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1.
Blood ; 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31484648

RESUMO

Germline DDX41 mutations are involved in familial myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemias (AML). We analyzed the prevalence and characteristics of DDX41-related myeloid malignancies in an unselected cohort of 1385 patients with MDS or AML. Using targeted next-generation sequencing, we identified 28 different germline DDX41 variants in 43 unrelated patients which we classified as causal (n=21) or unknown significance (n=7) variants. We focused on the 33 patients having causal variants, representing 2.4% of our cohort. Median age was 69 years, most patients were males (79%). Only 9 patients (27%) had a family history of hematological malignancy, while 15 (46%) had personal history of cytopenias years prior to MDS/AML diagnosis. Most patients had normal karyotype (85%) and the most frequent somatic alteration was a second DDX41 mutation (79%). High-risk DDX41 MDS/AML patients treated with intensive chemotherapy (n=9) or azacitidine (n=11) had an overall response rate of 100% and 73%, respectively, with a median overall survival of 5.2 years. Our study highlights that germline DDX41 mutations are relatively common in adult MDS/AML, often without known family history, arguing for systematic screening. Salient features of DDX41-related myeloid malignancies include male preponderance, frequent pre-existing cytopenias, additional somatic DDX41 mutation and relatively good outcome.

3.
Blood Adv ; 3(13): 1981-1988, 2019 Jul 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31270080

RESUMO

Protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor type 2 (PTPN2) is a phosphatase known to be a tumor suppressor gene in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Because the full clinicobiologic characteristics of PTPN2 loss remain poorly reported, we aimed to provide a comprehensive analysis of PTPN2 deletions within a cohort of 430 patients, including 216 adults and 214 children treated according to the GRAALL03/05 (#NCT00222027 and #NCT00327678) and the FRALLE2000 protocols, respectively. We used multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification to identify an 8% incidence of PTPN2 deletion, which was comparable in adult (9%) and pediatric (6%) populations. PTPN2 deletions were significantly associated with an αß lineage and TLX1 deregulation. Analysis of the mutational genotype of adult T-ALL revealed a positive correlation between PTPN2 deletions and gain-of-function alterations in the IL7R/JAK-STAT signaling pathway as well as PHF6 and WT1 mutations. Of note, PTPN2 and PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) deletions were mutually exclusive. Regarding treatment response, PTPN2-deleted T-ALLs were associated with a higher glucocorticoid response and a trend for improved survival in children, but not in adults, with a 5-year cumulative incidence of relapse of 8% for PTPN2-deleted pediatric cases vs 26% (P = .177).

4.
Psychooncology ; 28(7): 1576-1582, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31145822

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Dedicated adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer units have emerged from the early 1990s to address multiple challenges faced by AYA patients with cancer. Specific needs of AYA patients have been considered in an increasing number of studies. However, few describe how the health care professionals (HCPs) perceive their patients' needs and how they actually adjust their day-to-day practices to meet such needs. The purpose of this study is to identify and describe the practical methods of care and teamwork implemented by HCPs in response to what they perceive as essential to support psychosocial development of AYA patients. METHODS: Qualitative research was conducted between 2012 and 2014 with 31 HCPs from a recently created haematology AYA unit in France. The transcripts of open-ended interviews were subject to inductive analysis using constant comparison as recommended by the grounded theory methods. RESULTS: Our results show how HCPs adapt their practices and care relationships to support three major developmental milestones related to identity construction in AYAs: self-determination and individuation from parents, gender and sexual identity, and social life and connectedness to peers and adults (other than parents). Our results also show how HCPs adapt their practices and organisational methods to enhance the flexibility required to address their young patients, thus setting consistent and high standards for the whole team. Such adaptation is made possible through collaborative work and collective processes that facilitate self-reflection. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings shed light on some meaningful young patient-friendly practices of care and advocate for AYA-dedicated units.

