Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 39
Filtrar
Mais filtros










Base de dados
Intervalo de ano de publicação
1.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 116(9): 1929-1937, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465695

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Linaclotide improves abdominal pain and constipation in patients with constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-C). Patients report additional bothersome abdominal symptoms of bloating and discomfort. The intention of this study was to evaluate linaclotide's efficacy in relieving IBS-C-related abdominal symptoms (bloating, discomfort, and pain) using a novel multi-item Abdominal Score (AS). METHODS: Patients with IBS-C with abdominal pain ≥3 (0-10 scale) were randomized to linaclotide 290 µg or placebo daily for 12 weeks. The AS, derived from the Diary for IBS Symptoms-Constipation, is the average of abdominal bloating, discomfort, and pain at their worst (0 = none, 10 = worst possible). The primary end point was overall change from baseline (CFB) in AS. Secondary end points included CFB in 12-week AS evaluated using cumulative distribution function and 6-week/12-week AS responder (AS improvement ≥2 points for ≥6-week/12-week). RESULTS: Overall, 614 patients (mean age 46.7 years; 81% female) were randomized. All prespecified end points showed significant benefit of linaclotide vs placebo. The mean overall CFB AS reduction for linaclotide was -1.9 vs -1.2 for placebo (P < 0.0001); the 6-week/12-week AS responder rate was 40.5% for linaclotide vs 23.4% for placebo (odds ratio = 2.2 [95% confidence interval, 1.55-3.12; P < 0.0001]). Diarrhea was the most common treatment-emergent adverse event (linaclotide = 4.6%, placebo = 1.6%). DISCUSSION: Linaclotide significantly reduced multiple abdominal symptoms important to patients with IBS-C (bloating, discomfort, and pain) compared with placebo, as measured by a novel multi-item AS. The AS, derived from the Diary for IBS Symptoms-Constipation, should be considered for use in future IBS-C clinical studies to measure clinically meaningful improvements beyond traditional end points.


Assuntos
Dor Abdominal/tratamento farmacológico , Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Fármacos Gastrointestinais/uso terapêutico , Agonistas da Guanilil Ciclase C/uso terapêutico , Peptídeos/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Resultado do Tratamento
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508047

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Guanylate cyclase-C (GC-C) agonists, which increase intestinal secretion and accelerate transit, are used to treat chronic constipation and constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome and are being evaluated for pediatric use. Prior studies suggest GC-C receptor density may be higher in young children, potentially amplifying GC-C agonism with treatment implications. We aimed to quantitate duodenal and colonic GC-C mRNA expression in children. METHODS: Mucosal biopsies were obtained from subjects aged 6 months to 18 years during clinically indicated upper, i.e., esophago-gastro-duodenal, and/or colonic endoscopy. Tissue samples without histologic abnormalities were grouped by subject age (<24 months, 24 months to <6 years, 6 to <12 years, and 12 to <18 years) and analyzed for GC-C mRNA expression by qPCR. The relationship between GC-C mRNA levels and age was modeled using regression analyses. RESULTS: Ninety-nine subjects underwent upper endoscopy/colonoscopy; 93 had evaluable samples. Mean relative GC-C mRNA expression was 2.36 (range 2.21-2.46) for duodenal samples and 1.56 (range 1.22-1.91) for colonic samples. Predicted and observed normalized GC-C mRNA expression in each region were comparable among age groups. Pooled expression by region demonstrated lower expression in colonic versus duodenal samples. CONCLUSIONS: Uniform levels of GC-C mRNA expression were detected in children aged >6 months in the duodenum and >12 months in the colon. Higher expression was observed in all age groups in duodenal versus colonic samples, indicating regional variability in GC-C receptor density. These data are reassuring for further studies of GC-C agonists in children.

3.
Clin Transl Sci ; 2021 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34423904

RESUMO

N-methyl-D-aspartate ionotropic glutamatergic receptor (NMDAR) modulators, including rapastinel and ketamine, elicit rapid and sustained antidepressant responses in patients with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder. This Phase 1, randomized, multicenter, placebo-controlled, 5-period, crossover, single-dose study evaluated simulated driving performance of healthy participants (N=107) after single doses of rapastinel slow intravenous (IV) bolus 900 mg and 1800 mg, alprazolam oral 0.75 mg (positive control), ketamine IV infusion 0.5 mg/kg (clinical comparator), and placebo approximately 45 minutes before driving. The primary endpoint was standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP) during the 60-minute 100-km simulated driving scenario. Additional measures of driving performance, sleepiness, and cognition were also evaluated. To assess effects over time, mean SDLP was calculated for each 10-minute interval of driving. Sensitivity of the assays was confirmed with alprazolam (all placebo comparisons p<0.02). Rapastinel 900 and 1800 mg did not significantly affect simulated driving performance compared to placebo (both p>0.5). Both rapastinel doses resulted in significantly less impaired driving compared to alprazolam or ketamine (all p<0.002); ketamine significantly impaired driving compared to placebo (p=0.0001). Results for the additional measures were similar to the primary endpoint. No new safety signals were observed for any study interventions. This first study of rapastinel effects on simulated driving found that rapastinel 900 and 1800 mg did not impair driving performance, but ketamine 0.5 mg/kg resulted in significantly impaired driving performance. Ketamine's effects on driving were maintained for at least 105 minutes, indicating that clinicians should be vigilant to prevent or postpone driving in patients after ketamine treatment.

