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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831144

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Efficacy evaluation of giant cell arteritis (GCA) treatment is primarily based on non-specific symptoms and laboratory markers. We aimed to assess the change in vascular inflammation in patients with large vessel (LV)-GCA under different treatments using [18F]FDG PET/CT. METHODS: Observational study on patients with new-onset, active LV-GCA starting treatment with either prednisolone monotherapy (PRED) or combination with methotrexate (MTX) or tocilizumab (TOC). All patients underwent baseline and follow-up PET/CT. The aorta and its major branches were assessed using PET vascular activity score (PETVAS) by independent readers. Cumulative glucocorticoid doses and cessation of glucocorticoid treatment were documented in all patients. RESULTS: We included 88 LV-GCA patients, 27 were treated with PRED, 42 with MTX, and 19 with TOC. PETVAS decreased from 18.9-8.0 units at follow-up in the overall population (p< 0.001). PETVAS changes were numerically higher in patients receiving MTX (-12.3 units) or TOC (-11.7 units) compared with PRED (-8.7). Mean cumulative prednisolone dosages were 5637, 4418, and 2984 mg in patients treated with PRED, MTX, and TOC (p= 0.002). Risk ratios for glucocorticoid discontinuation at the time of follow-up PET/CT were 6.77 (95%CI 1.01-45.29; p= 0.049) and 16.25 (95%CI 2.60-101.73; p= 0.003) for MTX and TOC users compared with PRED users. CONCLUSION: Treatment of LV-GCA inhibits vascular inflammation in the aorta and its major branches. While similar control of vascular inflammation was achieved with PRED, MTX, and TOC treatments, TOC showed a strong glucocorticoid sparing effect, supporting the concept of initial combination therapy.

3.
Semin Arthritis Rheum ; 50(5): 1064-1072, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911285

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the characteristics and significance of inflammation restricted (RI) to the adventitial and/or periadventitial tissue on temporal artery biopsy (TAB). METHODS: We studied a retrospective cohort of 80 patients with RI, extending our earlier series of 39 patients. For comparison purposes, we collected the same data from 254 patients with transmural inflammation (TMI) and 81 TAB-negative patients. A review of the literature was also performed. RESULTS: A final diagnosis of giant cells arteritis (GCA) and/or polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) was observed in 86% of patients with RI. Compared to TMI, GCA diagnosis was significantly less frequently observed in patients with RI and in those TAB-negative (p < 0.0001), while cranial manifestations were significantly less frequent (p = 0.001) and ESR and CRP values at diagnosis significantly reduced (p < 0.0001). PMR, permanent visual loss, and large vessel involvement at diagnosis were equally present in the 3 subgroups. The median duration of prednisone therapy, the cumulative prednisone dosages, and the relapse and long-term remission rates were similar between patients with GCA-RI and those with TMI. The positive likelihood ratios (LRs) of pathological evidence of RI at TAB for GCA or GCA/PMR diagnoses were 0.88 (CI, 0.61-1.27) and 1.15 (CI, 0.67-1.99), while that of inflammation limited to adventitia was 1.37 (CI, 0.59-3.19) and 3.77 (CI, 0.53-26.72). In the literature review, the positive LR of RI for GCA diagnosis was 0.92 (CI, 0.68-1.25). CONCLUSION: A large part of the patients with RI have GCA/PMR, however, the diagnostic value of RI for GCA diagnosis is not relevant.

4.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32741116

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association between specimen length and number of sections evaluated and the diagnostic yield of TAB for GCA. METHODS: A pathologist reviewed all TABs performed for suspected GCA between January 1991 and December 2012. The blocks of all the inadequate and negative biopsies were recut, and further slides at deeper levels were stained with hematoxylin-eosin, in order to avoid missing inflammatory changes. RESULTS: 662 TABs were included (71% female; mean age, 73.2 years). 427 (65%) TABs were classified as negative and 235 (35%) as positive for GCA. Compared with negative TAB, patients with positive TAB were older and more frequently female. There was no difference in post-fixation TAB length between TABs negative and positive for GCA (mean 6.5 vs 6.9 mm, p=0.068). Cuts of additional biopsy sections revealed inflammation at deeper levels in 26/408 (6.4%) TABs originally reported as uninflamed. The inflamed section was the second in 14 TABs, the third in 9 and the forth in 3. Piecewise logistic regression identified 5 mm as the TAB length change point for diagnostic sensitivity. Compared with TAB length of <5 mm, age- and sex-adjusted odds ratio for positive TAB in samples ≥5 mm long was 1.5 (95% CI 1.0-2.0), p=0.032. CONCLUSION: A post-fixation TAB length of at least 5 mm should be sufficient to make a histological diagnosis of GCA. In order not to miss inflammatory changes, at least 3 further sections at deeper levels should be evaluated in all negative TABs.

