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2.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 2021 Jan 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33470692

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Recent trends in male breast cancer have been inadequately studied. We updated mortality trends in selected countries and regions worldwide using most recent available data and we predicted figures for 2020. METHODS: We extracted official death certification data for male breast cancer and population estimates from the WHO and the Pan American Health Organization databases, from 2000 to 2017. We computed age-standardized (world population) death rates for selected countries and regions worldwide. We used joinpoint regression analysis to identify significant changes in trends and to predict death numbers and rates for 2020. RESULTS: In 2015-2017, Central-Eastern Europe had a rate of 2.85/1 000 000, and Russia of 2.22, ranking among the highest. North-Western and Southern Europe, the European Union as a whole and the USA showed rates ranging between 1.5 and 2.0. Lower rates were observed in most Latin American countries, with values below 1.35/1 000 000, in Australia, 1.22, and Japan, 0.58. Between 2000-2004 and 2015-2017, age-adjusted death rates decreased between 10 and 40% in North-Western Europe, Russia, and the USA, and between 1.5 and 25% in the other areas under study, except Latin America (+0.8%). Except for Central-Eastern Europe, predicted rates for 2020 were favourable. CONCLUSION: Advancements in management are likely the main drivers of the favourable trends in male breast cancer death rates over the last decades. Delayed diagnosis and limited access to effective care explain the higher mortality in some areas.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 1038, 2021 Jan 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33441781

RESUMO

Previous studies have suggested that ß-adrenergic signaling may regulate the growth of various cancers. The aim of our study is to investigate the association between the incidental use of beta-blockers for various conditions on the overall survival of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Patients with histologically-confirmed PDAC between 2007 and 2011 were extracted from Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry (SEER)-Medicare linked database. Kaplan Meier and multivariable Cox Proportional-Hazard models were used to examine the association between beta-blocker usage before diagnosis and overall survival adjusting for appropriate confounders. As an additional analysis we also examined continuous beta-blocker use before and after diagnosis. From 2007 to 2011, 13,731 patients were diagnosed with PDAC. Of these, 7130 patients had Medicare Part D coverage in the 6-month period before diagnosis, with 2564 (36%) of these patients using beta-blockers in this period. Patients receiving beta-blockers had a mean survival time of 5.1 months compared to 6 months for non-users (p < 0.01). In multivariable analysis, beta-blockers usage was not associated with improved survival (Hazard Ratio (HR) 1.04, 95%, Confidence Interval (CI) 0.98-1.1, p = 0.2). When patients were stratified by conditions with indications for beta-blocker usage, such as hypertension, coronary artery disease and cardiac arrhythmia, differences in survival were insignificant compared to non-users in all groups (p > 0.05). After stratification by receptor selectivity, this lack of association with survival persisted (p > 0.05 for all). As a subgroup analysis, looking at patients with continuous Medicare Part D coverage who used beta-blockers in the 6-month period before and after cancer diagnosis, we identified 7085 patients, of which 1750 (24.7%) had continuous beta blocker use. In multivariable analysis, continuous beta-blockers usage was associated with improved survival (Hazard Ratio (HR) 0.86, 95%, Confidence Interval (CI) 0.8-0.9, p < 0.01). Beta-blocker usage before diagnosis does not confer a survival advantage in patients with PDAC, though continuous use before and after diagnosis did confer a survival advantage. Prospective studies into the mechanism for this advantage are needed.