5.
Blood ; 133(14): 1519-1520, 2019 Apr 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30948368
6.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand ; 98(5): 630-637, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30919447

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The preservation of fertility is an integral part of care of children requiring gonadotoxic treatments for cancer or non-malignant diseases. In France, the cryopreservation of ovarian tissue has been considered and has been offered as a clinical treatment since its inception. The aim of this study is to review 20 years of activity in fertility preservation by ovarian tissue cryopreservation (OTC) for children and the feasibility of oocyte isolation and cryopreservation from the ovarian tissue at a single center. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective study including patients aged 15 years or younger who underwent OTC, combined for some with oocyte cryopreservation of isolated oocytes, before a highly gonadotoxic treatment for malignant or non-malignant disease was initiated. We describe the evolution of activities in our program for fertility preservation and patient characteristics at the time of OTC and follow up. RESULTS: From April 1998 to December 2018, 418 girls and adolescents younger than 15 years of age underwent OTC, representing 40.5% of all females who have had ovarian tissue cryopreserved at our center. In all, 313 patients had malignant diseases and 105 had benign conditions. Between November 2009 and July 2013, oocytes were isolated and also cryopreserved in 50 cases. The mean age of patients was 6.9 years (range 0.3-15). The most frequent diagnoses in this cohort included neuroblastoma, acute leukemia and hemoglobinopathies; neuroblastoma being the most common diagnosis in very young patients. During follow up, three patients requested the use of their cryopreserved ovarian tissue. All had undergone ovarian tissue transplantation, one for puberty induction and the two others for restoring fertility. So far, no pregnancies have been achieved. Eighty-four patients who had OTC died. CONCLUSIONS: Ovarian tissue cryopreservation is the only available technique for preserving fertility of girls. To our knowledge this is the largest series of girls and adolescents younger than 15 years so far reported on procedures of OTC before highly gonadotoxic treatment in a single center.

8.
Clin Cancer Res ; 25(8): 2483-2493, 2019 Apr 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30659025

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Biological explanation for discrepancies in patient-related response to chemotherapy depending on the underlying oncogenic events is a promising research area. TLX1- or TLX3-deregulated T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias (T-ALL; TLX1/3+) share an immature cortical phenotype and similar transcriptional signatures. However, their prognostic impacts differ, and inconsistent clinical outcome has been reported for TLX3. We therefore hypothesized that the overlapping transcriptional profiles of TLX1+ and TLX3+ T-ALLs would allow identification of candidate genes, which might determine their distinct clinical outcomes. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We compared TLX1+ and TLX3+ adult T-ALL outcome in the successive French national LALA-94 and GRAALL-2003/2005 multicentric trials and analyzed transcriptomic data to identify differentially expressed genes. Epigenetic regulation of asparagine synthetase (ASNS) and in vitro l-asparaginase sensitivity were evaluated for T-ALL cell lines and primary samples. RESULTS: We show that TLX1+ patients expressed low levels of ASNS when compared with TLX3+ and TLX-negative patients, due to epigenetic silencing of ASNS by both DNA methylation and a decrease of active histone marks. Promoter methylation of the ASNS gene correlated with l-asparaginase sensitivity in both T-ALL cell lines and patient-derived xenografts. Finally, ASNS promoter methylation was an independent prognostic factor for both event-free survival [HR, 0.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.24-0.71; P = 0.001] and overall survival (HR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.23-0.70; P = 0.02) in 160 GRAALL-2003/2005 T-ALL patients and also in an independent series of 47 LL03-treated T lymphoblastic lymphomas (P = 0.012). CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that ASNS methylation status at diagnosis may allow individual adaptation of l-asparaginase dose.

9.
Haematologica ; 104(8): 1617-1625, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30655366

RESUMO

The prognostic implications of DNMT3A genotype in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia are incompletely understood. We performed comprehensive genetic and clinico-biological analyses of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia patients with DNMT3A mutations treated during the GRAALL-2003 and -2005 studies. Eighteen of 198 cases (9.1%) had DNMT3A alterations. Two patients also had DNMT3A mutations in non-leukemic cell DNA, providing the first potential evidence of age-related clonal hematopoiesis in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. DNMT3A mutation was associated with older age (median 43.9 years vs 29.4 years, P<0.001), immature T-cell receptor genotype (53.3% vs 24.4%, P=0.016) and lower remission rates (72.2% mutated vs 94.4% non-mutated, P=0.006). DNMT3A alterations were significantly associated with worse clinical outcome, with higher cumulative incidence of relapse (HR 2.33, 95% CI: 1.05-5.16, P=0.037) and markedly poorer event-free survival (HR 3.22, 95% CI: 1.81-5.72, P<0.001) and overall survival (HR 2.91, 95% CI: 1.56-5.43, P=0.001). Adjusting for age as a covariate, or restricting the analysis to patients over 40 years, who account for almost 90% of DNMT3A-mutated cases, did not modify these observations. In multivariate analysis using the risk factors that were used to stratify treatment during the GRAALL studies, DNMT3A mutation was significantly associated with shorter event-free survival (HR 2.33, 95% CI: 1.06 - 4.04, P=0.02). Altogether, these results identify DNMT3A genotype as a predictor of aggressive T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia biology. The GRAALL-2003 and -2005 studies were registered at http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov as #NCT00222027 and #NCT00327678, respectively.