4.
Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev ; 10(9): 1099-1107, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942560

RESUMO

Atogepant is a selective, oral calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist in development for preventive treatment of migraine. This randomized, double-blind, phase 1 crossover study evaluated the cardiac repolarization effect of a single supratherapeutic (300 mg) atogepant dose vs placebo in healthy adults. Moxifloxacin 400 mg was the open-label active control. The primary end point was a change from baseline in Fridericia-corrected QT intervals (ΔQTcF). Sixty participants were randomized to atogepant 300 mg, placebo, and moxifloxacin; 59 (98.3%) completed all interventions. Assay sensitivity was confirmed: lower 90% confidence interval limit for QTcF interval change from baseline (ΔΔQTcF) for moxifloxacin was >5 millisecond vs placebo at prespecified 2-, 3-, and 4-hour time points. Following single-dose atogepant 300 mg, mean atogepant ΔΔQTcF and upper 90% confidence interval limits were lower than the 10-millisecond threshold at all time points. Atogepant mean peak plasma concentration was 3197 ng/mL, area under the concentration-time curve from time 0 to time t was 16 640 ng • h/mL, area under the concentration-time curve from time 0 to 24 hours was 16 607 ng • h/mL, and median time to peak plasma concentration was 2.1 hours. The incidence of adverse events was low; no serious adverse events or elevations of liver enzymes were reported. Overall, a single supratherapeutic dose of atogepant was safe and did not impact cardiac repolarization in healthy participants.

5.
Clin Drug Investig ; 41(6): 557-567, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33948911

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Atogepant is an oral calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonist in development for preventive treatment of migraine. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate potential pharmacokinetic drug-drug interactions (DDIs), safety and tolerability of atogepant co-administered with acetaminophen or naproxen in healthy participants. METHODS: This open-label, randomized, five-way crossover, single-center, phase 1 DDI trial randomized healthy adult participants to one of ten intervention sequences to receive single-dose 60 mg atogepant, 1000 mg acetaminophen, 500 mg naproxen, or co-administrations of atogepant with acetaminophen or naproxen, with 7-day washout periods between interventions. Potential DDIs were assessed using geometric mean ratios and 90% confidence intervals (CIs) calculated from maximum plasma drug concentrations (Cmax) and area under the plasma drug concentration-time curves (AUCs) for co-administered medications versus medications administered alone. Secondary pharmacokinetic parameters [time to Cmax (tmax), terminal elimination half-life (t1/2), volume of distribution during terminal phase (VZ/F), total body clearance (CL/F)], and safety were evaluated. RESULTS: Forty participants enrolled; 35 (87.5%) completed the trial. Atogepant Cmax was unchanged, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞ both increased 13%, and tmax and t1/2 were unchanged when co-administered with acetaminophen; and acetaminophen Cmax decreased 11%, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞ both decreased 6%, and tmax and t1/2 were unchanged when co-administered with atogepant. Atogepant mean (SD) Vz/F and CL/F were 369.45 (255.68) L and 18.88 (9.28) L/h, respectively, when administered alone and 297.56 (196.01) L and 16.33 (6.11) L/h when co-administered with acetaminophen. Atogepant Cmax was unchanged, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞ both decreased 1%, and tmax and t1/2 were unchanged when co-administered with naproxen; and naproxen Cmax decreased 6%, AUC0-t and AUC0-∞ both decreased 2%, and tmax and t1/2 were unchanged when co-administered with atogepant. Atogepant mean (SD) Vz/F and CL/F were 359.61 (247.99) L and 18.80 (7.78) L/h, respectively, when co-administered with naproxen. Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) occurred at rates of 5.6-21.1% across interventions. The most commonly reported TEAEs were oropharyngeal pain (n = 2, with atogepant; not treatment related) and nausea (n = 2, with atogepant/acetaminophen; treatment related). CONCLUSION: Co-administration of 60 mg atogepant with 1000 mg acetaminophen or 500 mg naproxen was safe and well tolerated in healthy participants, and no DDIs were observed.


Assuntos
Acetaminofen/efeitos adversos , Naproxeno/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Analgésicos/farmacocinética , Área Sob a Curva , Estudos Cross-Over , Interações Medicamentosas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Jovem
6.
Headache ; 61(4): 642-652, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33818780

