FVC: pdiscovery=3.96×10-21 and pcombined=7.22×10-50). A score combining 10 DNAme markers previously reported to mediate the effect of smoking on lung function was associated with lung function (FEV1/FVC: p=2.65×10-20).Our results reveal that lung function-associated methylation signals in adults are predominantly smoking related, and possibly of clinical utility in identifying poor lung function and accelerated decline. Larger studies with more repeat time-points are needed to identify lung function DNAme in never-smokers and in children.

11.
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol ; 29(4): 539-547, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31028280

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to investigate the role of genetics in the respiratory response of asthmatic children to air pollution, with a genome-wide level analysis of gene by nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) interaction on lung function and to identify biological pathways involved. METHODS: We used a two-step method for fast linear mixed model computations for genome-wide association studies, exploring whether variants modify the longitudinal relationship between 4-month average pollution and post-bronchodilator FEV1 in 522 Caucasian and 88 African-American asthmatic children. Top hits were confirmed with classic linear mixed-effect models. We used the improved gene set enrichment analysis for GWAS (i-GSEA4GWAS) to identify plausible pathways. RESULTS: Two SNPs near the EPHA3 (rs13090972 and rs958144) and one in TXNDC8 (rs7041938) showed significant interactions with NO2 in Caucasians but we did not replicate this locus in African-Americans. SNP-CO interactions did not reach genome-wide significance. The i-GSEA4GWAS showed a pathway linked to the HO-1/CO system to be associated with CO-related FEV1 changes. For NO2-related FEV1 responses, we identified pathways involved in cellular adhesion, oxidative stress, inflammation, and metabolic responses. CONCLUSION: The host lung function response to long-term exposure to pollution is linked to genes involved in cellular adhesion, oxidative stress, inflammatory, and metabolic pathways.

12.
Respir Res ; 20(1): 64, 2019 Apr 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30940143

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A growing number of studies clearly demonstrate a substantial association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD), although little is known about the shared genetics that contribute to this association. METHODS: We conducted a large-scale cross-trait genome-wide association study to investigate genetic overlap between COPD (Ncase = 12,550, Ncontrol = 46,368) from the International COPD Genetics Consortium and four primary cardiac traits: resting heart rate (RHR) (N = 458,969), high blood pressure (HBP) (Ncase = 144,793, Ncontrol = 313,761), coronary artery disease (CAD)(Ncase = 60,801, Ncontrol = 123,504), and stroke (Ncase = 40,585, Ncontrol = 406,111) from UK Biobank, CARDIoGRAMplusC4D Consortium, and International Stroke Genetics Consortium data. RESULTS: RHR and HBP had modest genetic correlation, and CAD had borderline evidence with COPD at a genome-wide level. We found evidence of local genetic correlation with particular regions of the genome. Cross-trait meta-analysis of COPD identified 21 loci jointly associated with RHR, 22 loci with HBP, and 3 loci with CAD. Functional analysis revealed that shared genes were enriched in smoking-related pathways and in cardiovascular, nervous, and immune system tissues. An examination of smoking-related genetic variants identified SNPs located in 15q25.1 region associated with cigarettes per day, with effects on RHR and CAD. A Mendelian randomization analysis showed a significant positive causal effect of COPD on RHR (causal estimate = 0.1374, P = 0.008). CONCLUSION: In a set of large-scale GWAS, we identify evidence of shared genetics between COPD and cardiac traits.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Bases de Dados Genéticas/tendências , Predisposição Genética para Doença/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Humanos , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/diagnóstico , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/epidemiologia , Característica Quantitativa Herdável
13.
Pregnancy Hypertens ; 15: 32-36, 2019 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30825924

