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1.
World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg ; 12(6): 765-772, 2021 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34812684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Major aortopulmonary collateral arteries (MAPCAs), as seen in patients with pulmonary atresia, are arteries that supply blood from the aorta to the lungs and often require surgical intervention. To achieve complete repair in the least number of interventions, optimal imaging of the pulmonary arterial anatomy and MAPCAs is critical. 3D virtual reality (3D-VR) is a promising and upcoming new technology that could potentially ameliorate current imaging shortcomings. METHODS: A retrospective, proof-of-concept study was performed of all operated patients with pulmonary atresia and MAPCAs at our center between 2010 and 2020 with a preoperative computed tomography (CT) scan. CT images were reviewed by two congenital cardiac surgeons in 3D-VR to determine additional value of VR for MAPCA imaging compared to conventional CT and for preoperative planning of MAPCA repair. RESULTS: 3D-VR visualizations were reconstructed from CT scans of seven newborns where the enhanced topographic anatomy resulted in improved visualization of MAPCA. In addition, surgical planning was improved since new observations or different preoperative plans were apparent in 4 out of 7 cases. After the initial setup, VR software and hardware was reported to be easy and intuitive to use. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed technical feasibility of 3D-VR reconstruction of children with immersive visualization of topographic anatomy in an easy-to-use format leading to an improved surgical planning of MAPCA surgery. Future prospective studies are required to investigate the clinical benefits in larger populations.

2.
Eur Radiol ; 2021 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34783875

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate if routine screening for aortic calcification using unenhanced CT lowers the risk of stroke and alters the surgical approach in patients undergoing general cardiac surgery compared with standard of care (SoC). METHODS: In this prospective, multicenter, randomized controlled trial, adult patients scheduled for cardiac surgery from September 2014 to October 2019 were randomized 1:1 into two groups: SoC alone, including chest radiography, vs. SoC plus preoperative noncontrast CT. The primary endpoint was in-hospital perioperative stroke. Secondary endpoints were preoperative change of the surgical approach, in-hospital mortality, and postoperative delirium. The trial was halted halfway for expected futility, as the conditional power analysis showed a chance < 1% of finding the hypothesized effect. RESULTS: A total of 862 patients were evaluated (SoC-group: 433 patients (66 ± 11 years; 74.1% male) vs. SoC + CT-group: 429 patients (66 ± 10 years; 69.9% male)). The perioperative stroke rate (SoC + CT: 2.1%, 9/429 vs. SoC: 1.2%, 5/433, p = 0.27) and rate of changed surgical approach (SoC + CT: 4.0% (17/429) vs. SoC: 2.8% (12/433, p = 0.35) did not differ between groups. In-hospital mortality and postoperative delirium were comparable between groups. In the SoC + CT group, aortic calcification was observed on CT in the ascending aorta in 28% (108/380) and in the aortic arch in 70% (265/379). CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative noncontrast CT in cardiac surgery candidates did not influence the surgical approach nor the incidence of perioperative stroke compared with standard of care. Aortic calcification is a frequent finding on the CT scan in these patients but results in major surgical alterations to prevent stroke in only few patients. KEY POINTS: • Aortic calcification is a frequent finding on noncontrast computed tomography prior to cardiac surgery. • Routine use of noncontrast computed tomography does not often lead to a change of the surgical approach, when compared to standard of care. • No effect was observed on perioperative stroke after cardiac surgery when using routine noncontrast computed tomography screening on top of standard of care.