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of two calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-targeted monoclonal antibodies (mAbs), erenumab and galcanezumab, on the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile, safety, and tolerability of ubrogepant. BACKGROUND: People taking CGRP-targeted mAbs for migraine prevention sometimes take ubrogepant, an oral small-molecule CGRP receptor antagonist, for acute treatment of breakthrough migraine attacks. DESIGN: In this two-arm, multicenter, open-label, phase 1b trial, adults with migraine were randomized to arm 1 (ubrogepant ± erenumab) or arm 2 (ubrogepant ± galcanezumab). The PK profile of ubrogepant was characterized for administration before and 4 days after CGRP-targeted mAb injection. Participants received single-dose ubrogepant 100 mg on day 1, subcutaneous erenumab 140 mg (arm 1) or galcanezumab 240 mg (arm 2) on day 8, and ubrogepant 100 mg once daily on days 12-15. In each study arm, serial blood samples were drawn on days 1 and 12 for measurement of plasma ubrogepant concentrations. The primary outcomes were area under the plasma ubrogepant concentration-time curve (AUC) from time 0 to t post-dose (AUC0- t ) and from time 0 to infinity (AUC0-inf ), and maximum plasma concentration (Cmax ) of ubrogepant when ubrogepant was administered before or after a single dose of erenumab or galcanezumab. Vital signs and laboratory parameters were monitored. RESULTS: Forty participants enrolled (20 per arm; mean [standard deviation] ages, 32.2 [8.9] and 38.4 [8.8] years; 50% [10/20] and 60% [12/20] female in arms 1 and 2, respectively). There were no significant differences in ubrogepant Cmax after versus before erenumab administration (geometric least-squares mean [LSM] ratio, 1.04 [90% CI, 0.93-1.16]), and no significant differences in AUC0- t (1.06 [0.96-1.16]) or AUC0-inf (1.05 [0.96-1.15]). Similarly, ubrogepant Cmax (1.00 [90% CI, 0.82-1.20]), AUC0- t (1.05 [0.90-1.23]), and AUC0-inf (1.05 [0.90-1.22]) geometric LSM ratios were statistically equivalent after galcanezumab versus ubrogepant alone. Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were similar to those reported with each treatment alone. No serious TEAEs, TEAEs leading to discontinuation, or clinically relevant changes in laboratory parameters or vital signs were reported. CONCLUSIONS: The PK profile of ubrogepant was not significantly changed and no safety concerns were identified when ubrogepant was coadministered with erenumab or galcanezumab.

7.
Clin Pharmacol Drug Dev ; 10(7): 726-733, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33501783

RESUMO

Atogepant is a selective oral calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist in development for migraine prevention. Here, we report the pharmacokinetics (PK) and safety of single-dose 60 mg atogepant in participants with severe, moderate, or mild hepatic impairment and matched participants with normal hepatic function from an open-label, parallel-group, single-dose phase 1 trial. Thirty-two participants aged 45 to 72 years were enrolled, which included 8 each with severe, moderate, mild, or no hepatic impairment. All participants completed the study. Atogepant was rapidly absorbed (median time to maximum plasma concentration, ∼2 hours) with an apparent terminal elimination half-life of ∼11 hours. Compared with participants with normal hepatic function, the change in maximum plasma concentrations of atogepant were -4%, -12%, and +9% in participants with severe, moderate, or mild hepatic impairment, respectively. Overall systemic exposures to atogepant were 15% to 38% higher in participants with hepatic impairment compared with those with normal hepatic function, but these differences are not expected to be clinically relevant given the established safety profile of atogepant. Only 1 adverse event was reported: mild rhinorrhea in a participant with moderate hepatic impairment. Overall, atogepant was safe and not associated with any clinically relevant change in PK in participants with severe, moderate, or mild hepatic impairment.

8.
Clin Transl Sci ; 14(2): 599-605, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33142014

RESUMO

Atogepant is a potent, selective, oral calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonist in development for migraine prevention. The chemical structure of atogepant is distinct from previous CGRP receptor antagonists, which were associated with elevated serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) in clinical trials. Here, we report the safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics (PKs) of a once-daily supratherapeutic dose (170 mg) of atogepant for 28 days from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase I trial in healthy participants. Overall safety, hepatic safety, and plasma PK parameters were evaluated. Thirty-four participants aged 23-55 years enrolled; 28 (82.4%) completed the study in accordance with the protocol. Multiple doses of 170 mg atogepant for 28 consecutive days were generally well-tolerated. All adverse events (AEs; reported in 87.0% of the atogepant group; 72.7%, placebo) were mild in severity except one serious AE of subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a bicycle accident and not considered related to treatment. There were two discontinuations due to AEs, both with atogepant, one considered possibly related to treatment. Over 28 days of treatment, no participant receiving atogepant had an ALT elevation above 1.5 × upper limit of normal. Change from baseline in serum ALT levels was not different between atogepant and placebo. Atogepant is rapidly absorbed (median time to maximum plasma concentration, ~ 2 hours) with an apparent terminal half-life of ~ 11 hours, and no evidence of accumulation after once-daily dosing. Overall, atogepant at a high oral dose is safe and well-tolerated in healthy participants with no clinically meaningful elevations in ALT.

9.
Am J Gastroenterol ; 116(2): 354-361, 2021 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33065589

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Immediate-release (IR) formulation of linaclotide 290 µg improves abdominal pain and constipation (APC) in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) with constipation. Delayed-release (DR) formulations were developed on the premise that targeting the ileum (delayed-release formulation 1 [DR1]) or ileocecal junction and cecum (MD-7246, formerly DR2) would modulate linaclotide's secretory effects while preserving pain relief effects. METHODS: This phase 2b study randomized patients with IBS with constipation to placebo or 1 of 7 once-daily linaclotide doses (DR1 30, 100, or 300 µg; MD-7246 30, 100, or 300 µg; or IR 290 µg) for 12 weeks. Key efficacy endpoints were change from baseline in abdominal pain and complete spontaneous bowel movement frequency, and 6/12-week combined APC+1 responder rate. RESULTS: Overall, 532 patients were randomized; mean age was 45.1 years, and most were women (83.3%) and White (64.7%). All linaclotide DR1 and MD-7246 groups experienced greater improvements in abdominal pain from baseline and vs placebo throughout treatment. Linaclotide DR1 and IR led to numerically greater improvements from baseline in complete spontaneous bowel movement frequency and higher APC+1 responder rates compared with placebo; MD-7246 results were similar to placebo. Diarrhea was the most common adverse event with DR1 and IR; rates were similar between MD-7246 and placebo. DISCUSSION: Altering the site of drug delivery in the intestine might uncouple linaclotide's pain relief from secretory effects. Persistent, modest abdominal pain improvement with limited impact on bowel symptom parameters, as seen across MD-7246 doses, warrants further study of MD-7246 as a novel treatment for abdominal pain, regardless of IBS subtype.


