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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049425

RESUMO

Out-of-office blood pressure (BP) monitoring appears to be a very useful approach to hypertension management insofar it allows to obtain multiple measurements in the usual environment of each individual, allows the detection of hypertension phenotypes, such as white-coat and masked hypertension, and appears to have superior prognostic value than the conventional office BP measurements. Out-of-office BP can be obtained through either home or ambulatory monitoring, which provide complementary and not identical information. Home BP monitoring yields BP values self-measured in subjects' usual living environment; it is an essential method for the evaluation of almost all untreated and treated subjects with suspected or diagnosed hypertension, best if combined with telemonitoring facilities, also allowing long-term monitoring. There is also increasing evidence that home BP monitoring improves long-term hypertension control rates by improving patients' adherence to prescribed treatment. In Latin American Countries, it is widely available, being relatively inexpensive, and well accepted by patients. Current US, Canadian, Japanese, and European guidelines recommend out-of-office BP monitoring to confirm and refine the diagnosis of hypertension.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32049441

RESUMO

Accurate office blood pressure measurement remains crucial in the diagnosis and management of hypertension worldwide, including Latin America (LA). Office blood pressure (OBP) measurement is still the leading technique in LA for screening and diagnosis of hypertension, monitoring of treatment, and long-term follow-up. Despite this, due to the increasing awareness of the limitations affecting OBP and to the accumulating evidence on the importance of ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM), as a complement of OBP in the clinical approach to the hypertensive patient, a progressively greater attention has been paid worldwide to the information on daytime and nighttime BP patterns offered by 24-h ABPM in the diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic management of hypertension. In LA countries, most of the Scientific Societies of Hypertension and/or Cardiology have issued guidelines for hypertension care, and most of them include a special section on ABPM. Also, full guidelines on ABPM are available. However, despite the available evidence on the advantages of ABPM for the diagnosis and management of hypertension in LA, availability of ABPM is often restricted to cities with large population, and access to this technology by lower-income patients is sometimes limited by its excessive cost. The authors hope that this document might stimulate health authorities in each LA Country, as well as in other countries in the world, to regulate ABPM access and to widen the range of patients able to access the benefits of this technique.

3.
Blood Press ; : 1-11, 2019 Dec 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31833420

RESUMO

Purpose: Arterial stiffness predicts cardiovascular complications. The association between arterial stiffness and blood lead (BL) remains poorly documented. We aimed to assess the association of central hemodynamic measurements, including pulse wave velocity (aPWV), with blood lead in a Flemish population.Materials and Methods: In this Flemish population study (mean age, 37.0 years; 48.3% women), 267 participants had their whole BL and 24-h urinary cadmium (UCd) measured by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry in 1985-2005. After 9.4 years (median), they underwent applanation tonometry to estimate central pulse pressure (cPP), the augmentation index (AI), pressure amplification (PA), and aPWV. The amplitudes of the forward (Pf) and backward (Pb) pulse waves and reflection index (RI) were derived by a pressure-based wave separation algorithm.Results: BL averaged 2.93 µg/dL (interquartile range, 1.80-4.70) and UCd 4.79 µg (2.91-7.85). Mean values were 45.0 ± 15.2 mm Hg for cPP, 24.4 ± 12.4% for AI, 1.34 ± 0.21 for PA, 7.65 ± 1.74 m/s for aPWV, 32.7 ± 9.9 mm Hg for Pf, 21.8 ± 8.4 mm Hg for Pb, and 66.9 ± 18.4% for RI. The multivariable-adjusted association sizes for a 2-fold higher BL were: +3.03% (95% confidence interval, 1.56, 4.50) for AI; -0.06 (-0.08, -0.04) for PA; 1.02 mm Hg (0.02, 2.02) for Pb; and 3.98% (1.71, 6.24) for RI (p ≤ .045). In 206 participants never on antihypertensive drug treatment, association sizes were +2.59 mm Hg (0.39, 4.79) for cPP and +0.26 m/s (0.03, 0.50) for aPWV. Analyses adjusted for co-exposure to cadmium were consistent.Conclusion: In conclusion, low-level environmental lead exposure possibly contributes to arterial stiffening and wave reflection from peripheral sites.