5.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 30(1): 1-14, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33273205

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Predicted cancer mortality figures are useful for public health planning. We predicted cancer mortality rates in Israel, Hong Kong, Japan, the Philippines, Korea, Australia, Russia and Ukraine for the year 2020 using the most recent available data. We focused on breast cancer. METHODS: We obtained cancer death certification and population data from the WHO and the United Nations Population Division databases. We derived figures for 10 major cancer sites and total cancers over 1970-2017. We predicted numbers of deaths and age-standardized mortality rates for 2020 through joinpoint regression models. We calculated the number of avoided deaths from 1994-2020. RESULTS: Overall, total cancer mortality is predicted to decline. Russia had the highest all cancers rates in 2020, 151.9/100 000 men and 79.6 women; the Philippines had the lowest rate in men, 78.0/100 000, Korea in women, 47.5. Stomach cancer rates declined over the whole period in all countries considered, colorectal cancer since the late 1990s. Trends for pancreas were inconsistent. Predicted rates for lung and breast cancer were favourable; women from Hong Kong, Korea and Australia had lung cancer death rates higher than breast ones. Predicted rates for uterine, ovarian, prostate and bladder cancers and leukaemias were downward for most countries. Between 1994 and 2020, over 3.3 million cancer deaths were avoided in the considered countries, except for the Philippines where no reduction was observed. CONCLUSION: Predicted cancer rates were lower than in the European Union and the USA, even though falls started later and were less marked.

7.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 21298, 2020 Dec 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33277509

RESUMO

An increased incidence of thyroid cancer has been reported in the area close to Mount Etna, the largest volcano in Europe located in Northeastern Sicily. We tested the hypothesis that exposure to the emissions from the volcano is associated with thyroid cancer in 186 municipalities from three provinces surrounding the volcano (1.9 million inhabitants). We measured the angle between the bearing of the municipalities and each direction, with special focus on South-East, the prevalent direction of the plume, and conducted a regression analysis on 2003-2016 incidence rates of thyroid cancer, adjusting for distance from Mount Etna, population size, and income. A 10-degree increase in the angle with South-East was associated with a decrease in thyroid cancer rates in the whole population (- 0.67 cases/100,000, p = 0.002) and in women (- 1.54/100,000, p < 0.001), and were robust to several sensitivity analyses. Similar results were obtained for East-South-East direction. These results support the hypothesis of a potential role of exposure to the plume from Mount Etna in determining the high rates of thyroid cancer. The results need to be confirmed in analytical studies, in which information of exposure to chemicals originating from the volcano, as well as other possible causes, should be carefully measured, molecular characteristics of the tumors and taken into account.

9.
Environ Res ; : 110440, 2020 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33181136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several aspects of the association between exposure to air pollution and risk of lung cancer remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: We aimed at performing a meta-analysis of high-quality cohort studies on exposure to particulate matter (PM) 10 and PM2.5 and risk of lung cancer. METHODS: We identified cohort studies published since 2004, that reported risk estimates of lung cancer for exposure to PM2.5 and PM10 adjusted for tobacco smoking and socioeconomic status, and conducted a meta-analysis based on random-effects models, including stratification by outcome, sex, country, tobacco smoking, and age. RESULTS: Results on PM2.5 exposure were available from 15 studies; the summary relative risk (RR) for an increase of 10 µg/m3 was 1.16 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09, 1.23). The corresponding RR for PM10 exposure was 1.23 (95 CI 1.05, 1.40; seven studies). A higher risk was suggested in studies based on lung cancer mortality and in studies conducted in East Asia, while no difference was shown according to sex, smoking status or age. There was no suggestion of publication bias. CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis supported the hypothesis of an association between exposure to PM2.5 or PM10 and risk of lung cancer, and provided evidence that the magnitude of the risk might be higher than previously estimated, and might be modified by outcome and geographic region.

10.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(10)2020 Oct 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33092262