Assuntos
Constipação Intestinal/tratamento farmacológico , Agonistas da Guanilil Ciclase C/administração & dosagem , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/tratamento farmacológico , Peptídeos/administração & dosagem , Dor Abdominal/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Constipação Intestinal/fisiopatologia , Defecação , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Diarreia/induzido quimicamente , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
10.
Headache ; 60(7): 1340-1350, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32573795

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential for pharmacokinetic interaction and the safety and tolerability when ubrogepant and sumatriptan are coadministered in a Phase 1 study in healthy participants, and to inform the safety and tolerability of ubrogepant alone and in combination with triptans in Phase 3 trials in participants with migraine. BACKGROUND: Calcitonin gene-related peptide is a potent vasodilatory neurotransmitter believed to play a key role in the pathophysiology of migraine. Ubrogepant (UBRELVY™) is a potent and selective antagonist of the human calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor approved for the acute treatment of migraine. Sumatriptan is a serotonin receptor agonist and the most commonly used triptan for the acute treatment of migraine. Ubrogepant could be prescribed with triptans. DESIGN: The Phase 1 study was a single-center, open-label, randomized, 3-way crossover, single-dose, pharmacokinetic interaction study, where participants received each of 3 oral treatments with a 7-day washout period between treatments: single dose of ubrogepant 100 mg, single dose of sumatriptan 100 mg, and ubrogepant 100 mg plus sumatriptan 100 mg. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated using a model-independent approach. The ACHIEVE I and II trials were 2 multicenter, single-attack, randomized, Phase 3 trials in adults with a history of migraine with or without aura. Participants had the option to take a second dose of study medication or rescue medication to treat a nonresponding migraine or a migraine recurrence from 2 to 48 hours after the initial dose of study medication. Rescue medication options included acetaminophen, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, opioids, anti-emetics, or triptans. Treatment-emergent adverse events were evaluated up to 30 days after the last dose in the Phase 1 and Phase 3 studies. RESULTS: Ubrogepant median time to maximum plasma concentration was delayed (3 hours [range: 1-5 hours] vs 1.5 hours [range: 1-4 hours]), mean maximum plasma concentration was reduced by 24% (coefficient of variation: 37.4%) when ubrogepant was coadministered with sumatriptan (n = 29) compared with ubrogepant administered alone (N = 30). No significant effect was observed on the area under the plasma concentration-time curve of ubrogepant. Sumatriptan area under the curve and maximum plasma concentration showed no significant change when sumatriptan was coadministered with ubrogepant (n = 29), but the sumatriptan time to maximum plasma concentration was delayed (1 hour [range: 0.5-5 hours] vs 3 hours [range: 0.5-6 hours]. No treatment-emergent adverse events were reported with the coadministration of ubrogepant 100 mg and sumatriptan 100 mg in the Phase 1 study. The pooled safety data from ACHIEVE trials (N = 1938) showed similar rates of treatment-related treatment-emergent adverse events between participants who took ubrogepant alone and participants who took ubrogepant and a triptan as a rescue medication (14.9% [53/355] vs 12.8% [5/39] in the ubrogepant 100 mg treatment group, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Although there were slight alterations in ubrogepant pharmacokinetic parameters when coadministered with sumatriptan, such changes are expected to have minimal clinical relevance, especially because no changes were seen in sumatriptan area under the curve and maximum plasma concentration when coadministered with ubrogepant. Coadministration of ubrogepant with sumatriptan was well tolerated in healthy participants in the Phase 1 study, and coadministration of ubrogepant with triptans was well tolerated in participants with migraine in the Phase 3 trials. No new safety concerns for ubrogepant were identified across all trials.

11.
J Clin Pharmacol ; 60(9): 1157-1165, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32297990

RESUMO

The incidence of migraine is higher among women than men and peaks during the reproductive years, when contraceptive medication use is common. Atogepant, a potent, selective antagonist of the calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor-in development for migraine prevention-is thus likely to be used by women taking oral contraceptives. This phase 1, open-label, single-center, 2-period, fixed-sequence study examined the effect of multiple-dose atogepant 60 mg once daily on the single-dose pharmacokinetics of a combination oral contraceptive, ethinyl estradiol 0.03 mg and levonorgestrel 0.15 mg (EE/LNG), in healthy postmenopausal or oophorectomized women. For participants in period 1, a single dose of EE/LNG was followed by a 7-day washout. In period 2, atogepant was given once daily on days 1-17; an oral dose of EE/LNG was coadministered with atogepant on day 14. Plasma pharmacokinetic parameters for EE and LNG were assessed following administration with and without atogepant. Twenty-six participants aged 45-64 years enrolled; 22 completed the study in accordance with the protocol. The area under the concentration-time curve extrapolated to infinity (AUC0-∞ ) of LNG was increased by 19% when administered with atogepant. Coadministration of atogepant and a single dose of EE/LNG did not substantially alter the pharmacokinetics of EE; the ∼19% increase in plasma AUC0-∞ of LNG is not anticipated to be clinically significant. Overall, atogepant alone and in combination with EE/LNG was generally well tolerated, with no new safety signals identified.