5.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2020 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32767527

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the susceptibility to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in patients with autoimmune conditions treated with antimalarials in a population-based study. METHODS: All residents treated with chloroquine (CQ)/hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) from July through December 2019 and living in 3 provinces of Regione Emilia-Romagna were identified by drug prescription registries and matched with the registry containing all residents living in the same areas who have had swabs and tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated. RESULTS: A total of 4,408 patients were identified. The prevalence of patients receiving antimalarials was 0.85 per 1,000 men and 3.3 per 1,000 women. The cumulative incidence of testing during the study period was 2.7% in the general population and 3.8% among those receiving CQ or HCQ, while the cumulative incidence of testing positive was 0.55% in the general population and 0.70% among those receiving CQ/HCQ. Multivariate models showed that those receiving CQ/HCQ had a slightly higher probability of being tested compared to the general population (OR 1.09 [95% CI 0.94-1.28]), the same probability of being diagnosed as having COVID-19 (OR 0.94 [95% CI 0.66-1.34]), and a slightly lower probability of being positive once tested (OR 0.83 [95% CI 0.56-1.23]). None of the differences were significant. CONCLUSION: Our findings do not support the use of antimalarials as a prophylactic treatment of COVID-19.

6.
Semin Arthritis Rheum ; 50(4): 549-558, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32446023

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate characteristics and predictors of relapses and long-term remission in an Italian cohort of patients with large-vessel (LV) giant cell arteritis (GCA). METHODS: We evaluated 87 consecutive patients with LV-GCA followed up at the Rheumatology Unit of Reggio Emilia Hospital (Italy) for at least 2 years. Patients with relapses and long-term remission were compared to those without. A group of 34 patients with biopsy proven GCA without LV vasculitis (LVV) at diagnosis was considered for comparison. PATIENTS: 37 patients (42.5%) experienced one or more relapses. Nineteen (37.2%) of the 51 relapses were experienced during the first year after diagnosis. The majority of relapses occurred with doses of prednisone (PDN) ≤ 10 mg/day (74.5%). Polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) (41.2%) and worsening at imaging of LVV (39.2%) were the most frequently observed relapsing manifestations. The total cumulative prednisone dose was significantly higher (p < 0.0001) and the total duration of PDN treatment longer (p < 0.0001) in relapsing patients compared to those without relapses. Relapsing patients had at diagnosis more frequently fever ≥ 38°C (p = 0.03) and visual manifestations (p = 0.03), and less frequently long-term remission (p = 0.002). In the multivariate model fever ≥ 38°C (HR 2.30, 95%CI:1.11-4.78) and total cumulative PDN dose (HR 1.18, 95%CI: 1.08-1.30) were significantly associated with an increased risk of relapses, while aortic arch involvement at imaging at diagnosis (HR 0.26, 95%CI: 0.11-0.59) and long-term remission (HR 0.27, 95%CI: 0.11-0.65) with a reduced risk. 35/84 patients (41.6%) experienced long-term remission. PMR and disease relapses were less frequently observed (p = 0.04 and p = 0.002, respectively), and the total cumulative prednisone dose was lower (p < 0.001) in patients with long-term remission compared to those without. In the multivariate model the presence of relapses (HR 0.21, 95%CI: 0.07-0.62) and the total cumulative PDN dose (HR 0.85, 95%CI: 0.77-0.95) were significantly negatively associated with long-term remission. CONCLUSION: In our cohort of patients with LV GCA we identified predictors of a relapsing course and long-term remission, which were observed in around half of the patients.