4.
Hypertension ; 74(6): 1333-1342, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31630575

RESUMO

Participant-level meta-analyses assessed the age-specific relevance of office blood pressure to cardiovascular complications, but this information is lacking for out-of-office blood pressure. At baseline, daytime ambulatory (n=12 624) or home (n=5297) blood pressure were measured in 17 921 participants (51.3% women; mean age, 54.2 years) from 17 population cohorts. Subsequently, mortality and cardiovascular events were recorded. Using multivariable Cox regression, floating absolute risk was computed across 4 age bands (≤60, 61-70, 71-80, and >80 years). Over 236 491 person-years, 3855 people died and 2942 cardiovascular events occurred. From levels as low as 110/65 mm Hg, risk log-linearly increased with higher out-of-office systolic/diastolic blood pressure. From the youngest to the oldest age group, rates expressed per 1000 person-years increased (P<0.001) from 4.4 (95% CI, 4.0-4.7) to 86.3 (76.1-96.5) for all-cause mortality and from 4.1 (3.9-4.6) to 59.8 (51.0-68.7) for cardiovascular events, whereas hazard ratios per 20-mm Hg increment in systolic out-of-office blood pressure decreased (P≤0.0033) from 1.42 (1.19-1.69) to 1.09 (1.05-1.12) and from 1.70 (1.51-1.92) to 1.12 (1.07-1.17), respectively. These age-related trends were similar for out-of-office diastolic pressure and were generally consistent in both sexes and across ethnicities. In conclusion, adverse outcomes were directly associated with out-of-office blood pressure in adults. At young age, the absolute risk associated with out-of-office blood pressure was low, but relative risk high, whereas with advancing age relative risk decreased and absolute risk increased. These observations highlight the need of a lifecourse approach for the management of hypertension.

5.
JAMA ; 322(5): 409-420, 2019 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386134

RESUMO

Importance: Blood pressure (BP) is a known risk factor for overall mortality and cardiovascular (CV)-specific fatal and nonfatal outcomes. It is uncertain which BP index is most strongly associated with these outcomes. Objective: To evaluate the association of BP indexes with death and a composite CV event. Design, Setting, and Participants: Longitudinal population-based cohort study of 11 135 adults from Europe, Asia, and South America with baseline observations collected from May 1988 to May 2010 (last follow-ups, August 2006-October 2016). Exposures: Blood pressure measured by an observer or an automated office machine; measured for 24 hours, during the day or the night; and the dipping ratio (nighttime divided by daytime readings). Main Outcomes and Measures: Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) expressed the risk of death or a CV event associated with BP increments of 20/10 mm Hg. Cardiovascular events included CV mortality combined with nonfatal coronary events, heart failure, and stroke. Improvement in model performance was assessed by the change in the area under the curve (AUC). Results: Among 11 135 participants (median age, 54.7 years, 49.3% women), 2836 participants died (18.5 per 1000 person-years) and 2049 (13.4 per 1000 person-years) experienced a CV event over a median of 13.8 years of follow-up. Both end points were significantly associated with all single systolic BP indexes (P < .001). For nighttime systolic BP level, the HR for total mortality was 1.23 (95% CI, 1.17-1.28) and for CV events, 1.36 (95% CI, 1.30-1.43). For the 24-hour systolic BP level, the HR for total mortality was 1.22 (95% CI, 1.16-1.28) and for CV events, 1.45 (95% CI, 1.37-1.54). With adjustment for any of the other systolic BP indexes, the associations of nighttime and 24-hour systolic BP with the primary outcomes remained statistically significant (HRs ranging from 1.17 [95% CI, 1.10-1.25] to 1.87 [95% CI, 1.62-2.16]). Base models that included single systolic BP indexes yielded an AUC of 0.83 for mortality and 0.84 for the CV outcomes. Adding 24-hour or nighttime systolic BP to base models that included other BP indexes resulted in incremental improvements in the AUC of 0.0013 to 0.0027 for mortality and 0.0031 to 0.0075 for the composite CV outcome. Adding any systolic BP index to models already including nighttime or 24-hour systolic BP did not significantly improve model performance. These findings were consistent for diastolic BP. Conclusions and Relevance: In this population-based cohort study, higher 24-hour and nighttime blood pressure measurements were significantly associated with greater risks of death and a composite CV outcome, even after adjusting for other office-based or ambulatory blood pressure measurements. Thus, 24-hour and nighttime blood pressure may be considered optimal measurements for estimating CV risk, although statistically, model improvement compared with other blood pressure indexes was small.