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To estimate preeclampsia occurrence and recurrence risk in the 2nd pregnancy and analyze associated risk factors such as 1st pregnancy maximum diastolic blood pressure (maxDBP) and gestational age at delivery (GA). STUDY DESIGN: Linked cohort of 1st and 2nd pregnancies of 272,551 women from the Dutch Perinatal Registry collected between 2000 and 2007. We defined preeclampsia as hypertension (maxDBP ≥90 mmHg or documented hypertension) plus proteinuria (≥300 mg/24 h) and analyzed its 2nd pregnancy occurrence with logistic regression. Early and late onset preeclampsia were defined by delivery before and after the 34th week, respectively. RESULTS: Preeclampsia prevalences in the 1st and 2nd pregnancies were 2.5% and 0.9%, respectively. Women with prior preeclampsia had a 10.5% risk of recurrence. For women with term 1st pregnancies and maxDBP <80 mmHg, the 2nd pregnancy preeclampsia rate was 0.2% (95% CI 0.17%-0.23%), while for those whom presented maxDBP ≥110 mmHg it was 4.2% (95% CI 3.6%-4.8%). First pregnancy late onset preeclampsia was associated with increased preeclampsia recurrence risk proportional to 1st pregnancy maxDBP: in women with a maxDBP between 100 and 109 mmHg the recurrence risk was 8.3%, while for women with a maxDBP ≥110 mmHg this risk was 11% (difference 2.7%; 95% CI 1.0%-4.4%). In 1st pregnancy early onset preeclampsia corresponding rates were 14.8% and 19.3% (difference 4.5%; 95% CI -1.3%-9.7%). CONCLUSION: Preeclampsia recurrence risk is 10%. Preeclampsia risk in the 2nd pregnancy increases proportionally to 1st pregnancy maxDBP. Earlier onsets of 1st pregnancy preeclampsia further increase recurrence risk.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Idade Gestacional , Pré-Eclâmpsia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Diabetes Gestacional/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Razão de Chances , Paridade , Vigilância da População , Pré-Eclâmpsia/etiologia , Gravidez , Prevalência , Recidiva , Fatores de Risco
14.
Early Hum Dev ; 131: 75-80, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30870625

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Predicting necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) might help in preventing its devastating consequences. We aimed to investigate whether early cerebral and intestinal tissue oxygen saturation (rSO2) and fractional tissue oxygen extraction (FTOE) predict the onset of NEC. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational case-control study. SUBJECTS: Infants with gestational age (GA) <32 weeks were included. For every NEC case we matched two controls based on GA, birth weight (BW), and a patent ductus arteriosus. OUTCOME MEASURES: Cerebral oxygenation and intestinal oxygenation were prospectively monitored two-hours daily during the first five days after birth and once a week thereafter until five weeks after birth or until NEC developed. We used Kaplan-Meier analyses to determine the ability of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) measurements, including their variability, to predict the development of NEC. RESULTS: We included ten infants (median (range) GA 27.1 (24.6-29.4) weeks, BW 903 (560-1630) grams) who developed NEC at median postnatal day 13 (range: 4-43 days), and 20 matched controls. Infants with cerebral rSO2 <70% within the first 48 h after birth developed NEC significantly more often than infants with cerebral rSO2 ≥70% (odds ratio 9.00 (95% CI 1.33-61.14). Intestinal FTOE was higher in infants who developed NEC compared to controls during the last NIRS measurement at median 2 days (range: 1-7) before NEC onset (median 0.65 vs. 0.44). CONCLUSIONS: Cerebral oxygenation monitoring early after birth might be valuable in the risk assessment of NEC development. Additionally, our results suggest that intestinal oxygenation is impaired before the onset of clinical NEC.


Assuntos
Enterocolite Necrosante/etiologia , Oxigênio/metabolismo , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Recém-Nascido Prematuro , Recém-Nascido Pequeno para a Idade Gestacional , Mucosa Intestinal , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Oxigênio/análise , Fatores de Risco , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho/métodos
15.
BMC Pulm Med ; 19(1): 58, 2019 Mar 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30845926

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Airflow obstruction is a hallmark of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and is defined as either the ratio between forced expiratory volume in one second and forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) < 70% or < lower limit of normal (LLN). This study aimed to assess the overlap between genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on airflow obstruction using these two definitions in the same population stratified by smoking. METHODS: GWASes were performed in the LifeLines Cohort Study for both airflow obstruction definitions in never-smokers (NS = 5071) and ever-smokers (ES = 4855). The FEV1/FVC < 70% models were adjusted for sex, age, and height; FEV1/FVC < LLN models were not adjusted. Ever-smokers models were additionally adjusted for pack-years and current-smoking. The overlap in significantly associated SNPs between the two definitions and never/ever-smokers was assessed using several p-value thresholds. To quantify the agreement, the Pearson correlation coefficient was calculated between the p-values and ORs. Replication was performed in the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen study (NS = 432, ES = 823). The overlapping SNPs with p < 10- 4 were validated in the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen and Rotterdam Study cohorts (NS = 1966, ES = 3134) and analysed for expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) in lung tissue (n = 1087). RESULTS: In the LifeLines cohort, 96% and 93% of the never- and ever-smokers were classified concordantly based on the two definitions. 26 and 29% of the investigated SNPs were overlapping at p < 0.05 in never- and ever-smokers, respectively. At p < 10- 4 the overlap was 4% and 6% respectively, which could be change findings as shown by simulation studies. The effect estimates of the SNPs of the two definitions correlated strongly, but the p-values showed more variation and correlated only moderately. Similar observations were made in the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen study. Two overlapping SNPs in never-smokers (NFYC and FABP7) had the same direction of effect in the validation cohorts and the NFYC SNP was an eQTL for NFYC-AS1. NFYC is a transcription factor that binds to several known COPD genes, and FABP7 may be involved in abnormal pulmonary development. CONCLUSIONS: The definition of airflow obstruction and the population under study may be important determinants of which SNPs are associated with airflow obstruction. The genes FABP7 and NFYC(-AS1) could play a role in airflow obstruction in never-smokers specifically.