7.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 79(7): 986-988, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32467245
8.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 38 Suppl 124(2): 79-83, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32083546

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare clinical characteristics, treatment and prognosis of two population-based cohorts of patients with biopsy-proven giant cell arteritis (GCA) from Olmsted County, Minnesota, USA (Olmsted cohort) and the Reggio Emilia area, Northern Italy (Reggio cohort). METHODS: All patients residing in Olmsted County and the Reggio Emilia area with a new diagnosis of biopsy-proven GCA in 1986-2007 were retrospectively identified. Patients were followed from GCA diagnosis to death, migration or September 2011. RESULTS: The study included 110 patients in the Olmsted and 144 in the Reggio cohort. Compared with the Olmsted cohort, patients from the Reggio cohort had longer duration of symptoms prior to diagnosis (median 1.4 months vs. 0.7, p<0.001) and were younger (mean 74.6 years vs. 77.8, p=0.002), more likely to have cranial symptoms (93% vs. 86%, p=0.048), permanent vision loss (21% vs. 6%, p=0.001) and systemic symptoms (67% vs. 46%, p=0.001). ESR and CRP were higher (mean 88 mm/h vs. 73, and 89.0 mg/L vs. 35.2, both p<0.001) in the Reggio cohort. Patients from the Olmsted cohort received a higher initial prednisone dose (mean 53.6 mg/day vs. 49.5, p=0.001). There were no differences in relapse rates, cumulative glucocorticoid (GC) dosages at 1, 2 and 5 years, and time to first GC discontinuation. CONCLUSIONS: Geographical, genetic and/or environmental factors may contribute to the different clinical features at onset of GCA observed in this study.


Assuntos
Arterite de Células Gigantes/diagnóstico , Arterite de Células Gigantes/fisiopatologia , Biópsia , Humanos , Itália , Minnesota , Estudos Retrospectivos
9.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 38 Suppl 124(2): 23-30, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31573481

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate serum levels of a panel of angiogenic inducers (VEGF, FGF-2, Angiopoietin 1, -2, soluble VCAM-1) and inhibitors (angiostatin, endostatin, pentraxin-3) in patients with giant cell arteritis (GCA) and Takayasu's arteritis (TAK), in order to gain further insights into the molecular mechanisms driving angiogenesis dysregulation in large-vessel vasculitis (LVV). METHODS: Sera were obtained from 33 TAK patients and 14 GCA patients and from two groups of age-matched normal controls (NC). Disease activity was assessed using 18F-FDG PET/CT and clinical indices including NIH/Kerr criteria and ITAS. Angiogenic and anti-angiogenic factor serum levels were evaluated using commercial ELISA kits. Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) serum levels were evaluated by non-commercial ELISA, as already described. RESULTS: Among the angiogenic factors, only VEGF serum levels were significantly higher in TAK patients compared to NC. No difference was found between angiogenic factor levels in GCA patients compared to those detected in NC. Anti-angiogenic factor (Angiostatin, Endostatin, PTX3) serum levels were significantly higher in both GCA and TAK patients compared to NC. Significant associations were observed between VEGF and PTX3 levels and disease activity evaluated using PET scan and clinical indices. Cluster analysis based on PET scan scores in TAK patients showed significant ordered differences in VEGF and angiostatin serum levels. Indeed, we noted a progressive increase of VEGF and angiostatin from NC to the cluster including patients with the highest and more diffuse scan positivity. CONCLUSIONS: Our overall results demonstrate a circulating molecular profile characterised by a prevailing expression of anti-angiogenic soluble factors.


Assuntos
Proteínas Angiogênicas/sangue , Proteínas Angiostáticas/sangue , Arterite de Células Gigantes/sangue , Arterite de Takayasu/sangue , Angiopoietina-1 , Angiopoietina-2 , Angiostatinas , Proteína C-Reativa , Endostatinas , Fator 2 de Crescimento de Fibroblastos , Humanos , Neovascularização Patológica/sangue , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Componente Amiloide P Sérico , Molécula 1 de Adesão de Célula Vascular , Fator A de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular
10.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 37 Suppl 117(2): 98-103, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31025922