Assuntos
Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/complicações , Adulto , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Ritmo Circadiano , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/mortalidade , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Fatores de Risco
6.
Hypertension ; 74(4): 776-783, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31378104

RESUMO

The new American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guideline reclassified office blood pressure and proposed thresholds for ambulatory blood pressure (ABP). We derived outcome-driven ABP thresholds corresponding with the new office blood pressure categories. We performed 24-hour ABP monitoring in 11 152 participants (48.9% women; mean age, 53.0 years) representative of 13 populations. We determined ABP thresholds resulting in multivariable-adjusted 10-year risks similar to those associated with elevated office blood pressure (120/80 mm Hg) and stages 1 and 2 of office hypertension (130/80 and 140/90 mm Hg). Over 13.9 years (median), 2728 (rate per 1000 person-years, 17.9) people died, 1033 (6.8) from cardiovascular disease; furthermore, 1988 (13.8), 893 (6.0), and 795 (5.4) cardiovascular and coronary events and strokes occurred. Using a composite cardiovascular end point, systolic/diastolic outcome-driven thresholds indicating elevated 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime ABP were 117.9/75.2, 121.4/79.6, and 105.3/66.2 mm Hg. For stages 1 and 2 ambulatory hypertension, thresholds were 123.3/75.2 and 128.7/80.7 mm Hg for 24-hour ABP, 128.5/79.6 and 135.6/87.1 mm Hg for daytime ABP, and 111.7/66.2 and 118.1/72.5 mm Hg for nighttime ABP. ABP thresholds derived from other end points were similar. After rounding, approximate thresholds for elevated 24-hour, daytime, and nighttime ABP were 120/75, 120/80, and 105/65 mm Hg, and for stages 1 and 2, ambulatory hypertension 125/75 and 130/80 mm Hg, 130/80 and 135/85 mm Hg, and 110/65 and 120/70 mm Hg. Outcome-driven ABP thresholds corresponding to elevated blood pressure and stages 1 and 2 of hypertension are similar to those proposed by the current American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association guideline.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Adulto , Idoso , American Heart Association , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Estados Unidos
7.
Blood Press ; 28(5): 279-290, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31075995

RESUMO

Background: Aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) predicts cardiovascular complications, but the association of central arterial properties with blood lead level (BL) is poorly documented. We therefore assessed their association with BL in 150 young men prior to occupational lead exposure, using baseline data of the Study for Promotion of Health in Recycling Lead (NCT02243904). Methods: Study nurses administered validated questionnaires and performed clinical measurements. Venous blood samples were obtained after 8-12 h of fasting. The radial, carotid and femoral pulse waves were tonometrically recorded. We accounted for ethnicity, age, anthropometric characteristics, mean arterial pressure, heart rate, smoking and drinking, and total and high-density lipoprotein serum cholesterol, as appropriate. Results: Mean values were 4.14 µg/dL for BL, 27 years for age, 108/79/28 mm Hg for central systolic/diastolic/pulse pressure, 100/10% for the augmentation ratio/index, 1.63 for pressure amplification, 5.94 m/s for aPWV, 27/11 mm Hg for the forward/backward pulse pressure height, and 43% for the reflection index. Per 10-fold BL increase, central diastolic pressure and the augmentation ratio were respectively 5.37 mm Hg (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.00-9.75) and 1.57 (CI, 0.20-2.94) greater, whereas central pulse pressure and the forward pulse pressure height were 3.74 mm Hg (CI, 0.60-6.88) and 3.37 mm Hg (CI, 0.22-6.53) smaller (p ≤ .036 for all). The other hemodynamic measurements were unrelated to BL. The reflected pulse peak time was inversely correlated with diastolic pressure (r = -0.20; p ≤ .017). Conclusion: At the exposure levels observed in our current study, aPWV, the gold standard to assess arterial stiffness, was not associated with BL. Increased peripheral arterial resistance, as reflected by higher diastolic pressure, might bring reflection points closer to the heart, thereby moving the backward wave into systole and increasing the augmentation ratio in relation to BL.

