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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33518458

RESUMO

Severe hypercortisolism is characterized as a life-threatening endocrine condition in patients with Cushing syndrome, usually related to the concomitant onset of one or more comorbidities, requiring rapid normalization of cortisol concentrations and aggressive treatment of associated complications. It is mainly, but not exclusively, caused by ectopic ACTH syndrome, and the diagnosis of severity is more accurate when is based on simultaneous evaluation of the clinical course and manifestations of the disease, cortisol levels and systematic search of comorbidities. Once the severity and imminent risk to life are established, urgent therapeutic measures must be taken and etiological investigation postponed until the patient is stabilized. Adrenal steroidogenesis inhibitors (mainly etomidate, ketoconazole, and metyrapone), alone or in combined therapy, are commonly the first-line treatment for severe hypercortisolemia due to their rapid action, good efficacy and safety profile. The new drug osilodrostat is a future potential candidate to be included in the list. The glucocorticoid receptor antagonist mifepristone has also a rapid action, but its use has been limited due to difficulties to monitor its efficacy and safety. Other slow-acting cortisol-lowering drugs (mainly mitotane, cabergoline, and pasireotide) might be included in the therapeutic scheme to synergize and overcome a possible escape phenomenon frequently observed with the fast-acting drugs in the prolonged follow-up. When medical therapies fail, are unavailable or contra-indicated, bilateral adrenalectomy should be indicated as a life-saving measure. Adrenal arterial embolization is rarely encountered in routine clinical practice, being a last alternative in specialized centers when all other options fail or are contra-indicated.

2.
Growth Horm IGF Res ; 56: 101378, 2021 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33486451

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prevalence of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) in patients with non-GH secreting pituitary adenomas [NGHPA group: non-functioning (NFPA), prolactin (PRL) and corticotropin (ACTH)-secreting adenomas] compared to patients with acromegaly, a pituitary disease that has been associated with increased risk for thyroid cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Prospective, cross-sectional study involving consecutive outpatients followed in our institution with diagnosis of acromegaly (n = 71; 43 women, median age 57 yrs) and NGHPA (n = 57; 38 women, median age 48 yrs.; PRL (n = 35), ACTH (n = 7), NFPA (n = 15). All participants were subjected to thyroid ultrasound (US) by the same examiner, and US-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) biopsy when indicated. RESULTS: Thyroid volume was higher in acromegaly than in NGHPA (median 12.5 ml vs 6.3 ml; p < 0.0001), and thyroid nodules were present in 27/71 (38.0%) of acromegaly patients and in 14/57 (24.6%) of NGHPA group. FNA was indicated in 15/27 (55.5%) of acromegaly patients [Bethesda I (n = 1); II (n = 11), III (n = 1), two patients refused FNA], and in 8/14 (57.1%) of the NGHPA group [Bethesda I (n = 2); II (n = 4); V (n = 1); VI (n = 1)]. The two patients of NGHPA group with Bethesda V and VI were operated and papillary carcinoma was confirmed histologically. CONCLUSION: DTC was not detected in our acromegaly patients and its presence in patients with NGHPA suggests that DTC predisposition is not related to GH excess.

3.
Obes Surg ; 31(3): 1290-1303, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33392999

RESUMO

Weight regain is a multifactorial condition that affects many patients following bariatric surgery. The purpose of the paper is to review the multidisciplinary approach for the management of weight regain. We performed a search in current clinical evidence regarding the causes, consequences, and treatments of weight regain. The multidisciplinary approach with periodic monitoring is of fundamental importance to prevent or treat weight regain. Several therapeutic options are ranging from nutritional to surgical options, which should be tailored according to patients' anatomy, lifestyle behavior, and compliance. Specialized multidisciplinary care is the key to achieve optimal long-term weight loss and maintenance goals following bariatric surgery.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026599