RESUMO

Phenolic compounds may exert a favorable effect on the risk of several cancer types, including gastric cancer (GC). However, selected polyphenol classes have not been adequately investigated in relation to GC. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between the intake of polyphenols in relation to GC risk. We used data from the Stomach cancer Pooling (StoP) Project, including 10 studies from six countries (3471 GC cases and 8344 controls). We carried out an individual participant data pooled analysis using a two-stage approach. The summary odds ratios (ORs) of GC for each compound, and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI), were computed by pooling study specific ORs obtained through multivariate logistic regression, using random effect models. Inverse associations with GC emerged for total polyphenols (OR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.54-0.81, for the highest versus lowest quartile of intake), total flavonoids (OR = 0.73, 95% CI = 0.55-0.90), anthocyanidins (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.56-0.92), flavanols (OR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.66-0.88), flavanones (OR = 0.57, 95%CI = 0.44-0.69), total phenolic acids (OR = 0.75, 95%CI = 0.55-0.94), and hydroxybenzoic acids (OR = 0.73, 95%CI = 0.57-0.89). Results were consistent across strata of age, sex, social class, and smoking habit. Suggestive inverse associations were also found for flavonols (OR = 0.76, 95%CI = 0.51-1.01) and hydroxycinnamic acids (OR = 0.82, 95%CI = 0.58-1.06). Further investigations from longitudinal data are needed to confirm this association.

11.
Crit Rev Toxicol ; 50(7): 605-639, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33021439

RESUMO

The inhalation of dust containing certain nickel compounds has been associated with an increased risk of lung and nasal cancers in occupational studies of workers who process or refine sulfidic nickel ores and are exposed to relatively high levels of mixtures of water-soluble, sulfidic, oxidic, and/or metallic forms of nickel. We conducted a systematic review of the potential carcinogenicity of metallic nickel, focusing on cancers of the respiratory tract. We evaluated the quality and risk of bias (RoB) of the relevant epidemiology, experimental animal, and in vitro mechanistic studies using the National Toxicology Program's Office of Health Assessment and Translation (OHAT) RoB Rating Tool. We then used a systematic review protocol based on the OHAT approach to critically assess whether metallic nickel should be considered a human respiratory carcinogen. Our evaluation of the epidemiology studies indicates that there is no substantive evidence of increased respiratory cancer risk in workers exposed predominantly to metallic nickel. Animal evidence indicates that metallic nickel does not increase the incidence of respiratory tumors in rodents exposed by inhalation. The in vitro studies are limited in value, as they bypass normal clearance mechanisms. Nevertheless, the mechanistic evidence indicates that metallic nickel is not mutagenic but can induce DNA strand breaks under certain conditions. Based on a standard framework for assessing causality, we conclude that the evidence does not support a causal relationship between metallic nickel exposure and respiratory cancer in humans.

12.
Occup Environ Med ; 2020 Oct 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33115922

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the risk of lung cancer associated with ever working as a painter, duration of employment and type of painter by histological subtype as well as joint effects with smoking, within the SYNERGY project. METHODS: Data were pooled from 16 participating case-control studies conducted internationally. Detailed individual occupational and smoking histories were available for 19 369 lung cancer cases (684 ever employed as painters) and 23 674 age-matched and sex-matched controls (532 painters). Multivariable unconditional logistic regression models were adjusted for age, sex, centre, cigarette pack-years, time-since-smoking cessation and lifetime work in other jobs that entailed exposure to lung carcinogens. RESULTS: Ever having worked as a painter was associated with an increased risk of lung cancer in men (OR 1.30; 95% CI 1.13 to 1.50). The association was strongest for construction and repair painters and the risk was elevated for all histological subtypes, although more evident for small cell and squamous cell lung cancer than for adenocarcinoma and large cell carcinoma. There was evidence of interaction on the additive scale between smoking and employment as a painter (relative excess risk due to interaction >0). CONCLUSIONS: Our results by type/industry of painter may aid future identification of causative agents or exposure scenarios to develop evidence-based practices for reducing harmful exposures in painters.