8.
Blood Press ; 27(6): 341-350, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29909698

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Guidelines on the required number of ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) readings focus on individual patients. Clinical researchers often face the dilemma of applying recommendations and discarding potentially valuable information or accepting fewer readings. METHODS: Starting from ABP recordings with ≥30/≥10 awake/asleep readings in 4277 participants enrolled in eight population studies in the International Database on Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes (IDACO), we randomly selected a certain number of readings (from 30 to 1 awake and 10 to 1 asleep readings) at a time over 1000 bootstraps at each step. We evaluated: (i) concordance of the ABP level; (ii) consistency of the cross-classification based on office blood pressure and ABP; and (iii) accuracy in predicting cardiovascular complications. For each criterion, we fitted a regression line joining data points relating outcome to the number of readings covering the ranges of 30-20/10-7 for awake/asleep readings. RESULTS: Reducing readings widened the SD of the systolic/diastolic differences between full (reference) and selected recordings from 1.7/1.2 (30 readings) to 14.3/10.3 mm Hg (single reading) during wakefulness, and from 1.9/1.4 to 10.3/7.7 mm Hg during sleep; lowered the κ statistic from 0.94 to 0.63, and decreased the hazard ratio associated with 10/5 mm Hg increments in systolic/diastolic ABP from 1.21/1.14 to 1.06/1.04 during wakefulness and from 1.26/1.17 to 1.14/1.08 during sleep. The first data points falling off these regression lines during wakefulness/sleep corresponded to 8/3 and 8/4 readings for criteria (i) and (iii) and to 5 awake readings for criterion (ii). CONCLUSIONS: 24-h ambulatory recordings with ≥8/≥4 awake/asleep readings yielded ABP levels similar to recordings including the guideline-recommended ≥20/≥7 readings. These criteria save valuable data in a research setting, but are not applicable to clinical practice.


Assuntos
Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Pressão Sanguínea , Bases de Dados Factuais , Sono , Vigília , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Guias de Prática Clínica como Assunto
9.
Am J Hypertens ; 31(7): 797-803, 2018 06 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29617895

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Orthostatic hypotension (OH) occurs when mechanisms regulating blood pressure (BP) levels after standing-up are altered. It is unclear how prevalence and risk factors for OH are different between sexes. We aimed to investigate sex differences in prevalence and risk factors for OH elderly individuals. METHODS: We included 882 participants from Maracaibo Aging Study. OH was a sustained reduction of ≥20 mm Hg in systolic BP, ≥10 mm Hg in diastolic BP, or both, after 3 minutes of changing positions from supine to standing. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine the relationships among risk factors for OH in men and women considering interaction sex-term and stratified by sex. RESULTS: The mean age was 66.7 ± 8.5 years, being similar by sex. Women and men 55-74 years had similar prevalence of OH+ (18.5% vs. 20.9%, respectively). After 75 years, the proportion of women with OH+ was lower than men (11% vs. 30%, respectively). Hypertension, specifically systolic BP ≥140 mm Hg, and high pulse pressure (PP) were related with OH+ accounted by interaction sex-term, while diastolic BP ≥90 mm Hg, antihypertensive treatment, body mass index (BMI), diabetes mellitus and age were not. Systolic BP ≥140 mm Hg increases the risk of OH only among women, while BMI showed an inverse association in both sexes. CONCLUSIONS: Although the prevalence of OH is similar in both sexes, there are different risk factors associated by sex. Systolic BP ≥140 mm Hg was associated with increased risk of OH only with women while BMI was a protective factor for OH in men and women.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea , Hipotensão Ortostática/epidemiologia , Postura , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Hipotensão Ortostática/diagnóstico , Hipotensão Ortostática/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Proteção , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Distribuição por Sexo , Venezuela/epidemiologia
10.
Nephrol Dial Transplant ; 33(7): 1122-1128, 2018 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28992263