12.
Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 107(4): 1014-1022, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628854

RESUMO

Ubrogepant is a novel, oral calcitonin gene-related peptide receptor antagonist currently under US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) review for the acute treatment of migraine attacks. This double-blind, four-period crossover study compared the cardiac repolarization effect of therapeutic (100 mg) and supratherapeutic (400 mg) ubrogepant doses vs. placebo in healthy adults. Moxifloxacin 400 mg was used as an open-label active control, and the primary end point was change from baseline in Fridericia-corrected QT intervals (ΔQTcF). Assay sensitivity was demonstrated via statistically significant QTcF prolongation with moxifloxacin vs. placebo. After single oral doses of ubrogepant, the least squares mean placebo-corrected ΔQTcF (ΔΔQTcF) and 90% confidence intervals (CIs) did not exceed the 10-millisecond regulatory threshold at any timepoint. The 90% CI upper bounds were 2.46 milliseconds and 2.69 milliseconds for ubrogepant 100 and 400 mg, respectively. Categorical and concentration-based analyses were consistent with the primary result, showing no significant impact of ubrogepant on cardiac repolarization.


Assuntos
Antagonistas do Receptor do Peptídeo Relacionado ao Gene de Calcitonina/administração & dosagem , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Pirróis/administração & dosagem , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Frequência Cardíaca/fisiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
13.
Clin Drug Investig ; 35(10): 601-12, 2015 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26315684

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Levomilnacipran is a serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor with balanced potency for the reuptake inhibition of norepinephrine and serotonin, approved in the USA for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults. We conducted studies in healthy human subjects to investigate pharmacokinetic interactions when levomilnacipran extended-release (ER) is administered in combination with an inhibitor (ketoconazole), an inducer (carbamazepine), or a substrate (alprazolam) of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4. METHODS: Randomised, open-label studies were conducted in healthy volunteers (n = 34 ketoconazole, n = 34 carbamazepine, n = 30 alprazolam) and pharmacokinetic parameters were determined when levomilnacipran was administered alone or together with the relevant study drug. RESULTS: Co-administration of ketoconazole with levomilnacipran ER increased levomilnacipran maximum concentration (C max) by 39% [90% confidence interval (CI) 31-47%] and area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) by 57% (90% CI 47-67%), whereas carbamazepine reduced the C max and AUC of levomilnacipran by 26% (90% CI 22-30%) and 29% (90% CI 26-32%), respectively. Levomilnacipran at steady state had no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of a single 1 mg dose of alprazolam extended release (XR); neither did single-dose alprazolam XR affect the steady-state pharmacokinetics of levomilnacipran. No new safety concerns were noted in these studies. CONCLUSIONS: Based on these results, the levomilnacipran ER dose should not exceed 80 mg once daily when used with ketoconazole, compared to 120 mg once daily in the absence of ketoconazole. No dose adjustment for levomilnacipran is suggested when levomilnacipran ER is co-administered with carbamazepine or other CYP3A4 inducers. Co-administration with levomilnacipran of drugs metabolised by CYP3A4, such as alprazolam, requires no dose adjustment due to pharmacokinetic considerations.


Assuntos
Alprazolam/farmacologia , Carbamazepina/farmacologia , Ciclopropanos/farmacocinética , Indutores do Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/farmacologia , Inibidores do Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/farmacologia , Cetoconazol/farmacologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Alprazolam/administração & dosagem , Alprazolam/farmacocinética , Área Sob a Curva , Carbamazepina/administração & dosagem , Ciclopropanos/administração & dosagem , Ciclopropanos/farmacologia , Indutores do Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/administração & dosagem , Inibidores do Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/administração & dosagem , Preparações de Ação Retardada/farmacocinética , Interações Medicamentosas , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Cetoconazol/administração & dosagem , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Milnaciprano , Adulto Jovem
14.
Clin Drug Investig ; 35(7): 427-35, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26016820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Combining two standard-of-care medications for Alzheimer's disease (AD) into a single once-daily dosage unit may improve treatment adherence, facilitate drug administration, and reduce caregiver burden. A new fixed-dose combination (FDC) capsule containing 28 mg memantine extended release (ER) and 10 mg donepezil was evaluated for bioequivalence with co-administered commercially available memantine ER and donepezil, and for bioavailability with regard to food intake. METHODS: Two phase I, single-dose, randomized, open-label, crossover studies were conducted in 18- to 45-year-old healthy individuals. In MDX-PK-104 study, fasting participants (N = 38) received co-administered memantine ER and donepezil or the FDC. In MDX-PK-105 study, participants (N = 36) received three treatments: intact FDC taken while fasting or after a high-fat meal, or FDC contents sprinkled on applesauce while fasting. Standard pharmacokinetic parameters for memantine and donepezil were calculated from the plasma concentration time-curve using non-compartmental analyses. Linear mixed-effects models were used to compare: (a) FDC versus co-administered individual drugs; (b) FDC fasted versus with food; and (c) FDC sprinkled on applesauce versus FDC intact, both fasted. Safety parameters were also evaluated. RESULTS: The FDC capsule was bioequivalent to co-administered memantine ER and donepezil. There was no significant food effect on the bioavailability of the FDC components. There were no clinically relevant differences in time to maximum plasma concentration or safety profiles across treatments. CONCLUSIONS: An FDC capsule containing 28 mg memantine ER and 10 mg donepezil is bioequivalent to commercially available memantine ER and donepezil, and bioavailability is not affected by food intake or sprinkling of capsule contents on applesauce.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/tratamento farmacológico , Indanos/administração & dosagem , Memantina/administração & dosagem , Piperidinas/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Disponibilidade Biológica , Estudos Cross-Over , Donepezila , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Indanos/efeitos adversos , Indanos/farmacocinética , Masculino , Memantina/efeitos adversos , Memantina/farmacocinética , Piperidinas/efeitos adversos , Piperidinas/farmacocinética
15.
Am J Ther ; 22(4): 269-77, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25474324