3.
Front Public Health ; 9: 541191, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34660499

RESUMO

For-profit biotechnological and pharmaceutical companies have played an essential role in the research and development (R&D) of innovative medical products and drugs for many decades and embody a trillion-dollar industry. The past decades have been marked by an increase in growth of social non-profit biotechnology companies and organizations led by entrepreneurs committed to solve (global) health issues. In this review, we define the concept of social bioentrepreneurship and consider the potential impact of such ventures on global health. We analyse the current status of non-profit biotechnology and clarify the strategy, motivation, funding, and marketing techniques of these enterprises. We find that these non-profit ventures mainly focus on neglected and rare diseases by using different but also similar funding, marketing, and business strategy approaches to for-profit biotechnology enterprises. We also identify good leadership, multidisciplinary teams, and public awareness as key components to achieve long-term survival and higher success rates. Challenges faced by bioentrepreneurs include the lack of a clearly defined regulatory environment or governmental incentives to support their endeavors. Overall, with this qualitative data review and market analysis we draw a promising picture of social non-profit bioentrepreneurship and underscore its current and future impact on global health issues.


Assuntos
Saúde Global , Organizações sem Fins Lucrativos , Biotecnologia , Comércio
4.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 730157, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34631828

RESUMO

Corticosteroids have been used to decrease the inflammatory response to cardiac surgery and cardiopulmonary bypass in children for decades. Sparse information is present concerning the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of corticosteroids in the context of pediatric cardiac surgery. There is large interindividual variability in plasma concentrations, with indications for a larger volume of distribution in neonates compared to other age groups. There is ample evidence that perioperative use of MP leads to a decrease in pro-inflammatory mediators and an increase in anti-inflammatory mediators, with no difference in effect between doses of 2 and 30 mg/kg. No differences in inflammatory mediators have been shown between different times of administration relative to the start of surgery in various studies. MP has been shown to have a beneficial effect in certain subgroups of patients but is also associated with side effects. In lower risk categories, the balance between risk and benefit may be shifted toward risk. There is limited information on short- to medium-term outcome (mortality, low cardiac output syndrome, duration of mechanical ventilation, length of stay in the intensive care unit or the hospital), mostly from underpowered studies. No information on long-term outcome, such as neurodevelopmental outcome, is available. MP may provide a small benefit that is easily abolished by patient characteristics, surgical techniques, and perfusion management. The lack of evidence leads to large differences in practice between and within countries, and even within hospitals, so there is a need for adequately powered randomized studies.

5.
Cardiol Rev ; 2021 Sep 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495894

RESUMO

Secondary tricuspid regurgitation has long been considered a benign and well-tolerated valvular lesion that resolves after treatment of the underlying disease. This view has been challenged by data indicating that long-standing tricuspid regurgitation can be a progressive disorder, contributing to right ventricular failure and end-organ damage, despite adequate treatment of the underlying disease. Surgical correction is curative, but infrequently performed and historically associated with poor outcomes. This may be due to delayed diagnosis, lack of well-defined surgical indications and, consequently, late intervention in patients in poor clinical condition with failing right ventricles. Because of limited evidence about timing and corresponding outcome of tricuspid valve surgery, current guideline recommendations are rather conservative and show several inconsistencies. Nevertheless, there has been a trend towards a more aggressive approach in the surgical treatment of tricuspid regurgitation with improved outcomes. Moreover, emerging transcatheter options claim to provide a lower-risk alternative for selected patients. This may facilitate earlier treatment and improve the attitude towards an early treatment strategy of secondary tricuspid regurgitation, yet is not reflected in the guidelines. Future research is needed for risk stratification to determine inclusion criteria and optimal timing for intervention.