RESUMO

Background: Recent studies showing an inverse association between estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), a microvascular trait, and inactive desphospho-uncarboxylated matrix Gla protein (dp-ucMGP) support the hypothesis that after vitamin K-dependent activation, matrix Gla protein (MGP) is renoprotective, but these were limited by their cross-sectional design. Methods: In 1009 randomly recruited Flemish (50.6% women), we assessed the association between eGFR and plasma dp-ucMGP, using multivariable-adjusted analyses. Results: From baseline to follow-up 8.9 years later (median), dp-ucMGP increased by 23.0% whereas eGFR decreased by 4.05 mL/min/1.73 m2 (P < 0.001). In 938 participants with baseline eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2, the incidence of eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 at follow-up was 8.0% versus 4.1% in the top versus the bottom halve of baseline dp-ucMGP. For a 5-fold higher plasma dp-ucMGP at baseline, eGFR at follow-up decreased by 3.15 mL/min/1.73 m2 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-5.05; P = 0.001]. The hazard ratio expressing the risk of progression to eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 was 3.49 (95% CI 1.45-8.40; P = 0.005). The hazard ratio relating the presence of microalbuminuria at follow-up to baseline dp-ucMGP was 4.70 (95% CI 1.57-14.1; P = 0.006). Conclusions: In conclusion, circulating inactive dp-ucMGP, a biomarker of poor vitamin K status, predicts renal dysfunction. Possible underlying mechanisms include protection by activated MGP against calcification and inhibition of the bone morphogenetic protein-signalling pathway.


Assuntos
Albuminúria/sangue , Calcinose/sangue , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/sangue , Proteínas da Matriz Extracelular/sangue , Taxa de Filtração Glomerular/fisiologia , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
11.
Am J Hypertens ; 31(2): 178-187, 2018 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28985271

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The heart ejects in the central elastic arteries. No previous study in workers described the diurnal profile of central blood pressure (BP) or addressed the question whether electrocardiogram (ECG) indexes are more closely associated with central than peripheral BP. METHODS: In 177 men (mean age, 29.1 years), we compared the associations of ECG indexes with brachial and central ambulatory BP, measured over 24 hours by the validated oscillometric Mobil-O-Graph 24h PWA monitor. RESULTS: From wakefulness to sleep, as documented by diaries, systolic/diastolic BP decreased by 11.7/13.1 mm Hg peripherally and 9.3/13.6 mm Hg centrally, whereas central pulse pressure (PP) increased by 4.3 mm Hg (P < 0.0001). Over 24 hours and the awake and asleep periods, the peripheral-minus-central differences in systolic/diastolic BPs averaged 11.8/-1.6, 12.7/-1.8, and 10.3/-1.2 mm Hg, respectively (P < 0.0001). Cornell voltage and index averaged 1.18 mV and 114.8 mV·ms. Per 1-SD increment in systolic/diastolic BP, the Cornell voltages were 0.104/0.086 mV and 0.082/0.105 mV higher in relation to brachial 24-hour and asleep BP and 0.088/0.90 mV and 0.087/0.107 mV higher in relation to central BP. The corresponding estimates for the Cornell indexes were 9.6/8.6 and 8.2/10.5 mV·ms peripherally and 8.6/8.9 and 8.8/10.7 mV·ms centrally. The regression slopes (P ≥ 0.067) and correlation coefficients (P ≥ 0.088) were similar for brachial and central BP. Associations of ECG measurements with awake BP and PP were not significant. CONCLUSIONS: Peripheral and central BPs run in parallel throughout the day and are similarly associated with the Cornell voltage and index.


Assuntos
Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Ritmo Circadiano/fisiologia , Eletrocardiografia/métodos , Hipertensão , Adulto , Aorta/fisiologia , Artéria Braquial/fisiologia , Correlação de Dados , Hemodinâmica/fisiologia , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Artéria Pulmonar/fisiologia
12.
J Hypertens ; 36(4): 867-875, 2018 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29176509