RESUMO

Vilazodone, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and 5-HT1A partial agonist approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder, is extensively hepatically metabolized. The pharmacokinetics, tolerability, and safety of vilazodone were investigated in 2 trials comparing participants with hepatic impairment with healthy controls. In these phase 1, open-label, parallel-group, single-dose pharmacokinetic studies, vilazodone (20 mg) was administered to participants with mild, moderate, or severe hepatic impairment or individually matched healthy controls. Vilazodone and M17 (the major metabolite) concentrations in plasma were analyzed using validated liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. Forty-eight participants (8 each in mild, moderate, and severe hepatic impairment groups with matched healthy controls) were evaluated for pharmacokinetic analyses. All pharmacokinetic parameters in participants with mild and moderate hepatic impairment were similar to those in healthy controls. Mean Cmax and AUC0-∞ were approximately 29% and 17% lower in participants with severe hepatic impairment compared with healthy participants; values for Tmax, and t1/2 were similar between groups. Diarrhea was experienced by more participants with hepatic impairment than controls (10 vs. 5, respectively), and vomiting (4 participants) occurred only in participants with severe hepatic impairment; other adverse events were roughly equivalent between groups. Following a single, 20-mg oral dose of vilazodone, pharmacokinetics were similar in participants with mild, moderate, or severe hepatic impairment and healthy controls. No dose adjustment is needed for patients with major depressive disorder who have mild, moderate, or severe hepatic impairment.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior/tratamento farmacológico , Hepatopatias/etiologia , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/farmacocinética , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/uso terapêutico , Cloridrato de Vilazodona/farmacocinética , Cloridrato de Vilazodona/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Área Sob a Curva , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/efeitos adversos , Cloridrato de Vilazodona/efeitos adversos , Adulto Jovem
16.
Clin Ther ; 36(11): 1638-49, 2014 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25236915

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Vilazodone is a serotonin reuptake inhibitor and 5-HT1A partial agonist approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder in adults. Vilazodone seems to be metabolized primarily by the cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 3A4 isozyme and non-CYP-mediated pathways; concomitant use of drugs that affect CYP3A4 activity could potentially alter systemic exposure to vilazodone. The present studies evaluated whether CYP3A4 inhibition (study 1) or induction (study 2) affected the pharmacokinetics of vilazodone. METHODS: Participants were healthy adult volunteers. Study 1 was conducted in 2 parts and evaluated the pharmacokinetics of single-dose vilazodone administered with multiple-dose (200 mg once daily) ketoconazole, a CYP3A4 inhibitor. Part 1 was an open-label pharmacokinetic assessment of a single 5-mg vilazodone dose with or without ketoconazole. Part 2 was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study comparing vilazodone pharmacokinetics after a single 10-mg dose alone or co-administered with ketoconazole or placebo. Study 2 was an open-label, multiple-dose, single-sequence study evaluating the effect of steady-state carbamazepine, a CYP3A4 substrate and inducer, on the pharmacokinetics of steady-state vilazodone (40 mg once daily). Primary pharmacokinetic parameters for both studies were AUC and Cmax for vilazodone. Lack of pharmacokinetic interaction was concluded if the 90% CIs of the ratio of vilazodone plus the CYP3A4 inhibitor/inducer relative to vilazodone alone (or plus placebo) for AUC and Cmax were within the 80% to 125% range. Subject-reported and investigator-identified adverse events (AEs), laboratory values, vital signs, and 12-lead ECG parameters were recorded. FINDINGS: In study 1/parts 1 and 2 (n = 15 and 22 enrolled, respectively), mean vilazodone AUC increased 42% and 51%, respectively, in the presence of ketoconazole (expected to be at steady state) versus vilazodone alone (part 1) or with placebo (part 2). The upper limit of the 90% CIs for the vilazodone AUC and Cmax geometric mean ratios exceeded 125%. In study 2 (n = 30 enrolled), co-administration of vilazodone and the carbamazepine extended-release formulation decreased mean steady-state vilazodone exposure ~45%, and the 90% CIs for the vilazodone AUC and Cmax geometric mean ratios were not within the range of 80% to 125%. In both studies, most AEs were of mild intensity, and gastrointestinal AEs predominated. IMPLICATIONS: These results suggest that up to a 50% decrease of vilazodone dosage should be considered when it is given in combination with strong CYP3A4 inhibitors; conversely, increasing the vilazodone dosage up to a maximum of 80 mg/d should be considered when it is given in combination with strong CYP3A4 inducers. (Study registration numbers: SB-659746/029; VLZ-PK-02.).