Assuntos
Fator de Ligação a CCAAT/genética , Proteína 7 de Ligação a Ácidos Graxos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Fumar/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Volume Expiratório Forçado , Homologia de Genes/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Logísticos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Espirometria , Capacidade Vital , Adulto Jovem
16.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 494-505, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30804561

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the leading cause of respiratory mortality worldwide. Genetic risk loci provide new insights into disease pathogenesis. We performed a genome-wide association study in 35,735 cases and 222,076 controls from the UK Biobank and additional studies from the International COPD Genetics Consortium. We identified 82 loci associated with P < 5 × 10-8; 47 of these were previously described in association with either COPD or population-based measures of lung function. Of the remaining 35 new loci, 13 were associated with lung function in 79,055 individuals from the SpiroMeta consortium. Using gene expression and regulation data, we identified functional enrichment of COPD risk loci in lung tissue, smooth muscle, and several lung cell types. We found 14 COPD loci shared with either asthma or pulmonary fibrosis. COPD genetic risk loci clustered into groups based on associations with quantitative imaging features and comorbidities. Our analyses provide further support for the genetic susceptibility and heterogeneity of COPD.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Asma/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Expressão Gênica/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Pulmão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fibrose Pulmonar/genética , Fumar/genética
17.
Environ Int ; 122: 263-269, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30449631

RESUMO

Respiratory symptoms are important indicators of respiratory diseases. Both genetic and environmental factors contribute to respiratory symptoms development but less is known about gene-environment interactions. We aimed to assess interactions between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and occupational exposures on respiratory symptoms cough, dyspnea and phlegm. As identification cohort LifeLines I (n = 7976 subjects) was used. Job-specific exposure was estimated using the ALOHA + job exposure matrix. SNP-by-occupational exposure interactions on respiratory symptoms were tested using logistic regression adjusted for gender, age, and current smoking. SNP-by-exposure interactions with a p-value <10-4 were tested for replication in two independent cohorts: LifeLines II (n = 5260) and the Vlagtwedde-Vlaardingen cohort (n = 1529). The interaction estimates of the replication cohorts were meta-analyzed using PLINK. Replication was achieved when the meta-analysis p-value was <0.05 and the interaction effect had the same direction as in the identification cohort. Additionally, we assessed whether replicated SNPs associated with gene expression by analyzing if they were cis-acting expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) in lung tissue. In the replication meta-analysis, sixteen out of 477 identified SNP-by-occupational exposure interactions had a p-value <0.05 and 9 of these interactions had the same direction as in the identification cohort. Several identified loci were plausible candidates for respiratory symptoms, such as TMPRSS9, SERPINH1, TOX3, and ARHGAP18. Three replicated SNPs were cis-eQTLs for FCER1A, CHN1, and TIMM13 in lung tissue. Taken together, this genome-wide SNP-by-occupational exposure interaction study in relation to cough, dyspnea, and phlegm identified several suggestive susceptibility genes. Further research should determine if these genes are true susceptibility loci for respiratory symptoms in relation to occupational exposures.