6.
Front Cardiovasc Med ; 8: 640543, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34513939

RESUMO

Introduction: To our knowledge, methylprednisolone pharmacokinetics and plasma concentrations have not been comprehensively investigated in children with congenital heart disease undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. It is unknown whether there is a significant influence of cardiopulmonary bypass on the plasma concentrations of methylprednisolone and whether this may be an explanation for the limited reported efficacy of steroid administration in cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Methods: The study was registered in the Dutch Trial Register (NTR3579; https://www.trialregister.nl/trial/3428). Methylprednisolone 30 mg/kg was administered as an intravenous bolus after induction of anesthesia. Methylprednisolone concentration was measured with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry and analyzed using linear mixed-effects modeling. Results: Thirty-nine patients were included in the study, of which three were excluded. There was an acute decrease in observed methylprednisolone plasma concentration on initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass (median = 26.8%, range = 13.9-48.14%, p < 0.001). We found a lower intercept (p = 0.02), as well as a less steep slope of the model predicted methylprednisolone concentration vs. time curve for neonates (p = 0.048). A lower intercept (p = 0.01) and a less steep slope (p = 0.0024) if the volume of cell saver blood processed was larger than 91 ml/kg were also found. Discussion: We report similar methylprednisolone plasma concentrations as earlier studies performed in children undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass, and we confirmed the large interindividual variability in achieved methylprednisolone plasma concentrations with weight-based methylprednisolone administration. A larger volume of distribution and a lower clearance of methylprednisolone for neonates were suggested. The half-life of methylprednisolone in our study was calculated to be longer than 6 h for neonates, 4.7 h for infants, 3.6 h for preschool children and 4.7 h for school children. The possible influence of treatment of pulmonary hypertension with sildenafil and temperature needs to be investigated further.

8.
JTO Clin Res Rep ; 2(4): 100155, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34590009

RESUMO

Introduction: The role of surgery for early stage malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) remains controversial. Current expert opinion is only to treat patients surgically as part of multimodality therapy. It is still challenging to identify patients who will not benefit from surgery. We specifically evaluated tumor-related parameters in combination with clinical parameters to identify prognostic markers for survival. Methods: Clinical data of 27 consecutive patients with MPM treated with extended pleurectomy and decortication within a multimodality approach were collected and analyzed. Several tumor (immuno-)histopathologic characteristics were determined on resected tumor material, among which MTAP and Ki67 (MIB-1). Univariable and multivariable analyses served to correlate clinical and tumor-related parameters to overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS). Results: The median PFS (mPFS) was 15.3, and the median OS (mOS) was 26.5 months. Patients with a Ki67 score greater than 10% had a significantly shorter PFS (mPFS = 8.81 versus 25.35 mo, p = 0.001) and OS (mOS 19.7 versus 44.5 mo, p = 0.002) than those with a Ki67 score less than or equal to 10. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis for Ki67 revealed an area under the curve of 0.756 with a sensitivity of 90% and specificity of 71% for a cutoff of 10% for Ki67. Patients with loss of MTAP had a significantly shorter mPFS (9 versus 21.1 mo, p = 0.014) and mOS (19.7 versus 42.6 mo, p = 0.047) than those without MTAP loss. Conclusions: In our study, Ki67 was prognostic for OS and PFS in patients with MPM treated with extended pleurectomy/decortication in a multimodality approach. Determination of Ki67 before surgery combined with specific clinical parameters could assist in clinical decision making by identifying patients, with high Ki67, who are unlikely to benefit from surgery.

9.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34411233
11.
World J Pediatr Congenit Heart Surg ; 12(4): 487-491, 2021 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34278860

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Restenosis after aortic arch reconstruction is a known complication in neonates and infants. Homograft is the most commonly used patch material for aortic arch reconstructions in our center. Since 2014, tissue-engineered bovine pericardium (CardioCel) has been used as an alternative. The aim of our study was to determine whether the choice of material affected the development of restenosis in these patients. METHODS: Data of all neonates and infants who underwent aortic arch reconstruction with the use of any patch material between 2005 and 2016 were analyzed. Restenosis was defined by the need for reintervention, either percutaneous or surgical. RESULTS: Forty-one patients underwent aortic arch repair. Excluding the 30-day mortality, 36 patients represented the study population. At primary repair, the aortic arch was reconstructed with homograft (n = 26) or CardioCel (n = 10). Restenosis was documented during the first year of life in 13 patients: Six (23%) patients in the homograft group and seven (70%) patients in the CardioCel group (P = .01). In the homograft group, the median time from operation to first intervention for restenosis was 22.0 (range: 14-32) weeks, as compared to 14.0 (range: 7-21) weeks in the CardioCel group (P = .04). CONCLUSION: We conclude that choice of patch material is likely to be an important determinant for the risk of restenosis needing reintervention following reconstruction of the aortic arch in neonates and infants.