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The contribution of central pulsatility to left ventricular (LV) dysfunction might be mediated by the haemodynamic loads of forward (Pf) and backward (Pb) pulse waves. We investigated the relation between echocardiographic indexes of LV function and pulsatile loads derived by wave separation analysis (WSA). METHODS: In 755 participants, we assessed LV dimensions, transmitral blood flow and mitral annular tissue velocities. We derived central pulse pressure (cPP) from radial tonometric recordings and calculated Pf, Pb and their ratio (reflection magnitude) using an automated, pressure-based WSA algorithm. Despite good quality recordings, WSA failed to derive Pf and Pb in 139 participants (18.4%), in particular in older women with unfavourable haemodynamics. Thus, our analysis included 616 participants (46.1% women; mean age, 49.2 years). RESULTS: Age and age explained most of the variance in cPP (36.9%), Pf (18.6%), Pb (41.5%) and reflection magnitude (36.7%; P < 0.0001) and altered the direct correlation between Pf and Pb (Pint < 0.0001). Haemodynamic loads were independently associated with sex, BMI, heart rate, mean arterial pressure, history of diabetes and use of antihypertensive drugs. In multivariable-adjusted analyses, transmitral velocities and E/e' ratio increased with higher cPP, Pf and Pb in men and women. We also observed an age-dependent association of LV radial strain with cPP, Pf and Pb. CONCLUSION: The commercial WSA algorithm holds limited clinical utility given its low feasibility in older participants with unfavourable haemodynamics. LV function indexes were similarly associated with Pf and Pb, favouring the use of the composite cPP for prediction of LV dysfunction.


Assuntos
Ventrículos do Coração/diagnóstico por imagem , Função Ventricular Esquerda , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Algoritmos , Pressão Arterial , Diástole , Ecocardiografia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Manometria , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise de Onda de Pulso , Fatores Sexuais , Sístole , Ultrassonografia Doppler
13.
Int J Hypertens ; 2018: 6956078, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30631591

RESUMO

Many public health policies in Latin America target an optimized sodium and potassium intake. The aims of this study were to assess the sodium and potassium intake using 24-hour urinary analysis and to study their association with blood pressure in a Uruguayan population cohort using cluster analysis. A total of 149 participants (aged 20-85 years) were included in the study, and office blood pressure, anthropometric measurements, biochemical parameters in the blood, and 24-hour urine samples were obtained. The overall mean sodium and potassium excretion was 152.9 ± 57.3 mmol/day (8.9 ± 3.4 g/day of salt) and 55.4 ± 19.6 mmol/day, respectively. The average office systolic/diastolic blood pressure was 124.6 ± 16.7/79.3 ± 9.9 mmHg. Three compact spherical clusters were defined in untreated participants based on predetermined attributes, including blood pressure, age, and sodium and potassium excretion. The major characteristics of the three clusters were (1) high systolic blood pressure and moderate sodium excretion, (2) moderate systolic blood pressure and very high sodium excretion, and (3) low systolic blood pressure and low sodium excretion. Participants in cluster three had systolic blood pressure values that were 23.9 mmHg (95% confidence interval: -29.5 to -1.84) lower than those in cluster one. Participants in cluster two had blood pressure levels similar to those in cluster one (P = 0.32) and worse metabolic profiles than those in cluster one and three (P < 0.05). None of the clusters showed high blood pressure levels and high sodium excretion. No linear association was found between blood pressure and urinary sodium excretion (r < 0.14; P > 0.47). An effect of sodium and potassium intake on blood pressure levels was not found at the population level using regression or cluster analysis.

15.
Hypertension ; 70(1): 50-58, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28483916

RESUMO

Hypertension is a major global health problem, but prevalence rates vary widely among regions. To determine prevalence, treatment, and control rates of hypertension, we measured conventional blood pressure (BP) and 24-hour ambulatory BP in 6546 subjects, aged 40 to 79 years, recruited from 10 community-dwelling cohorts on 3 continents. We determined how between-cohort differences in risk factors and socioeconomic factors influence hypertension rates. The overall prevalence was 49.3% (range between cohorts, 40.0%-86.8%) for conventional hypertension (conventional BP ≥140/90 mm Hg) and 48.7% (35.2%-66.5%) for ambulatory hypertension (ambulatory BP ≥130/80 mm Hg). Treatment and control rates for conventional hypertension were 48.0% (33.5%-74.1%) and 38.6% (10.1%-55.3%) respectively. The corresponding rates for ambulatory hypertension were 48.6% (30.5%-71.9%) and 45.6% (18.6%-64.2%). Among 1677 untreated subjects with conventional hypertension, 35.7% had white coat hypertension (23.5%-56.2%). Masked hypertension (conventional BP <140/90 mm Hg and ambulatory BP ≥130/80 mm Hg) occurred in 16.9% (8.8%-30.5%) of 3320 untreated subjects who were normotensive on conventional measurement. Exclusion of participants with diabetes mellitus, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, or history of cardiovascular complications resulted in a <9% reduction in the conventional and 24-hour ambulatory hypertension rates. Higher social and economic development, measured by the Human Development Index, was associated with lower rates of conventional and ambulatory hypertension. In conclusion, high rates of hypertension in all cohorts examined demonstrate the need for improvements in prevention, treatment, and control. Strategies for the management of hypertension should continue to not only focus on preventable and modifiable risk factors but also consider societal issues.