RESUMO

The metabolic actions of growth hormone (GH) last a lifetime and involve several physiological functions associated with the control of body composition, energy metabolism, water regulation, immune response, cardiovascular performance, physical and mental work. Adult patients with GH deficiency (GHD) present a constellation of clinical findings, which include increased total and visceral body fat, low bone and muscle mass, reduced muscle strength, impaired anaerobic physical capacity, unfavorable cardiovascular profile, and poor quality of life. Recombinant human GH (rhGH) therapy has been proved to reverse or improve many abnormalities associated with GHD in adult life, but the therapeutic response is highly variable among patients and influenced by multiple factors, which are the main focus of this narrative review. Given the individual sensitivity of adult GHD patients to rhGH replacement, dose regimens evolved from weight-based to individualized dose-titration strategies, which improved efficacy and reduced the frequency of adverse events. Individual tailoring and maintenance doses of rhGH are mainly influenced by age, age at GHD onset, sex, body mass index, baseline GH status, quality of life and other pituitary hormone replacements. In addition, genetic background and poor adherence due to patient or product-related factors might play a role in the responsiveness to rhGH therapy. There have been attempts to develop predictive mathematical models to distinguish good and poor responders to rhGH therapy, but thus far none of them have been prospectively tested and validated in a large cohort of adult GHD individuals.

5.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 183(1): C1-C4, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487776

RESUMO

Acromegaly is a debilitating and disfiguring chronic disease, which occurs in both sexes at any age, associated with multiple comorbidities and increased mortality. It is typically caused by a GH-secreting pituitary adenoma that promotes exposure of body tissues to increased concentrations of GH and IGF-I. The diagnosis of acromegaly is still made very late in a substantial number of patients when the disease is already in advanced stages. An epidemiological study from Sweden has elegantly demonstrated that the longer the diagnostic delay in acromegaly, the higher the number of comorbidities. Moreover, about 25% of the Swedish patients had 10 years or more of diagnostic delay and in this group mortality rate was significantly increased. These results reinforce the importance of shortening the latency period between disease onset, diagnosis and treatment to improve patient outcomes. This commentary article discusses strategies to be embraced by the endocrine community to allow early identification of acromegaly among public and health professionals, as internists, primary care clinicians, different specialists and dentists are the first point of contact for most of the patients. We emphasize that acromegaly should be presented as a sporadic, rather than rare, insidious disease, meaning that there is a considerable chance for health professionals to see a patient with acromegaly throughout their careers. The motto 'you must know it to think of it' is advocated in awareness efforts to reduce time to diagnosis, which results in lower rates of morbidity and mortality and might positively impact healthcare costs.


Assuntos
Acromegalia/diagnóstico , Acromegalia/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/complicações , Acromegalia/etiologia , Diagnóstico Tardio , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/epidemiologia
6.
Pituitary ; 23(4): 409-416, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32418172

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in adult hypopituitary patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of a cohort of hypopituitary adult patients followed in a single reference center for pituitary diseases. MetS was defined by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) criteria. Patients with 18 years or older, presenting two or more anterior pituitary deficiencies associated or not with diabetes insipidus (DI), were included, while patients with hypopituitarism due to Acromegaly or Cushing's disease were excluded. RESULTS: We studied 99 hypopituitary patients (52 males, mean age 50.1 ± 16.3 years, mean age at diagnosis 33.7 ± 17.6 years) who have been followed for a mean time of 15.9 ± 10.1 years. Hypothalamic-pituitary tumors and non-tumoral etiologies were observed in 53.4% and 46.6% of the cases, respectively. FSH/LH, GH, TSH, ACTH deficiency and DI was present in 99%, 98.6%, 96%, 81.8%, and 23.2%, respectively. The prevalence of MetS was 39.4% and was significantly higher in patients older than 50 years (p = 0.02), overweight/obese (p < 0.001), with hypopituitarism diagnosed in adult life (p = 0.02), who did not replace GH (p = 0.004) and in smokers (p = 0.007). In the logistic regression model, body mass index (BMI) and GH replacement were significantly associated with the presence of MetS. Reduced HDL cholesterol was the most prevalent component of MetS in hypopituitary patients. CONCLUSIONS: MetS is a common finding in adult hypopituitary patients, which is mainly influenced by increased BMI and untreated GH deficiency. Trial Registration number (Plataforma Brasil): CAAE 51008815.2.0000.0096 (May 31, 2017) .