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether interleukin-6 expression in the temporal arteries could be a more sensitive marker of active inflammation compared to the presence of an inflammatory infiltrate. METHODS: Sixty-three formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded temporal artery biopsies performed between 2009 and 2012 from 32 patients with biopsy-proven giant cell arteritis, 8 patients with a negative biopsy but with a final diagnosis of giant cell arteritis, and 23 controls (patients with an initial clinical suspicion of giant cell arteritis in whom an alternative diagnosis subsequently was made) were examined. Biopsy specimens showing a transmural inflammatory infiltrate were considered positive for giant cell arteritis. Immunochemistry was performed to detect interleukin-6 in the temporal artery specimens. Slides of temporal artery biopsies were independently assessed by five readers. Interleukin-6 expression was graded as 0 (absent), 1 (mild), 2 (moderate) and 3 (marked). We considered anti-IL-6 staining positive if staining was of grade 2 or 3. RESULTS: Temporal artery biopsies specimens from patients with biopsy-proven giant cell arteritis, biopsy-negative giant cell arteritis and controls were positive for anti-interleukin-6 staining in 59%, 13% and 48% of cases, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Interleukin-6 expression does not increase the sensitivity of temporal artery biopsy in patients with giant cell arteritis who have morphologically uninflamed arteries.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores/análise , Arterite de Células Gigantes , Interleucina-6/análise , Artérias Temporais , Idoso , Artérias , Biópsia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Artérias Temporais/metabolismo , Artérias Temporais/patologia
11.
J Autoimmun ; 98: 113-121, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30638709

RESUMO

Tuftsin-PhosphorylCholine (TPC) is a novel bi-specific molecule which links tuftsin and phosphorylcholine. TPC has shown immunomodulatory activities in experimental mouse models of autoimmune diseases. We studied herein the effects of TPC ex vivo on both peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and temporal artery biopsies (TABs) obtained from patients with giant cell arteritis (GCA) and age-matched disease controls. GCA is an immune-mediated disease affecting large vessels. Levels of 18 cytokines in supernatants, PBMC viability, T helper (Th) cell differentiation of PBMCs and gene expression in TABs were analyzed. Treatment ex vivo with TPC decreased the production of IL-1ß, IL-2, IL-5, IL-6, IL-9, IL-12(p70), IL-13, IL-17A, IL-18, IL-21, IL-22, IL-23, IFNγ, TNFα, GM-CSF by CD3/CD28 activated PBMCs whereas it negligibly affected cell viability. It reduced Th1 and Th17 differentiation while did not impact Th22 differentiation in PBMCs stimulated by phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate plus ionomycin. In inflamed TABs, treatment with TPC down-regulated the production of IL-1ß, IL-6, IL-13, IL-17A and CD68 gene expression. The effects of TPC were comparable to the effects of dexamethasone, included as the standard of care, with the exception of a greater reduction of IL-2, IL-18, IFNγ in CD3/CD28 activated PBMCs and CD68 gene in inflamed TABs. In conclusion our results warrant further investigations regarding TPC as an immunotherapeutic agent in GCA and potentially other autoimmune and inflammatory diseases.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Dexametasona/uso terapêutico , Arterite de Células Gigantes/tratamento farmacológico , Imunoterapia/métodos , Fosforilcolina/análogos & derivados , Subpopulações de Linfócitos T/imunologia , Células Th1/imunologia , Tuftsina/uso terapêutico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Combinação de Medicamentos , Feminino , Humanos , Ativação Linfocitária , Masculino , Fosforilcolina/uso terapêutico
12.
Semin Arthritis Rheum ; 48(6): 1074-1082, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30424972