Assuntos
Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Hipertensão , Idoso , Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Hipertensão/terapia , Vida Independente/estatística & dados numéricos , Cooperação Internacional , Masculino , Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Socioeconômicos
16.
J Am Coll Cardiol ; 68(19): 2033-2043, 2016 11 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27810041

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The role of white-coat hypertension (WCH) and the white-coat-effect (WCE) in development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk remains poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: Using data from the population-based, 11-cohort IDACO (International Database on Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes), this study compared daytime ambulatory blood pressure monitoring with conventional blood pressure measurements in 653 untreated subjects with WCH and 653 normotensive control subjects. METHODS: European Society Hypertension guidelines were used as a 5-stage risk score. Low risk was defined as 0 to 2 risk factors, and high risk was defined as ≥3 to 5 risk factors, diabetes, and/or history of prior CVD events. Age- and cohort-matching was done between 653 untreated subjects with WCH and 653 normotensive control subjects. RESULTS: In a stepwise linear regression model, systolic WCE increased by 3.8 mm Hg (95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.1 to 4.6 mm Hg) per 10-year increase in age, and was similar in low- and high-risk subjects with or without prior CVD events. Over a median 10.6-year follow-up, incidence of new CVD events was higher in 159 high-risk subjects with WCH compared with 159 cohort- and age-matched high-risk normotensive subjects (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]: 2.06; 95% CI: 1.10 to 3.84; p = 0.023). The HR was not significant for 494 participants with low-risk WCH and age-matched low-risk normotensive subjects. Subgroup analysis by age showed that an association between WCH and incident CVD events is limited to older (age ≥60 years) high-risk WCH subjects; the adjusted HR was 2.19 (95% CI: 1.09 to 4.37; p = 0.027) in the older high-risk group and 0.88 (95% CI: 0.51 to 1.53; p = 0.66) in the older low-risk group (p for interaction = 0.044). CONCLUSIONS: WCE size is related to aging, not to CVD risk. CVD risk in most persons with WCH is comparable to age- and risk-adjusted normotensive control subjects.


Assuntos
Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Previsões , Medição de Risco/métodos , Hipertensão do Jaleco Branco/epidemiologia , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Saúde Global , Humanos , Incidência , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fatores de Risco , Hipertensão do Jaleco Branco/fisiopatologia
17.
Hypertens Res ; 39(8): 612-7, 2016 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27053011

RESUMO

Home blood pressure (HBP) measurements are known to be lower than conventional office blood pressure (OBP) measurements. However, this difference might not be consistent across the entire age range and has not been adequately investigated. We assessed the relationship between OBP and HBP with increasing age using the International Database of HOme blood pressure in relation to Cardiovascular Outcome (IDHOCO). OBP, HBP and their difference were assessed across different decades of age. A total of 5689 untreated subjects aged 18-97 years, who had at least two OBP and HBP measurements, were included. Systolic OBP and HBP increased across older age categories (from 112 to 142 mm Hg and from 109 to 136 mm Hg, respectively), with OBP being higher than HBP by ∼7 mm Hg in subjects aged >30 years and lesser in younger subjects (P=0.001). Both diastolic OBP and HBP increased until the age of ∼50 years (from 71 to 79 mm Hg and from 66 to 76 mm Hg, respectively), with OBP being consistently higher than HBP and a trend toward a decreased OBP-HBP difference with aging (P<0.001). Determinants of a larger OBP-HBP difference were younger age, sustained hypertension, nonsmoking and negative cardiovascular disease history. These data suggest that in the general adult population, HBP is consistently lower than OBP across all the decades, but their difference might vary between age groups. Further research is needed to confirm these findings in younger and older subjects and in hypertensive individuals.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento/fisiologia , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Bases de Dados Factuais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
18.
Hypertension ; 67(6): 1249-55, 2016 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27067719