7.
Adv Rheumatol ; 60(1): 18, 2020 03 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32171334

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Correlate serum magnesium (Mg) and Calcium (Ca) levels with body composition and metabolic parameters in women with fibromyalgia (FM). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Cross-sectional study compared with a control group paired by age and body mass index (BMI) of adult women diagnosed with fibromyalgia. All participants went through assessment of their body composition through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and had blood samples collected for dosing of Mg, Ca, C-reactive Protein (CRP), lipidogram and glycemia. RESULTS: 53 women with FM (average age 48.1 ± 8.2 years, average BMI 26.6 ± 4.5 kg/m2) and 50 control women (average age 47.1 ± 9.9 years, average BMI 25.6 ± 3.6 kg/m2) participated in the study. Serum levels turned out to have inverse correlation with CRP in the FM group (r = - 0.29, p = 0.03) and with BMI and glycemia in the control group (r = 0.31; p = 0.02 and r = 0.48; p = 0.0004 respectively). Serum levels of calcium correlated with triglycerides (r = 0.29; p = 0.03) in the FM group and with glycemia in the control group (r = 0.64; p = 0.0001). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with FM, magnesemia turned out to have inverse correlation with CRP and calcemia had positive association with triglycerides.

8.
Eat Weight Disord ; 2020 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172507

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To determine the personality types of women in treatment for obesity and the associations among their personality characteristics, eating behaviour and suicide risk. SUBJECTS: Sixty women in pharmacological treatment for obesity (clinical group: CG) and 60 women post-bariatric gastric bypass surgery (surgical group: SG) were evaluated. METHODS: This was an observational and transversal study conducted in a specialized outpatient unit. Personality types were evaluated through the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) test. A semi-structured questionnaire that investigated sociodemographic and lifestyle characteristics was applied, along with the Binge Eating Scale (BES) and the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS). RESULTS: Among the 16 possible personality types, the ISFJ (Introversion, Sensing, Feeling, Judging) and ESFJ (Extraversion, Sensing, Feeling, Judging) types were more frequent. In the SG, 32% of the participants presented with the ISFJ type, and 18.3% presented with the ESFJ type. In the CG, 33% presented with the ISFJ type and 25% presented with the ESFJ type. There was a higher prevalence of binge eating behaviour in the CG (Cohen's d: - 0.47; p < 0.0001) and a higher tendency to graze in the SG (p = 0.005). Participants with introverted attitudes showed a higher prevalence of severe binging (13.3% vs 3.3%, p = 0.07), suicidal thoughts throughout life (STTL) (69.5% vs 45.1%, p = 0.007), and recent suicidal thoughts (RSTs) (30.4% vs 11.7%, p = 0.01) in comparison to extraverted participants. BMI was associated with a higher chance of STTL (37.96 ± 6.41 kg/m2 with STTL vs 33.92 ± 4.68 kg/m2 without STTL; p = 0.01) in the CG compared to the SG. RSTs were associated with BMI in the SG (34.47 ± 3.86 kg/m2 with RSTs vs 30.61 ± 5.72 kg/m2 without RSTs; p = 0.01). In the multivariable analysis, personality type (ISFJ) was an independent predictor of STTL (OR: 3.6; CI 1.3-10.2; p = 0.01) and Suicidal Behaviour (SB) (OR: 9.7; CI 2.44-38.9; p = 0.001). Conversely, while BMI was an independent factor associated with binge eating, personality type was not. CONCLUSIONS: Women who were in pharmacological treatment for obesity or were post-bariatric surgery present specific types of personality. Introversion was associated with a higher BMI and a higher risk of suicidal thoughts. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level V, cross-sectional descriptive study.

9.
Endocr Pract ; 26(3): 340-353, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163313

RESUMO

Over the past few decades, there has been an unprecedented rise in off-label use and misuse of testosterone, growth hormone, thyroid hormone, and adrenal supplements. Testosterone therapy is often promoted to men for the treatment of low energy, lower libido, erectile dysfunction, and other symptoms. Growth hormone is used in attempts to improve athletic performance in athletes and to attenuate aging in older adults. Thyroid hormone and/or thyroid supplements or boosters are taken to treat fatigue, obesity, depression, cognitive impairment, impaired physical performance, and infertility. Adrenal supplements are used to treat common nonspecific symptoms due to "adrenal fatigue," an entity that has not been recognized as a legitimate medical diagnosis. Several factors have contributed to the surge in off-label use and misuse of these hormones and supplements: direct-to-consumer advertising, websites claiming to provide legitimate medical information, and for-profit facilities promoting therapies for men's health and anti-aging. The off-label use and misuse of hormones and supplements in individuals without an established endocrine diagnosis carries known and unknown risks. For example, the risks of growth hormone abuse in athletes and older adults are unknown due to a paucity of studies and because those who abuse this hormone often take supraphysiologic doses in sporadic intervals. In addition to the health risks, off-label use of these hormones and supplements generates billions of dollars of unnecessary costs to patients and to the overall health-care system. It is important that patients honestly disclose to their providers off-label hormone use, as it may affect their health and treatment plan. General medical practitioners and adult endocrinologists should be able to begin a discussion with their patients regarding the unfavorable balance between the risks and benefits associated with off-label use of testosterone, growth hormone, thyroid hormone, and adrenal supplements. Abbreviations: DHEA = dehydroepiandrosterone; FDA = U.S. Food and Drug Administration; GH = growth hormone; IGF-1 = insulin-like growth factor 1; LT3 = L-triiodothyronine; LT4 = levothyroxine; T3 = total triiodothyronine; T4 = thyroxine; TSH = thyroid-stimulating hormone.