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate aortic diameter and predictors of aortic dilatation using 18FDG-PET/CT in a longitudinally followed cohort of patients with large vessel vasculitis (LVV) compared with controls. METHODS: All consecutive patients with LVV who underwent at least 2 PET/CT scans between January 2008 and May 2015 were included. The first and last PET/CT study was evaluated by a radiologist and a nuclear medicine physician. Diameter and FDG uptake of the aorta was measured at 4 different levels: ascending, descending thoracic, suprarenal and infrarenal abdominal aorta. Twenty-nine age- and sex-matched patients with lymphoma who underwent at least 2 PET/CT scans in the same time interval were selected as controls. RESULTS: 93 patients with LVV were included in the study. In the time interval between first and last PET/CT study (median time 31 months), the diameter of the ascending, descending thoracic and suprarenal abdominal aorta significantly increased in LVV patients but not in controls. At last PET/CT, patients with LVV compared with controls had higher diameter of ascending [35.41 (5.54) vs 32.97 (4.11) mm, p = 0.029], descending thoracic [28.42 (4.82) vs 25.72 (3.55) mm, p = 0.007] and suprarenal abdominal aorta, mean [25.34 (7.01) vs 22.16 (3.26) mm, p = 0.005] and more frequently had aortic dilatation [19% vs 3%, p = 0.023]. Significant predictors of aortic dilatation were male sex [OR 7.27, p = 0.001] and, only for GCA, hypertension [OR 6.30, p = 0.031]. Finally, GCA patients with aortic FDG uptake grade 3 at first PET/CT, compared to those with aortic FDG uptake ≤2, had significantly higher aortic diameter. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with LVV are at increased risk of aortic dilatation compared with age- and sex-matched controls. Significant predictors of aortic dilatation are male sex and, only for GCA, hypertension. GCA patients with aortic FDG uptake grade 3 are at increased risk of aortic dilatation.


Assuntos
Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças da Aorta/diagnóstico por imagem , Arterite de Células Gigantes/diagnóstico por imagem , Arterite de Takayasu/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Fatores de Risco
13.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 58(4): 609-616, 2019 04 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517710

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of disease-related findings and treatment outcomes on survival in a population-based cohort of Northern Italian patients with GCA. METHODS: A total of 281 patients with incident temporal artery biopsy (TAB)-proven GCA, diagnosed over a 26-year period (1986-2012) and living in the Reggio Emilia area, were retrospectively evaluated. We analysed clinical, imaging and laboratory findings at diagnosis, pathological patterns of TAB, CS treatment and therapeutic outcomes, and traditional cardiovascular risk factors as factors predictive of survival. RESULTS: Univariate analysis showed that increased mortality was associated with large vessel involvement at diagnosis [hazard ratio (HR) 5.84], while reduced mortality was associated with female sex (HR 0.66), PMR (HR 0.54), higher haemoglobin levels (HR 0.84) at diagnosis, long-term remission (HR 0.47) and inflammation limited to adventitia or to the adventitial vasa vasorum (HR 0.48) at TAB examination. Multivariate analysis confirmed the association between increased mortality and large vessel involvement (HR 5.14) at diagnosis, between reduced mortality and PMR (HR 0.57) at diagnosis and adventitial inflammation (HR 0.31) at TAB. CONCLUSION: PMR at diagnosis and inflammation limited to the adventitia at TAB appear to identify subsets of patients with more benign disease, while large vessel involvement at diagnosis is associated with reduced survival.


Assuntos
Arterite de Células Gigantes/mortalidade , Adulto , Túnica Adventícia/patologia , Biópsia , Feminino , Arterite de Células Gigantes/patologia , Humanos , Inflamação , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Artérias Temporais/patologia
14.
PLoS One ; 13(12): e0209343, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30586461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The TNFSF13B (TNF superfamily member 13b) gene encodes BAFF, a cytokine with a crucial role in the differentiation and activation of B cells. An insertion-deletion variant (GCTGT→A) of this gene, leading to increased levels of BAFF, has been recently implicated in the genetic predisposition to several autoimmune diseases, including multiple sclerosis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and rheumatoid arthritis. Based on the elevated levels of this cytokine found in patients with giant cell arteritis (GCA) and systemic sclerosis (SSc), we aimed to assess whether this functional variant also represents a novel genetic risk factor for these two disorders. METHODS: A total of 1,728 biopsy-proven GCA patients from 4 European cohorts, 4,584 SSc patients from 3 European cohorts and 5,160 ethnically-matched healthy controls were included in the study. The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs374039502, which colocalizes with the genetic variant previously implicated in autoimmunity, was genotyped using a custom TaqMan assay. First, association analysis was conducted in each independent cohort using χ2 test in Plink (v1.9). Subsequently, different case/control sets were meta-analyzed by the inverse variance method. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences were found when allele distributions were compared between cases and controls for any of the analyzed cohorts. Similarly, combined analysis of the different sets evidenced a lack of association of the rs374039502 variant with GCA (P = 0.421; OR (95% CI) = 0.92 (0.75-1.13)) and SSc (P = 0.500; OR (95% CI) = 1.05 (0.91-1.22)). The stratified analysis considering the main clinical subphenotypes of these diseases yielded similar negative results. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that the TNFSF13B functional variant does not contribute to the genetic network underlying GCA and SSc.