13.
Nutr J ; 19(1): 108, 2020 09 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32988395

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Flavonoids are the most important group of polyphenols with well-known beneficial effects on health. However; the association of intake of total flavonoid or their subclasses with all-cause or cause-specific mortality is not fully understood. The present study aims to evaluate the association between intake of total flavonoid, flavonoid subclasses, and total and cause-specific mortality in a developing country. METHODS: A total number of 49,173 participants from the Golestan cohort study, who completed a validated food frequency questionnaire at recruitment, were followed from 2004 till 2018. Phenol-Explorer database was applied to estimate dietary intakes of total flavonoid and different flavonoid subclasses. Associations were examined using adjusted Cox proportional hazards models. RESULTS: During a mean follow-up of 10.63 years, 5104 deaths were reported. After adjusting for several potential confounders, the hazard ratios (HRs) of all-cause mortality for the highest versus the lowest quintile of dietary flavanones, flavones, isoflavonoids, and dihydrochalcones were 0.81 (95% confidence interval = 0.73-0.89), 0.83(0.76-0.92), 0.88(0.80-0.96) and 0.83(0.77-0.90), respectively. However, there was no association between total flavonoid intake or other flavonoid subclasses with all-cause mortality. In cause-specific mortality analyses, flavanones and flavones intakes were inversely associated with CVD mortality [HRs: 0.86(0.73-1.00) and 0.85(0.72-1.00)] and isoflavonoids and dihydrochalcones were the only flavonoid subclasses that showed a protective association against cancer mortality [HR: 0.82(0.68-0.98)]. CONCLUSION: The results of our study suggest that certain subclasses of flavonoids can reduce all-cause mortality and mortality rate from CVD and cancer.

14.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 29(6): 565-581, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898013

RESUMO

High mobility group A protein-2 (HMGA2) is an architectural transcription factor that binds to the A/T-rich DNA minor groove and is responsible for regulating transcriptional activity of multiple genes indirectly through chromatin change and assembling enhanceosome. HMGA2 is overexpressed in multiple tumor types, suggesting its involvement in cancer initiation and progression, thus, making it an ideal candidate for cancer diagnostic and prognostic. We performed a systematic review to examine the role of HMGA2 as a universal tumor cancer diagnostic and prognostic marker. We used Reporting Recommendations for Tumor Marker Prognostic Studies to systematically search OvidMedline, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library for English language studies, published between 1995 and June 2019. Meta-analysis provided pooled risk estimates and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for an association between overall survival and recurrence of cancers for studies with available estimates. We identified 42 eligible studies with a total of 5123 tumor samples in 15 types of cancer. The pooled percentage of HMGA2 gene expression in tumor samples was 65.14%. Meta-analysis showed that cancer patients with HMGA2 positive have significantly reduced survival, compared to patients without HMGA2 gene [pooled-hazard ratio (HR) = 1.85, 95% CI 1.48-2.22]. There was a positive association between cancer patients with HMGA2 overexpression and cancer recurrence though this association did not reach significance (pooled-HR = 1.44, 95% CI 0.80-2.07). Overexpression of HMGA2 was found in 15 types of cancer. There was an association between HMGA2 overexpression with reduced survival of cancer patients. HMGA2 is thus considered a promising universal tumor marker for prognostics.

15.
Int J Cancer ; 2020 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32895947

RESUMO

Scant evidence exists to support the association of opium use with head and neck cancer, limited to the larynx and oral cavity. In a multicenter case-control study-Iran Opium and Cancer study, we recruited 633 cases of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) (254 lip and oral cavity, 54 pharynx, 327 larynx and 28 other subsites within the head and neck) and 3065 frequency-matched controls from April 2016 to April 2019. Odds ratios (ORs) for opium use and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were obtained using mixed-effects logistic regression because of heterogeneity among centers. The adjusted OR (95% CI) for regular opium use was 3.76 (2.96-4.79) for all HNSCC combined. Strong dose-response effects were observed by frequency or amount of use, and duration of use. Regular opium uses significantly increased the risk of HNSCC of the pharynx, larynx and other subsites within the head and neck with OR (95% CI) of 2.90 (1.40-6.02), 6.55 (4.69-9.13) and 5.95 (2.41-14.71), respectively. The observed associations were significant even among never tobacco smokers (including cigarette and water-pipe smoking). Moreover, by the multiplicative interaction scale, the effect of opium use could be varied by cigarette smoking on HNSCC, 8.16 (6.20-10.74). For the first time, the current study showed opium users have an increased risk of several anatomic subsites of HNSCC.