Assuntos
Uso Off-Label , Idoso , Hormônio do Crescimento , Humanos , Masculino , Testosterona , Hormônios Tireóideos , Tireotropina , Tiroxina , Tri-Iodotironina
10.
Endocrine ; 68(1): 182-191, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078118

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of IGF-I and random GH measurements 3 months after transsphenoidal surgery (TSS) in predicting long-term remission in acromegaly patients. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 54 acromegaly patients who underwent TSS with the same neurosurgery team. Random GH and IGF-I values evaluated 3 months after TSS were related to long-term outcomes. The initiation of adjuvant therapy at any time defined surgical failure. RESULTS: At 3 months, 14 (25.9%) patients had controlled disease (CD; normal IGF-I and GH < 1.0 µg/L), 25 (46.3%) had uncontrolled disease (UD; high IGF-I and GH), and 15 (27.8%) had biochemical discrepancies (BD): 12 BDI (normal IGF-I + GH ≥ 1.0 µg/L) and 3 BDII (high IGF-I + GH < 1.0 µg/L). All patients of the CD group, 2 of the UD, 11 of the BDI, and 2 of the BDII, progressed with long-term remission and had IGF-I ≤ 1.25-fold the Upper Limit of Normal (ULN), in contrast with all cases of surgical failure where IGF-I was ≥1.3-fold ULN. Only one patient with normal IGF-I had recurrence, resulting in 100% sensitivity and 96% specificity of post-surgical IGF-I ≤ 1.25-fold ULN to predict long-term remission, observed in 54% of our cohort. Post-surgical random GH ≥ 1.7 µg/L was the best cutoff to identify surgical failure, but its accuracy to predict long-term outcomes was limited. CONCLUSIONS: IGF-I levels ≤ 1.25-fold ULN 3 months after TSS was the best guide for long-term remission in acromegaly patients with both initial surgical failure and discrepant biochemical results.

11.
Rev Endocr Metab Disord ; 21(2): 225-233, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31984458

RESUMO

The management of aggressive pituitary adenomas represents a special clinical challenge, and usually involves a combination of surgery, radiotherapy and pharmacological agents to control tumor growth and hormone abnormalities. Fertility is commonly affected in these patients due to compressive effects of the tumor, pituitary hormone dysfunction or as a result of the multiple therapies. The initial approach to restore fertility involves the reduction of tumor volume by the use of dopamine agonists in prolactinomas and by surgery in other pituitary adenomas. Somatostatin analogues are alternative options for GH, ACTH and TSH-secreting tumors. When present, pituitary deficiencies should be appropriately treated, particularly GH deficiency that has been associated with poor pregnancy rates in hypopituitary patients. Other therapies for aggressive pituitary tumors, such as invasive surgery, radiotherapy and temozolamide, may lead to infertility. In such cases, fertility preservation strategies might be considered and discussed with the patient desiring conception before or during treatment. In men and women with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, administration of gonadotropins or pulse GnRH has resulted in satisfactory pregnancy rates. If spontaneous gestation is not achieved, assisted reproduction techniques can be employed as the last line of treatment. In any context, pre-conception counseling and care are essential as pregnancies in women with aggressive pituitary tumors should always be considered high risk.