11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30385870

RESUMO

Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) in first complete remission is a standard of care for adult patients with Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and high risk of relapse. However, the stratification systems vary among study groups. Inadequate response at the level of minimal residual disease is the most commonly accepted factor indicating the need for alloHSCT. In this consensus paper on behalf of the European Working Group for Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia and the Acute Leukemia Working Party of the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, we summarize available evidence and reflect current clinical practice in major European study groups regarding both indications for HSCT and particular aspects of the procedure including the choice of donor, source of stem cells and conditioning. Finally, we propose recommendations for daily clinical practice as well as for planning of prospective trials.

12.
Br J Haematol ; 183(5): 766-774, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30407615

RESUMO

The incidence of acquired aplastic anaemia (AA) peaks in adolescents and young adults (AYA). Although age has been associated with response after immunosuppressive therapy (IST), few data exist about the specific outcome of AYA. We retrospectively compared the outcome of 29 children (aged <15 years), 32 AYA (15-25 years) and 23 adults (>25 years) with AA treated front-line with IST in Saint-Louis Hospital. The cumulative incidence of response was lower in adults compared with AYA (subdistribution hazard ratio [SHR] = 0·38, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0·96-1·00], P = 0·008), but no difference was observed between children and AYA (SHR = 0·84, 95% CI [0·96-1·00], P = 0·56), with a 6 months cumulative incidence of partial response of 44·8% in children, 62·5% in AYA and 21·7% in adults. The 5-year failure-free survival was 48·4%, without impact of age, with a 5-year relapse rate of 20·7%. With a median follow-up of 5·4 years, the 5-year overall survival was 86·5%, without significant difference between children and AYA overall survival (hazard ratio [HR] 1·51, 95% CI [0·25-9·02], P = 0·66), while adults displayed poorer survival than AYA (HR 4·98, 95% CI [1·00-24·73], P = 0·049). This study confirms that age is a prognostic factor in AA patients treated with IST. However, AYA patients have a similar outcome to children in terms of response rate and survival.

13.
Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book ; (38): 555-573, 2018 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30231330

RESUMO

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) was initially subdivided according to morphology (the French-American-British system), which proved helpful in pathologic categorization. Subsequently, clinical and genomic factors were found to correlate with response to chemotherapy and with overall survival. These included a history of antecedent hematologic disease, a history of chemotherapy or radiation therapy, the presence of various recurrent cytogenetic abnormalities, and, more recently, the presence of specific point mutations. This article reviews the biology and responses of one AML subgroup with consistent response and good outcomes following chemotherapy (core-binding factor leukemia), and two subgroups with persistently bad, and even ugly, outcomes (secondary AML and TP53-mutated AML).


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/tratamento farmacológico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/etiologia , Alelos , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Aberrações Cromossômicas , Terapia Combinada , Fatores de Ligação ao Core/genética , Fatores de Ligação ao Core/metabolismo , Frequência do Gene , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Mutação , Neoplasia Residual/diagnóstico , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/diagnóstico , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/epidemiologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/etiologia , Segunda Neoplasia Primária/terapia , Transdução de Sinais , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/metabolismo
14.
Blood ; 132(4): 351-361, 2018 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29895662