12.
J Clin Med ; 10(12)2021 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198544

RESUMO

It is unknown to what extent atrial fibrillation (AF) episodes affect intra-atrial conduction velocity (CV) and whether regional differences in local CV heterogeneities exist during sinus rhythm. This case-control study aims to compare CV assessed throughout both atria between patients with and without AF. Patients (n = 34) underwent intra-operative epicardial mapping of the right atrium (RA), Bachmann's bundle (BB), left atrium (LA) and pulmonary vein area (PVA). CV vectors were constructed to calculate median CV in addition to total activation times (TAT) and unipolar voltages. Biatrial median CV did not differ between patients with and without AF (90 ± 8 cm/s vs. 92 ± 6 cm/s, p = 0.56); only BB showed a CV reduction in the AF group (79 ± 12 cm/s vs. 88 ± 11 cm/s, p = 0.02). In patients without AF, there was no predilection site for the lowest CV (P5) (RA: 12%; BB: 29%; LA: 29%; PVA: 29%). In patients with AF, lowest CV was most often measured at BB (53%) and ranged between 15 to 22 cm/s (median: 20 cm/s). Lowest CVs were also measured at the LA (18%) and PVA (29%), but not at the RA. AF was associated with a prolonged TAT (p = 0.03) and decreased voltages (P5) at BB (p = 0.02). BB was a predilection site for slowing of conduction in patients with AF. Prolonged TAT and decreased voltages were also found at this site. The next step will be to determine the relevance of a reduced CV at BB in relation to AF development and maintenance.

13.
J Clin Med ; 10(13)2021 Jun 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199081

RESUMO

Classification of atrial fibrillation (AF) is currently based on clinical characteristics. However, classifying AF using an objective electrophysiological parameter would be more desirable. The aim of this study was to quantify parameters of atrial conduction during sinus rhythm (SR) using an intra-operative high-resolution epicardial mapping approach and to relate these parameters to clinical classifications of AF. Patients were divided according to the standard clinical classification and spontaneous termination of AF episodes. The HATCH score, a score predictive of AF progression, was calculated, and surface ECGs were evaluated for signs of interatrial block. Conduction disorders mainly differed at Bachmann's bundle (BB). Activation time (AT) at BB was longer in persistent AF patients (AT-BB: 75 (53-92) ms vs. 55 (40-76) ms, p = 0.017), patients without spontaneous termination of AF episodes (AT-BB: 53.5 (39.6-75.8) ms vs. 72.0 (49.6-80.8) ms, p = 0.009) and in patients with a P-wave duration ≥ 120 ms (64.3 (52.3-93.0) ms vs. 50.5 (39.6-56.6) ms, p = 0.014). HATCH scores also correlated positively to AT-BB (rho 0.326, p = 0.029). However, discriminatory values of electrophysiological parameters, as calculated using ROC-curves, were limited. These results may reflect shortcomings of clinical classifications and further research is needed to establish an objective substrate-based classification of AF.