16.
Aging (Albany NY) ; 12(17): 16744-16758, 2020 Sep 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: As a higher proportion of adults live beyond 85 years, their cancer burden is expected to increase. While trends among the oldest old are established for major epithelial cancers (breast, prostate, lung, and colorectal cancers), they are less studied for minor cancers. This study describes age trends of cancer mortality, with emphasis on individuals aged 85+ years. RESULTS: Overall cancer mortality peaked at 85 years old and decreased or stabilized for all countries except the USA, France, and Japan, in which mortality continued to increase after age 85 years. For most countries, cancers of the oesophagus, stomach, liver, and larynx have a similar flat trend patterns across all ages. Bladder and kidney cancers as well as non-Hodgkin lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and leukemia showed a decreasing pattern after 85 years for UK, Germany, Italy and Poland. Lung cancer peaked at 80 years, although the age-specific peak among women did not follow the same pattern among all countries. Breast and prostate cancers increased after 85 years. CONCLUSION: Mortality stabilized or decreased after age 85, particularly for non-hormonal cancers. Whether this reflects a true biological levelling of mortality rates, or lower validity of cancer registration among the oldest old, remains open to discussion. METHODS: Completed death data were obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO) for eight countries (2000 to 2014). Age-specific mortality rates were calculated for each 5-year age group above age 64. Joinpoint regression models were used to identify significant changes in mortality trends by age.

17.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 29(5): 367-381, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740162

RESUMO

Cancer mortality has declined over the last three decades in most high-income countries reflecting improvements in cancer prevention, diagnosis, and management. However, there are persisting and substantial differences in mortality, incidence, and survival worldwide. In order to provide an up-to-date overview of trends in mortality, incidence, and survival, we retrieved data from high-quality, population-based cancer registries for all cancers and 10 selected cancer sites in six high-income countries and the European Union. We computed age-standardized (world standard population) mortality and incidence rates, and applied joinpoint regression models. Mortality from all cancers and most common cancer sites has declined over the last 25 years, except for the pancreas and lung (in women). The patterns for incidence are less consistent between countries, except for a steady decrease in stomach cancer in both sexes and lung cancer in men. Survival for all cancers and the selected cancer sites increased in all countries, even if there is still a substantial variability. Although overall cancer death rates continue to decline, incidence rates have been levelling off among men and have been moderately increasing among women. These trends reflect changes in cancer risk factors, screening test use, diagnostic practices, and treatment advances. Many cancers can be prevented or treated effectively if they are diagnosed early. Population-based cancer incidence and mortality data can be used to focus efforts to decrease the cancer burden and regularly monitor progress towards cancer control goals.

18.
Eur J Cancer Prev ; 29(5): 408-415, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740166

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The association among gallbladder disease, cholecystectomy, and pancreatic cancer is unclear. Moreover, time interval between gallbladder disease or cholecystectomy and pancreatic cancer diagnosis is not considered in most previous studies. AIM: To quantify the association among gallbladder disease, cholecystectomy, and pancreatic cancer, considering time since first diagnosis of gallbladder disease or cholecystectomy. METHODS: We used data from nine case-control studies within the Pancreatic Cancer Case-Control Consortium, including 5760 cases of adenocarcinoma of the exocrine pancreas and 8437 controls. We estimated pooled odds ratios and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals by estimating study-specific odds ratios through multivariable unconditional logistic regression models, and then pooling the obtained estimates using fixed-effects models. RESULTS: Compared with patients with no history of gallbladder disease, the pooled odds ratio of pancreatic cancer was 1.69 (95% confidence interval, 1.51-1.88) for patients reporting a history of gallbladder disease. The odds ratio was 4.90 (95% confidence interval, 3.45-6.97) for gallbladder disease diagnosed <2 years before pancreatic cancer diagnosis and 1.11 (95% confidence interval, 0.96-1.29) when ≥2 years elapsed. The pooled odds ratio was 1.64 (95% confidence interval, 1.43-1.89) for patients who underwent cholecystectomy, as compared to those without cholecystectomy. The odds ratio was 7.00 (95% confidence interval, 4.13-11.86) for a surgery <2 years before pancreatic cancer diagnosis and 1.28 (95% confidence interval, 1.08-1.53) for a surgery ≥2 years before. CONCLUSIONS: There appears to be no long-term effect of gallbladder disease on pancreatic cancer risk, and at most a modest one for cholecystectomy. The strong short-term association can be explained by diagnostic bias and reverse causation.