Assuntos
Fator Ativador de Células B/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Arterite de Células Gigantes/genética , Escleroderma Sistêmico/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biópsia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Arterite de Células Gigantes/patologia , Humanos , Mutação INDEL , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Escleroderma Sistêmico/patologia
15.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 36 Suppl 111(2): 99-106, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29799393

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To compare patterns of vascular involvement using 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) in patients with giant cell arteritis (GCA) and Takayasu's arteritis (TAK). METHODS: A total of 130 consecutive 18F-FDG PET/CT scans performed during the disease course for evaluating disease activity in 15 GCA and 13 TAK patients were retrospectively examined by two nuclear physicians blinded to clinical data. Standardised uptake values (SUVmax) in 14 vascular districts including all the aortic segments and the main tributaries were measured. The average SUVmax value for each vascular district was also calculated. Principal component analysis (PCA) and agglomerative hierarchical cluster analysis (CA) were used to explore distribution patterns of vascular FDG uptake. RESULTS: The aortic segments showed the highest SUV max values among the different districts in both GCA and TAK. SUV max values measured in the different districts were significantly higher in GCA compared to TAK, except for the axillary arteries. Regarding thoracic and abdominal aorta, ascending aorta and aortic arch had the highest correlation in both vasculitis (p<0.0001). CA confirmed that carotid, axillary, subclavian, iliac and femoral arteries clustered with their contralateral counterpart in both vasculitis. The 3 components of thoracic aorta clustered with abdominal aorta in TAK, while aortic arch clustered only with ascending aorta, and descending and abdominal aorta grouped together with iliac and femoral arteries in GCA. PCA analysis identified 3 different components for TAK and GCA explaining 72% and 71% of the total variance respectively in these two vasculitis. Confirming CA, a component including the entire aortic district was identified in TAK, but not in GCA. Similar results in PCA using averaged data were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Strong similarities, but also a subtle skewing in terms of distribution patterns of arterial involvement assessed by SUVmax values were observed between GCA and TAK.


Assuntos
Aortite/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Arterite de Células Gigantes/diagnóstico por imagem , Arterite de Takayasu/diagnóstico por imagem , Adulto , Idoso , Aorta Abdominal/diagnóstico por imagem , Aorta Torácica/diagnóstico por imagem , Aortite/etiologia , Artéria Axilar/diagnóstico por imagem , Artérias Carótidas/diagnóstico por imagem , Doenças das Artérias Carótidas/etiologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Artéria Femoral/diagnóstico por imagem , Fluordesoxiglucose F18 , Humanos , Artéria Ilíaca/diagnóstico por imagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Análise de Componente Principal , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Artéria Subclávia/diagnóstico por imagem
16.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 57(1): 64-72, 2018 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28968695