RESUMO

Adolescent and young adult (AYA) patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are recognized as a unique population with specific characteristics and needs. In adolescents age 15 to 20 years, the use of fully pediatric protocols is supported by many comparative studies of pediatric and adult cooperative groups. In young adults, growing evidence suggests that pediatric-inspired or even fully pediatric approaches may also dramatically improve outcomes, leading to long-term survival rates of almost 70%, despite diminishing indications of hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. In the last decade, better knowledge of the ALL oncogenic landscape according to age distribution and minimal residual disease assessments has improved risk stratification. New targets have emerged, mostly in the heterogeneous B-other group, particularly in the Philadelphia-like ALL subgroup, which requires both in-depth molecular investigations and specific evaluations of targeted treatments. The remaining gap in the excellent results reported in children has many other contributing factors that should not be underestimated, including late or difficult access to care and/or trials, increased acute toxicities, and poor adherence to treatment. Specific programs should be designed to take into account those factors and finally ameliorate survival and quality of life for AYAs with ALL.

15.
J Clin Oncol ; 36(24): 2514-2523, 2018 Aug 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29863974

RESUMO

Purpose To evaluate randomly the role of hyperfractionated cyclophosphamide (hyper-C) dose intensification in adults with newly diagnosed Philadelphia chromosome-negative acute lymphoblastic leukemia treated with a pediatric-inspired protocol and to determine the upper age limit for treatment tolerability in this context. Patients and Methods A total of 787 evaluable patients (B/T lineage, 525 and 262, respectively; median age, 36.1 years) were randomly assigned to receive a standard dose of cyclophosphamide or hyper-C during first induction and late intensification. Compliance with chemotherapy was assessed by median doses actually received during each treatment phase by patients potentially exposed to the full planned doses. Results Overall complete remission (CR) rate was 91.9%. With a median follow-up of 5.2 years, the 5-year rate of event-free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) was 52.2% (95% CI, 48.5% to 55.7%) and 58.5% (95% CI, 54.8% to 61.9%), respectively. Randomization to the hyper-C arm did not increase the CR rate or prolong EFS or OS. As a result of worse treatment tolerance, advanced age continuously affected CR rate, EFS, and OS, with 55 years as the best age cutoff. At 5 years, EFS was 55.7% (95% CI, 51.8% to 59.4%) for patients younger than 55 years of age versus 25.8% (95% CI, 19.9% to 35.6%) in older patients (hazard ratio, 2.16; P < .001). Patients ≥ 55 years of age, in whom a lower compliance to the whole planned chemotherapy was observed, benefited significantly from hyper-C, whereas younger patients did not. Conclusion No significant benefit was associated with the introduction of a hyper-C sequence into a frontline pediatric-like adult acute lymphoblastic leukemia therapy. Overall, tolerability of an intensive pediatric-derived treatment was poor in patients ≥ 55 years of age.

17.
Nephrol Ther ; 14 Suppl 1: S103-S113, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29606256

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: High-dose methotrexate (at least 1g/m2) is used to treat haematologic malignancies and osteosarcomas. Acute kidney injury is a well-known adverse-event after high-dose methotrexate and may lead to delayed drug elimination. Besides usual therapeutics (hyperhydration, urine alkalinisation, leucovorin rescue, renal replacement therapy), a costly specific enzymatic treatment (glucarpidase) is now available but its clinical impact remains elusive. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analysed high-dose methotrexate prescription charts in 11 clinical centres during the last 15 years to identify and describe adult patients who developed acute kidney injury (according to KDIGO classification). Glucarpidase use was recorded (French temporary regulatory approval criteria: methotrexate at least 10µmol/L at 48h or at least 3µmol/L at 48h associated with acute kidney injury). RESULTS: Seventy-six acute kidney injury cases have been studied. Mean peak creatinine was 206µmol/L after a mean delay of 5.6 days, with 19 cases of stage 1 acute kidney injury (25%), 29 cases of stage 2 (38%) and 27 cases of stage 3 (36%). Anuria (one case) and need for renal replacement therapy (four cases) were unusual whereas fluid overload was often observed (29%). Three months after high-dose methotrexate treatment, mortality-rate was 17%, and 12% of surviving patients developed renal sequelae. CONCLUSION: Sixty-one percent of patients received a glucarpidase perfusion during acute kidney injury. Despite a dramatic decrease of methotrexate serum levels, glucarpidase as compared with conservative treatment did not modify acute kidney injury stage, recovery delay, need for renal replacement therapy or the incidence of extrarenal toxicities. Net clinical benefit was not observed even after stratification according to eligibility criteria for glucarpidase use. Glucarpidase has probably no or little effects on methotrexate localized into tubular lumen or proximal tubular cells and that may account for the absence of nephroprotective effect for enzymatic treatment.