19.
Int J Epidemiol ; 2020 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32810213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Many diabetic individuals use prescription and non-prescription opioids and opiates. We aimed to investigate the joint effect of diabetes and opiate use on all-cause and cause-specific mortality. METHODS: Golestan Cohort study is a prospective population-based study in Iran. A total of 50 045 people-aged 40-75, 28 811 women, 8487 opiate users, 3548 diabetic patients-were followed during a median of 11.1 years, with over 99% success follow-up. Hazard ratio and 95% confidence intervals (HRs, 95% CIs), and preventable death attributable to each risk factor, were calculated. RESULTS: After 533 309 person-years, 7060 deaths occurred: 4178 (10.8%) of non-diabetic non-opiate users, 757 (25.3%) diabetic non-users, 1906 (24.0%) non-diabetic opiate users and 219 (39.8%) diabetic opiate users. Compared with non-diabetic non-users, HRs (95% CIs) for all-cause mortality were 2.17 (2.00-2.35) in diabetic non-opiate users, 1.63 (1.53-1.74) in non-diabetic opiate users and 2.76 (2.40-3.17) in diabetic opiate users. Among those who both had diabetes and used opiates, 63.8% (95% CI: 58.3%-68.5%) of all deaths were attributable to these risk factors, compared with 53.9% (95% CI: 50%-57.4%) in people who only had diabetes and 38.7% (95% CI: 34.6%-42.5%) in non-diabetic opiate users. Diabetes was more strongly associated with cardiovascular than cancer mortality. The risk of early mortality in known cases of diabetes did not depend on whether they started opiate use before or after their diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Using opiates is detrimental to the health of diabetic patients. Public awareness about the health effects of opiates, and improvement of diabetes care especially among individuals with or at risk of opiate use, are necessary.

20.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 14(5): 1391-1397, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32755840

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Overweight and obesity are thought to be associated with increased risk of chronic disease in the Middle East. The present study aimed to determine the association between dietary habits and the incidence of overweight and obesity in urban adult population in the central part of Iran after a 10-year follow-up. METHODS: This cohort study was initiated with 2000 participation aged 20-74 years from Yazd city in Iran based on Yazd Healthy Heart Project (YHHP). The participants without overweight and obesity at the baseline of the study were followed up to 10 years. Demographic data, anthropometric measurements, behavioral and metabolic risk factors of cardiovascular diseases and dietary habits were assessed at baseline and phase II. RESULTS: After a 10-year follow up, 516 non-overweight and 1068 non-obese participants were included for the final analysis. Once adjustments were made for all potential confounders including age, sex, smoking, economic status, physical activity and education, it was identified that lack of weight control increased the risk of obesity (hazard ratio; 95% CI) in total population (1.9; 1.06, 3.4), as well as the risk of overweight (2.39; 1.07, 5.27) and obesity (2.65; 1.13, 6.25) in men. Moreover, consumption of mayonnaise increased the 10-year risk of overweight in women (6.09; 1.2, 30.99). CONCLUSIONS: As revealed by the present study, unhealthy dietary habits can increase the incidence of overweight and obesity in central part of Iran. Therefore, changing the lifestyle appears to be urgent in reducing the risk of overweight and obesity.

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