RESUMO

Objectives: GCA is characterized by arterial remodelling driven by inflammation. IL-22 is an attractive cytokine which acts at the crosstalk between immune and stromal cells. We hypothesized that IL-22 might be induced in GCA and might be involved in disease pathogenesis. Methods: Patients subjected to temporal artery biopsies (TABs) naïve from therapy were enrolled: 27 biopsy-proven GCA, 8 biopsy-negative GCA, 21 biopsy-negative non-GCA patients. Expression of IL-22 was determined in TABs by immunohystochemistry, in plasma by ELISA, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells by real-time PCR and flow cytometry. Effects of IL-22 on viability and gene expression of primary cultures obtained from TABs were also evaluated. Results: Inflamed TABs from GCA patients showed a higher expression of IL-22 and IL-22 specific receptor subunit (IL-22R1) than non-inflamed TABs. IL-22 was expressed in infiltrating immune cells and spindle shaped cells, IL-22R1 was expressed in endothelial cells. Patients with biopsy-proven GCA showed increased levels of IL-22 in plasma than patients with biopsy-negative GCA, without GCA and healthy subjects. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from GCA patients expressed higher IL-22 transcript than healthy subjects. After stimulation in vitro with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin, the frequencies of Th22 and IL-22+ CD4+ lymphocytes were similar between patients with and without GCA. Treatment with IL-22 of primary cultures obtained from TABs increased cell viability under stress conditions and expression of B-cell activating factor. Conclusion: IL-22 is increased in patients with GCA and affects viability and gene expression of arterial cells, supporting a potential role in disease pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Arterite de Células Gigantes/metabolismo , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Artérias Temporais/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Linfócitos T CD4-Positivos , Ionóforos de Cálcio/farmacologia , Carcinógenos/farmacologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Citometria de Fluxo , Arterite de Células Gigantes/genética , Humanos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Técnicas In Vitro , Interleucinas/sangue , Interleucinas/genética , Ionomicina/farmacologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucócitos Mononucleares/metabolismo , Masculino , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Acetato de Tetradecanoilforbol/farmacologia
17.
Clin Rev Allergy Immunol ; 54(2): 244-260, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28895041

RESUMO

Despite the progress in the last years on the field of vasculitides, there are several unmet needs regarding classification, disease activity assessment, predictors of flares and complications, and type of treatment for the different forms. The 1990 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) classification criteria currently used to define giant cell arteritis and Takayasu arteritis were designed to discriminate between different types of vasculitides but not to differentiate vasculitis from other disorders. Recently, efforts have been made to overcome the shortcomings of the ACR criteria. The lack of an accepted definition of disease activity in large-vessel vasculitides presents a major challenge in creating useful and valid outcome tools for the assessment of disease course. Identification of predictors of flares can aid in optimizing therapeutic strategies, minimizing disease flares, and reducing treatment-related side effects. It is furthermore important to recognize and characterize the risk factor that might predict the manifestations associated with poor outcome and prognosis. Two RCTs have evidenced the efficacy of tocilizumab in addition to glucocorticoids (GCs) in the treatment of giant cell arteritis (GCA). However, the role of tocilizumab or other biological agents without GCs needs to be investigated. Recent observational studies have suggested that rituximab is also effective in patients with eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis and in antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-negative patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis and microscopic polyangiitis. Rituximab or anti-TNF alfa may represent a possible alternative therapy in case of refractory or difficult to treat polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) patients. The new International Criteria for Behçet's Disease have shown a better sensitivity and a better accuracy compared to the older International Study Group on Behçet's Disease criteria. The EULAR recommendations for the management of Behçet's disease (BD) have been recently updated. However, the treatment of refractory disease is still a real challenge.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Rituximab/uso terapêutico , Vasculite/diagnóstico , Anticorpos Anticitoplasma de Neutrófilos/metabolismo , Progressão da Doença , Glucocorticoides/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Fatores de Risco , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Vasculite/tratamento farmacológico
18.
Rheumatology (Oxford) ; 57(7): 1151-1155, 2018 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28977672

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy and safety of rituximab (RTX) in patients with Takayasu arteritis (TAK). METHODS: We conducted a retrospective study on seven TAK patients treated with RTX. Six of the seven patients had a disease refractory to high dose glucocorticoids and conventional immunosuppressive and/or biologic agents. One newly diagnosed, treatment-naïve TAK patient refused glucocorticoids and received RTX alone. Clinical evaluation, laboratory tests and imaging modalities (CT or MR-angiography, and 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET/CT) were performed at first RTX administration and every 6 months thereafter. Disease activity was assessed using the Kerr index. We also performed a literature review using PubMed, Ovid MEDLINE and Cochrane library. RESULTS: Seven patients (6 females) were included in the study. Mean (s.d.) age was 32.4 (17.3) years. At first RTX administration, all patients had active disease according to the Kerr index (⩾2), and had also evidence of active disease at PET/CT. Despite RTX treatment, four of the seven patients had evidence of persistent disease activity and/or radiographic disease progression during follow-up. Three out of seven patients in whom RTX was employed as rescue therapy achieved complete remission. In the literature review, we identified five papers describing nine patients treated with RTX with good results in eight cases, but short follow-up. CONCLUSION: Our data do not support a role for RTX as first line biologic therapy in TAK patients, but it may have a role in some patients as second or third line biologic therapy.