12.
Growth Horm IGF Res ; 50: 48-56, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864177

RESUMO

The aim of this article is to present a historical review on giants and dwarves living in South America and the contribution of South America's researchers to scientific advances on growth hormone (GH) and human disorders related to GH excess and GH deficiency (GHD). We went back in time to investigate facts and myths stemming from countless reports of giants who lived in the Patagonia region, focusing on what is currently known about gigantism in South America. Additionally, we have reviewed the exceptional work carried out in two of the world's largest cohorts of dwarfism related to GH-IGF axis: one living in Itabaianinha, Brazil, suffering from severe GHD due to a mutation in the GHRH receptor (GHRHR) gene, and the other living in El Oro and Loja provinces of Ecuador, who are carriers of GH receptor gene mutation that causes total GH insensitivity (Laron syndrome). Importantly, we present an overview of the outstanding medical contribution of Jose Dantas de Souza Leite, a Brazilian physician that described the first cases of acromegaly, and Bernardo Alberto Houssay, an Argentine researcher graced with the Nobel Prize, who was one the first scientists to establish a link between GH and glucose metabolism.

13.
Adv Rheumatol ; 60: 18, 2020. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088642

RESUMO

Abstract Objective: Correlate serum magnesium (Mg) and Calcium (Ca) levels with body composition and metabolic parameters in women with fibromyalgia (FM). Patients and methods: Cross-sectional study compared with a control group paired by age and body mass index (BMI) of adult women diagnosed with fibromyalgia. All participants went through assessment of their body composition through dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and had blood samples collected for dosing of Mg, Ca, C-reactive Protein (CRP), lipidogram and glycemia. Results: 53 women with FM (average age 48.1 ±8.2 years, average BMI 26.6 ±4.5 kg/m2) and 50 control women (average age 47.1 ±9.9 years, average BMI 25.6 ± 3.6 kg/m2) participated in the study. Serum levels turned out to have inverse correlation with CRP in the FM group (r = −0.29, p = 0.03) and with BMI and glycemia in the control group (r = 0.31; p = 0.02 and r = 0.48; p = 0.0004 respectively). Serum levels of calcium correlated with triglycerides (r = 0.29; p = 0.03) in the FM group and with glycemia in the control group (r = 0.64; p = 0.0001). Conclusions: In patients with FM, magnesemia turned out to have inverse correlation with CRP and calcemia had positive association with triglycerides.

14.
Adv Rheumatol ; 59(1): 55, 2019 12 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31829290

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Determine food intake and levels of serum magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) and correlate these minerals with pain, quality of life and depression risk in women with and without fibromyalgia (FM). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty-three women diagnosed with FM and 50 healthy women participated in the study, where all of them had equivalent age and body mass index (BMI). All women underwent anthropometric assessment, physical exams of pain perception threshold and tender point (TP) count, blood sample collection, and filling out of FM impact questionnaire (FIQ), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), and 3-day dietary record (DR). RESULTS: Dietary intake of Mg and Ca was substantially lower by women with FM. There were no differences in levels of serum Mg and Ca in the groups under analysis. For the FM group, dietary intake of Mg and Ca had inverse correlation with TP and direct relation with the pain threshold. CONCLUSIONS: Although women with FM had lower dietary intake of Mg and Ca, serum levels for these nutrients were not different between the groups. Low dietary intake of minerals correlated with worsened pain threshold parameters.


Assuntos
Cálcio/sangue , Depressão/etiologia , Fibromialgia/sangue , Magnésio/sangue , Limiar da Dor/fisiologia , Qualidade de Vida , Adulto , Brasil , Cálcio na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Registros de Dieta , Ingestão de Alimentos , Feminino , Fibromialgia/fisiopatologia , Fibromialgia/psicologia , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Humanos , Magnésio/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Medição da Dor
16.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(3): 265-271, May-June 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011158

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective We investigated changes in body composition and nutritional and metabolic parameters in a group of postmenopausal women who were classified as sufficient, insufficient and deficient in vitamin D. Subjects and methods A total of 106 postmenopausal women were included in this cross-sectional study and classified according to their serum levels of 25-OH-vitamin D as sufficient (≥ 30 ng/mL; group S), insufficient (20.1 and 29.9 ng/mL; group I) or deficient (≤ 20 ng/mL; group D) in vitamin D. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA); dietary recall questionnaires were completed; and blood samples were analysed to compare the metabolic and nutritional status of the study groups. Results Eleven (10.4%) of the women were classified in group S, 50 (47.2%) in group I and 45 (42.4%) in group D, with a mean serum level for 25-OH-D of 21.1 ± 7.0 ng/mL in all participants. Body composition did not differ among the groups. Serum levels of 25-OH-D were negatively correlated with serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. Conclusions Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency were highly prevalent in our group of postmenopausal women, showing an association with an unfavourable lipid profile.