Assuntos
Carbamazepina/farmacologia , Indutores do Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/farmacologia , Inibidores do Citocromo P-450 CYP3A/farmacologia , Cetoconazol/farmacologia , Cloridrato de Vilazodona/farmacocinética , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Cross-Over , Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Método Duplo-Cego , Interações Medicamentosas , Feminino , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cloridrato de Vilazodona/administração & dosagem , Adulto Jovem
17.
Clin Drug Investig ; 34(5): 351-9, 2014 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24677141

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Levomilnacipran is a serotonin and norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor with greater potency for the reuptake inhibition of norepinephrine than of serotonin, approved in the USA for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults. METHODS: A single-dose, open-label, parallel-group study was conducted to evaluate the effects of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of levomilnacipran in adults with mild, moderate, or severe hepatic impairment and normal controls receiving a 40 mg levomilnacipran extended-release (ER) capsule. The concentrations of levomilnacipran and its inactive metabolite, N-desethyl levomilnacipran, in plasma and urine were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry methods. Pharmacokinetic parameters of levomilnacipran and N-desethyl levomilnacipran were derived and assessed. Safety parameters were assessed throughout the trial. RESULTS: No deaths, serious adverse events, or discontinuations due to adverse events occurred. The maximum plasma drug concentration (C(max)) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity (AUC(∞)) of levomilnacipran were 28 and 32 % higher, respectively, in participants with severe hepatic impairment than in healthy participants without a notable change in the terminal elimination half-life, whereas the C(max) and AUC(∞) of N-desethyl levomilnacipran were 66 and 85 % lower, respectively, suggesting liver function has minimal impact on the overall exposure of levomilnacipran but plays a significant role in the formation of the metabolite. CONCLUSIONS: A single dose of levomilnacipran ER 40 mg was generally well-tolerated in participants with varying degrees of hepatic impairment and healthy controls. Therefore, dose adjustment for levomilnacipran is not necessary in adult MDD patients with impaired liver function.


Assuntos
Ciclopropanos/administração & dosagem , Ciclopropanos/farmacocinética , Hepatopatias/fisiopatologia , Administração Oral , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Cápsulas , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Milnaciprano , Adulto Jovem
18.
Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther ; 51(6): 456-65, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23611569

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Vilazodone is a potent serotonin reuptake inhibitor and 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults. The effect of clinical and supratherapeutic doses of vilazodone on cardiac repolarization was determined in healthy volunteers. METHODS: In this Phase 1, randomized, doubleblind, placebo- and active-controlled, 3-arm, parallel, single-center study, healthy subjects received placebo; moxifloxacin 400 mg; or vilazodone (sequentially escalated every 3 days) 10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 mg/day. The primary endpoint was the time-matched change from baseline in the QT interval corrected for heart rate (QTc) using an individual correction method (QTcI). RESULTS: Placebo-corrected time-matched analysis of the QTcI duration for the vilazodone treatment effect indicated that no vilazodone dose had an upper bound that approached or exceeded 10 ms, demonstrating no signal for a significant vilazodone effect on cardiac repolarization. Vilazodone had no significant effect on heart rate, PR, or QRS interval duration. The pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model showed that the QTcI slope for vilazodone was not different from 0.0 and that the predicted increase from baseline in the QTc at Cmax for the highest therapeutic dose (156 ng/ml after 40 mg/day) was < 1 ms. The incidence of adverse events (AEs) was higher in the vilazodone group (57.6%) than in the moxifloxacin (37.0%) and placebo (35.6%) groups, though AEs were generally mild to moderate in severity and resulted in few discontinuations. CONCLUSIONS: Vilazodone had no significant effect on cardiac repolarization, heart rate, PR or QRS interval duration, or ECG morphology in healthy adult participants.


Assuntos
Arritmias Cardíacas/induzido quimicamente , Benzofuranos/efeitos adversos , Eletrocardiografia/efeitos dos fármacos , Indóis/efeitos adversos , Piperazinas/efeitos adversos , Agonistas do Receptor 5-HT1 de Serotonina/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Benzofuranos/farmacocinética , Benzofuranos/farmacologia , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Frequência Cardíaca/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Indóis/farmacocinética , Indóis/farmacologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Biológicos , Piperazinas/farmacocinética , Piperazinas/farmacologia , Agonistas do Receptor 5-HT1 de Serotonina/farmacocinética , Agonistas do Receptor 5-HT1 de Serotonina/farmacologia , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/farmacocinética , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/farmacologia , Cloridrato de Vilazodona , Adulto Jovem
19.
Clin Cancer Res ; 19(4): 909-19, 2013 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23403628