14.
JTCVS Tech ; 7: 309-321, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34318279

RESUMO

Background: There has been an increasing trend toward pulmonary segmentectomies to treat early-stage lung cancer, small intrapulmonary metastases, and localized benign pathology. A complete preoperative understanding of pulmonary anatomy is essential for accurate surgical planning and case selection. Identifying intersegmental divisions is extremely difficult when performed on computed tomography. For the preoperative planning of segmentectomies, virtual reality (VR) and artificial intelligence could allow 3-dimensional visualization of the complex anatomy of pulmonary segmental divisions, vascular arborization, and bronchial anatomy. This technology can be applied by surgeons preoperatively to gain better insight into a patient's anatomy for planning segmentectomy. Methods: In this prospective observational pilot study, we aim to assess and demonstrate the technical feasibility and clinical applicability of the first dedicated artificial intelligence-based and immersive 3-dimensional-VR platform (PulmoVR; jointly developed and manufactured by Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery [Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands], MedicalVR [Amsterdam, The Netherlands], EVOCS Medical Image Communication [Fysicon BV, Oss, The Netherlands], and Thirona [Nijmegen, The Netherlands]) for preoperative planning of video-assisted thoracoscopic segmentectomies. Results: A total of 10 eligible patients for segmentectomy were included in this study after referral through the institutional thoracic oncology multidisciplinary team. PulmoVR was successfully applied as a supplementary imaging tool to perform video-assisted thoracoscopic segmentectomies. In 40% of the cases, the surgical strategy was adjusted due to the 3-dimensional-VR-based evaluation of anatomy. This underlines the potential benefit of additional VR-guided planning of segmentectomy for both surgeon and patient. Conclusions: Our study demonstrates the successful development and clinical application of the first dedicated artificial intelligence and VR platform for the planning of pulmonary segmentectomy. This is the first study that shows an immersive virtual reality-based application for preoperative planning of segmentectomy to the best of our knowledge.

15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34329374

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Although the incidence of perioperative stroke after cardiac surgery gradually decreased over the last decades, there is much variation between centres. This review aimed to create a concise overview of the evidence on possible surgical strategies to prevent embolic stroke in patients with intimal aortic atherosclerosis. METHODS: The PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched for studies on surgical management of aortic atherosclerosis and the association with perioperative stroke in cardiac surgery, including specific searches on the most common types of surgery. Articles were screened with emphasis on studies comparing multiple strategies and studies reporting on the patients' severity of aortic atherosclerosis. The main findings were summarized in a figure, with a grade of the corresponding level of evidence. RESULTS: Regarding embolic stroke risk, aortic atherosclerosis of the tunica intima is most relevant. Although several strategies in general cardiac surgery seem to be beneficial in severe disease, none have conclusively been proven most effective. Off-pump surgery in coronary artery bypass grafting should be preferred with severe atherosclerosis, if the required expertise is present. Although transcatheter aortic valve replacement is used as an alternative to surgery in patients with a porcelain aorta, the risk profile concerning intimal atherosclerosis remains poorly defined. CONCLUSIONS: A tailored approach that uses the discussed alternative strategies in carefully selected patients is best suited to reduce the risk of perioperative stroke without compromising other outcomes. More research is needed, especially on the perioperative stroke risk in patients with moderate aortic atherosclerosis.

16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34099273

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The study objective was to analyze survival and incidence of Fontan completion of patients with single-ventricle and concomitant unbalanced atrioventricular septal defect. METHODS: Data from 4 Dutch and 3 Belgian institutional databases were retrospectively collected. A total of 151 patients with single-ventricle atrioventricular septal defect were selected; 36 patients underwent an atrioventricular valve procedure (valve surgery group). End points were survival, incidence of Fontan completion, and freedom from atrioventricular valve reoperation. RESULTS: Median follow-up was 13.4 years. Cumulative survival was 71.2%, 70%, and 68.5% at 10, 15, and 20 years, respectively. An atrioventricular valve procedure was not a risk factor for mortality. Patients with moderate-severe or severe atrioventricular valve regurgitation at echocardiographic follow-up had a significantly worse 15-year survival (58.3%) compared with patients with no or mild regurgitation (89.2%) and patients with moderate regurgitation (88.6%) (P = .033). Cumulative incidence of Fontan completion was 56.5%, 71%, and 77.6% at 5, 10, and 15 years, respectively. An atrioventricular valve procedure was not associated with the incidence of Fontan completion. In the valve surgery group, freedom from atrioventricular valve reoperation was 85.7% at 1 year and 52.6% at 5 years. CONCLUSIONS: The long-term survival and incidence of Fontan completion in our study were better than previously described for patients with single-ventricle atrioventricular septal defect. A concomitant atrioventricular valve procedure did not increase the mortality rate or decrease the incidence of Fontan completion, whereas patients with moderate-severe or severe valve regurgitation at follow-up had a worse survival. Therefore, in patients with single-ventricle atrioventricular septal defect when atrioventricular valve regurgitation exceeds a moderate degree, the atrioventricular valve should be repaired.