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Vitamina D/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia , Glicemia/análise , Composição Corporal , Brasil/epidemiologia , Índice de Massa Corporal , Densidade Óssea , Estado Nutricional , Prevalência , Estudos Transversais , LDL-Colesterol/sangue
17.
Arch Endocrinol Metab ; 63(3): 265-271, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31038588

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We investigated changes in body composition and nutritional and metabolic parameters in a group of postmenopausal women who were classified as sufficient, insufficient and deficient in vitamin D. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total of 106 postmenopausal women were included in this cross-sectional study and classified according to their serum levels of 25-OH-vitamin D as sufficient (≥ 30 ng/mL; group S), insufficient (20.1 and 29.9 ng/mL; group I) or deficient (≤ 20 ng/mL; group D) in vitamin D. Body composition was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA); dietary recall questionnaires were completed; and blood samples were analysed to compare the metabolic and nutritional status of the study groups. RESULTS: Eleven (10.4%) of the women were classified in group S, 50 (47.2%) in group I and 45 (42.4%) in group D, with a mean serum level for 25-OH-D of 21.1 ± 7.0 ng/mL in all participants. Body composition did not differ among the groups. Serum levels of 25-OH-D were negatively correlated with serum levels of triglycerides, total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol. CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency were highly prevalent in our group of postmenopausal women, showing an association with an unfavourable lipid profile.


Assuntos
Pós-Menopausa/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/sangue , Vitamina D/sangue , Adulto , Glicemia/análise , Composição Corporal , Índice de Massa Corporal , Densidade Óssea , Brasil/epidemiologia , LDL-Colesterol/sangue , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estado Nutricional , Prevalência , Triglicerídeos/sangue , Deficiência de Vitamina D/epidemiologia
18.
Best Pract Res Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 33(2): 101268, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31027975

RESUMO

Pituitary incidentalomas (PIs) represent a modern clinical entity increasingly recognized due to advances and easier accessibility to imaging techniques. By definition, PIs should be detected during brain imaging performed for investigation of a non-pituitary disease. Although anatomic variations, technical artefacts or pituitary hyperplasia might also be interpreted as PIs, the most relevant incidentally detected lesions are those that fulfill radiological criteria for a pituitary adenoma in asymptomatic patients or in the presence of subclinical diseases. The natural history of PIs is not fully determined, but there is a wealth of evidence indicating that most microincidentalomas (lesions < 10 mm) have a benign course, whereas macroincidentalomas (≥10 mm) deserve more attention due to an increased risk for hormone abnormalities and mass effects. This concept is important to keep in mind for an optimal diagnostic and therapeutic management of PIs that avoids harmful iatrogenesis and unnecessary health care costs.


Assuntos
Adenoma/terapia , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/terapia , Adenoma/diagnóstico , Doenças Assintomáticas , Humanos , Achados Incidentais , Neuroimagem/métodos , Neoplasias Hipofisárias/diagnóstico
19.
Eur J Endocrinol ; 180(5): R185-R199, 2019 May 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30913536

RESUMO

Objective This paper reviews the main mechanisms, diagnostic criteria, treatment options and available data on sarcopenia in endocrine and non-endocrine disorders. The literature notes the presence of sarcopenia as a comorbid condition or a complication of another clinical situation and not a disease that only affects elderly patients. Method We performed a literature review, focusing on the following: mechanisms related to sarcopenia in elderly patients, and sarcopenia as it presents in the context of chronic and endocrine diseases; diagnostic tools and methods; aspects of sarcopenia and treatment options specific to chronic diseases and endocrine disorders respectively. Results Sarcopenia in chronic and endocrine disorders shares many mechanisms with sarcopenia affecting elderly patients, but certain diseases can have a predominant aspect that leads to sarcopenia. The prevalence of sarcopenia varies, depending on different diagnostic criteria, from around 12 to 60% in chronic illnesses and 15 to 90% in endocrine disorders. The interplay between sarcopenia, chronic diseases and elderly patients requires further study, to clarify the impact of each, in terms of prognosis and mortality. Conclusion Awareness of the presentation of sarcopenia in the context of other diseases and ages (and not just the elderly) is fundamental to ensure that preventive measures can be deployed.


Assuntos
Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/complicações , Sarcopenia/complicações , Doenças do Sistema Endócrino/fisiopatologia , Humanos , Prevalência , Sarcopenia/epidemiologia , Sarcopenia/fisiopatologia
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