RESUMO

PURPOSE: OSI-930 is a novel, potent, oral small-molecule receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, predominantly against VEGF receptors (VEGFR), c-Kit, and platelet-derived growth factor receptors. A phase I trial was undertaken to determine safety, maximum-tolerated dose (MTD), pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and antitumor activity of OSI-930 in patients with advanced solid tumors. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: OSI-930 was administered once or twice a day using a modified accelerated titration design. Pharmacokinetics and plasma soluble VEGFR2 (sVEGFR2) studies were undertaken. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) and 2[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) MTD expansion cohorts were conducted. RESULTS: Fifty-eight patients received OSI-930 in 2 schedules; once a day schedule: 12 patients at doses up to 1,600 mg without reaching MTD; twice a day schedule: 46 patients at 400 mg (n = 7), 500 mg (n = 31), and 600 mg (n = 8). Dose-limiting toxicities were observed at 600 mg twice a day (n = 3): G3 rash (n = 2) and G4 γ-glutamyltransferase, establishing the MTD at 500 mg twice a day. Common G1-2 toxicities included fatigue, diarrhea, nausea, and rash. Antitumor responses were seen in 2 patients with advanced ovarian cancer [Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) partial response (PR) (n = 1); GCIG CA125 response (n = 1)]. Eleven of 19 heavily pretreated imatinib-resistant patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors achieved RECIST stable disease (median duration: 126 days), with FDG-PET scans showing PRs in 4 of 9 patients. OSI-930 exposure increased with dose; substantial decreases in sVEGFR levels were observed with OSI-930 twice a day doses ≥400 mg, while DCE-MRI responses were shown in 4 of 6 patients. CONCLUSIONS: OSI-930 is safe and well tolerated, with pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic data supporting proof-of-mechanism with clinically relevant antitumor activity.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/administração & dosagem , Quinolinas/administração & dosagem , Tiofenos/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Fadiga/induzido quimicamente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Dose Máxima Tolerável , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/metabolismo , Neoplasias/patologia , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/efeitos adversos , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/farmacocinética , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/metabolismo , Quinolinas/efeitos adversos , Quinolinas/farmacocinética , Tiofenos/efeitos adversos , Tiofenos/farmacocinética , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/efeitos dos fármacos , Receptor 2 de Fatores de Crescimento do Endotélio Vascular/metabolismo
20.
Clin Drug Investig ; 33(3): 199-206, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23417352

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In patients with impaired renal function, the pharmacokinetics of a drug may be altered, resulting in decreased renal excretion or metabolism, and altered absorption, plasma protein binding or distribution. Vilazodone is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor and 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist approved for the treatment of major depressive disorder. Vilazodone is extensively hepatically metabolized with minimal renal excretion. The primary objective of this study was to assess the pharmacokinetics of a single 20-mg dose of vilazodone in subjects with mild or moderate renal impairment. METHODS: This was a Phase 1, open-label, single-dose study of vilazodone in community-dwelling subjects with renal impairment and in healthy subjects to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of vilazodone in the presence of renal impairment. Thirty-two subjects were enrolled: eight subjects with mild (estimated glomerular filtration rate [est GFR] >50-80 mL/min) renal impairment matched individually by age, sex and body mass index to eight control subjects with normal renal function (est GFR >80 mL/min), and eight subjects with moderate (est GFR ≥30-50 mL/min) renal impairment matched with eight control subjects with normal renal function. Subjects received a single, 20-mg dose of vilazodone and pharmacokinetics, safety and plasma protein binding were assessed for 14 days. The pharmacokinetic parameters calculated were maximum plasma concentration (Cmax), time to maximum plasma concentration, area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) from time zero to 24 h, AUC from time zero to the last measurable concentration, AUC from time zero to infinity estimated by linear trapezoidal rule and extrapolation, oral clearance, terminal elimination rate constant, elimination half-life (t½), free fraction in plasma, apparent free drug clearance, amount of vilazodone recovered in urine 0-96 h following drug administration, percent of dose recovered in urine over 96 h following drug administration, renal clearance and volume of distribution. Safety assessments were adverse events, clinical laboratory test results, 12-lead electrocardiograms and vital signs. RESULTS: Vilazodone pharmacokinetic parameters in renally impaired subjects were variable but not substantially different from healthy controls. Mean values for vilazodone Cmax and AUC were similar among groups. Mean t½ (35.7 and 34.8 h mild and moderate vs. 37.0 and 34.8 h matched controls), total drug clearance (19.9 and 25.1 L/h vs. 26.4 and 26.9 L/h), and mean vilazodone recovery in urine (1.21 % and 0.58 % vs. 0.95 % and 0.81 %) were similar for mild and moderate renally impaired subjects and matched controls with normal renal function. There were no apparent systematic trends in vilazodone pharmacokinetic parameters associated with decreasing renal function. Protein binding was variable (coefficient of variation, 29-65 %) but not substantially different among the three groups, and total drug clearance was not affected. Safety and tolerability of vilazodone were comparable in all groups of subjects. CONCLUSION: This study suggests that systemic exposure of vilazodone is not affected by mild or moderate renal impairment. No dose adjustments are recommended in patients with mild or moderate renal impairment.


Assuntos
Benzofuranos/farmacocinética , Indóis/farmacocinética , Rim/fisiopatologia , Piperazinas/farmacocinética , Inibidores de Captação de Serotonina/farmacocinética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cloridrato de Vilazodona , Adulto Jovem
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...