19.
Heart Rhythm ; 18(10): 1790-1798, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186247

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early detection and staging of atrial fibrillation (AF) is of importance for clinical management. Serum (bio)markers, such as heat shock proteins (HSP), may enable AF staging and identify patients at risk for AF recurrence and postoperative AF (PoAF). OBJECTIVE: This study evaluates the relation between serum and atrial tissue HSP levels, stages of AF, AF recurrence after treatment, and PoAF from patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery. METHODS: Patients without (control) and with paroxysmal, persistent (PerAF), or longstanding persistent (LSPerAF) AF were included. HSPB1, HSPA1, HSPB7, and HSPD1 levels were measured in serum obtained prior to and post intervention. HSPB1, HSPA1, HSPA5, HSPD1, HSPB5, and pHSF1 levels were measured in left and/or right atrial appendages (respectively, LAA and RAA). RESULTS: In RAA, HSPA5 levels were significantly lower in LSPerAF and HSPD1 levels significantly higher in PerAF patients compared to controls. In RAA of controls who developed PoAF, HSPA1 and HSPA5 levels were significantly higher compared to those without PoAF. Also, HSPB1 RAA levels were lower and HSPA5 LAA levels higher in patients undergoing arrhythmia surgery who developed AF recurrence within 1 week after surgery compared to patients who did not. CONCLUSION: HSPA5 RAA and HSPD1 RAA and LAA levels are altered in persistent stages of AF. RAA HSPA1 and HSPA5 levels associate with development of PoAF. Additionally, HSPB1 RAA and HSPA5 LAA levels can predict AF recurrence in patients who underwent arrhythmia surgery. Nevertheless, HSP levels in serum cannot discriminate AF stages from controls, nor predict PoAF or AF recurrence after treatment.

20.
J Card Surg ; 36(9): 3271-3280, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34159641

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a clinical need for additional remote tools to improve left ventricular assist device (LVAD) patient management. The aim of this pilot concept study was to assess the safety and feasibility of optimizing patient management with add-on remote hemodynamic monitoring using the CardioMEMS in LVAD patients during different treatment stages. METHODS: Ten consecutive patients accepted and clinically ready for (semi-) elective HeartMate 3 LVAD surgery were included. All patients received a CardioMEMS to optimize filling pressure before surgery. Patients were categorized into those with normal mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) (≤25 mmHg, n = 4) or elevated mPAP (>25 mmHg, n = 6), and compared to a historical cohort (n = 20). Endpoints were CardioMEMS device safety and a combined endpoint of all-cause mortality, acute kidney injury, renal replacement therapy and/or right ventricular failure at 1-year follow-up. Additionally, we investigated hospital-free survival and improvement in quality of life (QoL) and exercise tolerance. RESULTS: No safety issues or signal interferences were observed. The combined endpoint occurred in 60% of historical controls, 0% in normal and 83% in elevated mPAP group. Post-discharge, the hospital-free survival was significantly better, and the QoL improved more in the normal compared to the elevated mPAP group. CONCLUSION: Remote hemodynamic monitoring in LVAD patients is safe and feasible with the CardioMEMS, which could be used to identify patients at elevated risk of complications as well as optimize patient management remotely during the out-patient phase with less frequent hospitalizations. Larger pivotal studies are warranted to test the hypothesis generated from this concept study.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Cardíaca , Coração Auxiliar , Monitorização Hemodinâmica , Assistência ao Convalescente , Estudos de Viabilidade , Insuficiência Cardíaca/terapia , Hemodinâmica , Humanos , Alta do Paciente , Artéria Pulmonar , Qualidade de Vida
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