Assuntos
Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Exposição Ocupacional , Doenças Respiratórias , Estudos de Coortes , Humanos , Exposição Ocupacional/análise , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Doenças Respiratórias/epidemiologia , Doenças Respiratórias/genética
19.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD007287, 2018 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30199097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This is the second update of the review first published in the Cochrane Library (2010, Issue 2) and later updated (2014, Issue 9).Despite advances in chemotherapy, the prognosis of ovarian cancer remains poor. Antigen-specific active immunotherapy aims to induce tumour antigen-specific anti-tumour immune responses as an alternative treatment for ovarian cancer. OBJECTIVES: Primary objective• To assess the clinical efficacy of antigen-specific active immunotherapy for the treatment of ovarian cancer as evaluated by tumour response measured by Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) and/or cancer antigen (CA)-125 levels, response to post-immunotherapy treatment, and survival differences◦ In addition, we recorded the numbers of observed antigen-specific humoral and cellular responsesSecondary objective• To establish which combinations of immunotherapeutic strategies with tumour antigens provide the best immunological and clinical results SEARCH METHODS: For the previous version of this review, we performed a systematic search of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2009, Issue 3), in the Cochrane Library, the Cochrane Gynaecological Cancer Group Specialised Register, MEDLINE and Embase databases, and clinicaltrials.gov (1966 to July 2009). We also conducted handsearches of the proceedings of relevant annual meetings (1996 to July 2009).For the first update of this review, we extended the searches to October 2013, and for this update, we extended the searches to July 2017. SELECTION CRITERIA: We searched for randomised controlled trials (RCTs), as well as non-randomised studies (NRSs), that included participants with epithelial ovarian cancer, irrespective of disease stage, who were treated with antigen-specific active immunotherapy, irrespective of type of vaccine, antigen used, adjuvant used, route of vaccination, treatment schedule, and reported clinical or immunological outcomes. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two reviews authors independently extracted the data. We evaluated the risk of bias for RCTs according to standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane, and for NRSs by using a selection of quality domains deemed best applicable to the NRS. MAIN RESULTS: We included 67 studies (representing 3632 women with epithelial ovarian cancer). The most striking observations of this review address the lack of uniformity in conduct and reporting of early-phase immunotherapy studies. Response definitions show substantial variation between trials, which makes comparison of trial results unreliable. Information on adverse events is frequently limited. Furthermore, reports of both RCTs and NRSs frequently lack the relevant information necessary for risk of bias assessment. Therefore, we cannot rule out serious biases in most of the included trials. However, selection, attrition, and selective reporting biases are likely to have affected the studies included in this review. GRADE ratings were high only for survival; for other primary outcomes, GRADE ratings were very low.The largest body of evidence is currently available for CA-125-targeted antibody therapy (17 studies, 2347 participants; very low-certainty evidence). Non-randomised studies of CA-125-targeted antibody therapy suggest improved survival among humoral and/or cellular responders, with only moderate adverse events. However, four large randomised placebo-controlled trials did not show any clinical benefit, despite induction of immune responses in approximately 60% of participants. Time to relapse with CA-125 monoclonal antibody versus placebo, respectively, ranged from 10.3 to 18.9 months versus 10.3 to 13 months (six RCTs, 1882 participants; high-certainty evidence). Only one RCT provided data on overall survival, reporting rates of 80% in both treatment and placebo groups (three RCTs, 1062 participants; high-certainty evidence). Other small studies targeting many different tumour antigens have presented promising immunological results. As these strategies have not yet been tested in RCTs, no reliable inferences about clinical efficacy can be made. Given the promising immunological results and the limited side effects and toxicity reported, exploration of clinical efficacy in large well-designed RCTs may be worthwhile. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that despite promising immunological responses, no clinically effective antigen-specific active immunotherapy is yet available for ovarian cancer. Results should be interpreted cautiously, as review authors found a significant dearth of relevant information for assessment of risk of bias in both RCTs and NRSs.


Assuntos
Imunoterapia Ativa , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia , Antígeno Ca-125 , Feminino , Humanos , Neoplasias Epiteliais e Glandulares , Neoplasias Ovarianas
20.
BMJ Open Respir Res ; 5(1): e000282, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30018765

RESUMO

Introduction: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a progressive inflammatory lung disease with cigarette smoke as the main risk factor for its development. Since not every smoker develops COPD, other factors likely underlie differences in susceptibility to develop COPD. Here, we tested if DNA methylation may be such a factor by assessing the association between DNA methylation levels and COPD in never and current smokers from the general population. Methods: For the current study, 1561 subjects were non-randomly selected from the LifeLines cohort study. We included 903 never smokers and 658 current smokers with and without COPD, defined as pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s/forced vital capacity (FEV1/FVC) <70%. Subsequently, we performed robust regression analysis on whole blood DNA methylation levels of 420 938 CpG sites with COPD as outcome. Results: None of the CpG sites in both the never and the current smokers were genome-wide significantly associated with COPD. CpG site cg14972228 annotated to SIPAL3 was most significant (p=5.66×10-6) in the never smokers, while CpG site cg08282037 annotated to EPS8L1 was most significant (p=1.45×10-5) in the current smokers. Conclusion: In contrast to a previous, smaller study, we did not observe any significant association between DNA methylation levels and the presence of COPD, independent of smoking status. Apparently, DNA methylation studies are highly variable.

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