Assuntos
Lesão Renal Aguda/induzido quimicamente , Antimetabólitos Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Metotrexato/efeitos adversos , gama-Glutamil Hidrolase/uso terapêutico , Lesão Renal Aguda/mortalidade , Lesão Renal Aguda/terapia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Terapia de Substituição Renal/métodos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
18.
Blood ; 132(2): 187-196, 2018 Jul 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29692343

RESUMO

Mutations in receptor tyrosine kinase/RAS signaling pathway genes are frequent in core-binding factor (CBF) acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs), but their prognostic relevance is debated. A subset of CBF AML patients harbors several signaling gene mutations. Genotyping of colonies and of relapse samples indicates that these arise in independent clones, thus defining a process of clonal interference (or parallel evolution). Clonal interference is pervasive in cancers, but the mechanisms underlying this process remain unclear, and its prognostic impact remains unknown. We analyzed a cohort of 445 adult and pediatric patients with CBF AML treated with intensive chemotherapy and with deep sequencing of 6 signaling genes (KIT, NRAS, KRAS, FLT3, JAK2, CBL). A total of 152 (34%), 167 (38%), and 126 (28%) patients harbored no, a single, and multiple signaling clones (clonal interference), respectively. Clonal interference of signaling mutations was associated with older age (P = .004) and inv(16) subtype (P = .025) but not with white blood cell count or mutations in chromatin or cohesin genes. The median allele frequency of signaling mutations was 31% in patients with a single clone or clonal interference (P = .14). The repertoire of KIT, FLT3, and NRAS/KRAS variants differed between groups. Clonal interference did not affect complete remission rate or minimal residual disease after 1-2 courses, but it did convey inferior event-free survival (P < 10-4), whereas the presence of a single signaling clone did not (P = .44). This inferior outcome was independent of clinical parameters and of the presence of specific signaling clones. Our results suggest that specific clonal architectures can herald distinct prognoses in AML.

19.
N Engl J Med ; 378(5): 439-448, 2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29385370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In a single-center phase 1-2a study, the anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy tisagenlecleucel produced high rates of complete remission and was associated with serious but mainly reversible toxic effects in children and young adults with relapsed or refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). METHODS: We conducted a phase 2, single-cohort, 25-center, global study of tisagenlecleucel in pediatric and young adult patients with CD19+ relapsed or refractory B-cell ALL. The primary end point was the overall remission rate (the rate of complete remission or complete remission with incomplete hematologic recovery) within 3 months. RESULTS: For this planned analysis, 75 patients received an infusion of tisagenlecleucel and could be evaluated for efficacy. The overall remission rate within 3 months was 81%, with all patients who had a response to treatment found to be negative for minimal residual disease, as assessed by means of flow cytometry. The rates of event-free survival and overall survival were 73% (95% confidence interval [CI], 60 to 82) and 90% (95% CI, 81 to 95), respectively, at 6 months and 50% (95% CI, 35 to 64) and 76% (95% CI, 63 to 86) at 12 months. The median duration of remission was not reached. Persistence of tisagenlecleucel in the blood was observed for as long as 20 months. Grade 3 or 4 adverse events that were suspected to be related to tisagenlecleucel occurred in 73% of patients. The cytokine release syndrome occurred in 77% of patients, 48% of whom received tocilizumab. Neurologic events occurred in 40% of patients and were managed with supportive care, and no cerebral edema was reported. CONCLUSIONS: In this global study of CAR T-cell therapy, a single infusion of tisagenlecleucel provided durable remission with long-term persistence in pediatric and young adult patients with relapsed or refractory B-cell ALL, with transient high-grade toxic effects. (Funded by Novartis Pharmaceuticals; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02435849 .).


Assuntos
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapêutico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/tratamento farmacológico , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/antagonistas & inibidores , Receptores de Antígenos de Linfócitos T/uso terapêutico , Adolescente , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Antígenos CD19 , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Infusões Intravenosas , Masculino , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/mortalidade , Indução de Remissão , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
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