19.
Nat Rev Rheumatol ; 13(8): 476-484, 2017 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28680132

RESUMO

Giant cell arteritis (GCA) is the most common form of vasculitis in individuals aged 50 years and over. GCA typically affects large and medium-sized arteries, with a predilection for the extracranial branches of the carotid artery. Patients with GCA usually present with symptoms and signs that are directly related to the artery that is affected, with or without constitutional manifestations. The most dreaded complication of GCA is visual loss, which affects about one in six patients and is typically caused by arteritis of the ophthalmic branches of the internal carotid artery. Before the advent of glucocorticoid treatment, the prevalence of visual complications was high. Increasing awareness by physicians of the symptoms of GCA and advances in diagnostic techniques over the past twenty years have also contributed to a substantial decline in the frequency of permanent visual loss. Ischaemic brain lesions are less common than visual lesions, and mostly result from vasculitis of the extradural vertebral or carotid arteries. In the case of both the eye and the brain, ischaemic damage is thought to result from arterial stenosis or occlusion that occurs secondary to the inflammatory process. The inflammatory response at the onset of arteritis, its role as a predictor of complications and the role of traditional cardiovascular risk factors have been extensively investigated in the past decade. In this Review, the epidemiology, risk factors, clinical presentation and current therapeutic approach of GCA-related ischaemic events are discussed, with a particular emphasis on visual loss.


Assuntos
Cegueira/epidemiologia , Isquemia Encefálica/epidemiologia , Arterite de Células Gigantes/complicações , Cegueira/patologia , Isquemia Encefálica/patologia , Artérias Carótidas/patologia , Artéria Carótida Interna/patologia , Humanos , Fatores de Risco , Artéria Vertebral/patologia
20.
Clin Exp Rheumatol ; 35 Suppl 103(1): 102-110, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28466804

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To investigate serum levels of IL- 6 and soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) in patients with large-vessel vasculitis and their relationship with disease activity. METHODS: Sera were obtained from 33 Takayasu's arteritis (TAK) patients and 14 giant cell arteritis (GCA) patients, and from 60 age-matched normal controls (NCs). Disease activity was assessed using 18F-FDG PET/CT and clinical indices including NIH/Kerr criteria and ITAS. Among TAK patients with active disease at baseline, clinical records and serum samples from 11 TAK patients were available for the longitudinal study. IL-6 and sIL-6R serum levels were evaluated using commercial ELISA kits. RESULTS: IL-6 and sIL-6R serum levels were significantly higher in both GCA and TAK patients compared to NCs. IL-6 levels in TAK patients were significantly increased irrespective of disease phase, while a significant increase in sIL-6R concentrations was only found in TAK patients with active disease. Conversely, in GCA, IL-6 levels were significantly raised only in patients with active diseases, whereas sIL-6R levels appeared to be significantly higher irrespective of disease activity. Longitudinal analysis showed that levels of sIL-6R in TAK patients were significantly higher only at baseline, compared to NCs, whereas IL-6 levels were found to be significantly increased at each follow-up time point. CONCLUSIONS: These overall results might suggest a role for sIL-6R as a potential biomarker for disease activity in TAK patients, whereas in GCA, modifications of IL-6 might better identify patients with active disease.


Assuntos
Arterite de Células Gigantes/sangue , Interleucina-6/sangue , Receptores de Interleucina-6/sangue , Arterite de Takayasu/sangue , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Análise por Conglomerados , Estudos Transversais , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Fluordesoxiglucose F18/administração & dosagem , Arterite de Células Gigantes/diagnóstico por imagem , Arterite de Células Gigantes/imunologia , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tomografia Computadorizada com Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Prognóstico , Compostos Radiofarmacêuticos/administração & dosagem , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Arterite de Takayasu/diagnóstico por imagem , Arterite de Takayasu/imunologia , Fatores de Tempo , Regulação para Cima
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