RESUMO

Hitherto, diagnosis of hypertension in sub-Saharan Africa was largely based on conventional office blood pressure (BP). Data on the prevalence of masked hypertension (MH) in this region is scarce. Among individuals with normal office BP (<140/90 mm Hg), we compared the prevalence and determinants of MH diagnosed with self-monitored home blood pressure (≥135/85 mm Hg) among 293 Nigerians with a reference population consisting of 3615 subjects enrolled in the International Database on Home Blood Pressure in Relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes. In the reference population, the prevalence of MH was 14.6% overall and 11.1% and 39.6% in untreated and treated participants, respectively. Among Nigerians, the prevalence standardized to the sex and age distribution of the reference population was similar with rates of 14.4%, 8.6%, and 34.6%, respectively. The mutually adjusted odds ratios of having MH in Nigerians were 2.34 (95% confidence interval, 1.39-3.94) for a 10-year higher age, 1.92 (1.11-3.31) and 1.70 (1.14-2.53) for 10- or 5-mm Hg increments in systolic or diastolic office BP, and 3.05 (1.08-8.55) for being on antihypertensive therapy. The corresponding estimates in the reference population were similar with odds ratios of 1.80 (1.62-2.01), 1.64 (1.45-1.87), 1.13 (1.05-1.22), and 2.84 (2.21-3.64), respectively. In conclusion, MH is as common in Nigerians as in other populations with older age and higher levels of office BP being major risk factors. A significant proportion of true hypertensive subjects therefore remains undetected based on office BP, which is particularly relevant in sub-Saharan Africa, where hypertension is now a major cause of death.


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Monitorização Ambulatorial da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Hipertensão Mascarada/diagnóstico , Hipertensão Mascarada/epidemiologia , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Países em Desenvolvimento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nigéria , Valores de Referência , Medição de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Distribuição por Sexo
20.
PLoS One ; 11(3): e0150459, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26943326

RESUMO

Nitro-arachidonic acid (NO2-AA) is a cell signaling nitroalkene that exerts anti-inflammatory activities during macrophage activation. While angiotensin II (ANG II) produces an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial dysfunction in renal tubular cells, little is known regarding the potential protective effects of NO2-AA in ANG II-mediated kidney injury. As such, this study examines the impact of NO2-AA on ANG II-induced mitochondrial dysfunction in an immortalized renal proximal tubule cell line (HK-2 cells). Treatment of HK-2 cells with ANG II increases the production of superoxide (O2●-), nitric oxide (●NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (NOS2) expression, peroxynitrite (ONOO-) and mitochondrial dysfunction. Using high-resolution respirometry, it was observed that the presence of NO2-AA prevented ANG II-mediated mitochondrial dysfunction. Attempting to address mechanism, we treated isolated rat kidney mitochondria with ONOO-, a key mediator of ANG II-induced mitochondrial damage, in the presence or absence of NO2-AA. Whereas the activity of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and ATP synthase (ATPase) were diminished upon exposure to ONOO-, they were restored by pre-incubating the mitochondria with NO2-AA. Moreover, NO2-AA prevents oxidation and nitration of mitochondrial proteins. Combined, these data demonstrate that ANG II-mediated oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction is abrogated by NO2-AA, identifying this compound as a promising pharmacological tool to prevent ANG II-induced renal disease.


Assuntos
Angiotensina II/farmacologia , Ácido Araquidônico/farmacologia , Túbulos Renais Proximais/metabolismo , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Adenosina Trifosfatases/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Túbulos Renais Proximais/efeitos dos fármacos , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Modelos Biológicos , Óxido Nítrico Sintase/metabolismo , Oxirredução , Ácido Peroxinitroso/metabolismo , Succinato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Superóxidos/metabolismo
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