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1.
J Immunol ; 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33229441

RESUMO

High-dimensional cytometry is a powerful technique for deciphering the immunopathological factors common to multiple individuals. However, rational comparisons of multiple batches of experiments performed on different occasions or at different sites are challenging because of batch effects. In this study, we describe the integration of multibatch cytometry datasets (iMUBAC), a flexible, scalable, and robust computational framework for unsupervised cell-type identification across multiple batches of high-dimensional cytometry datasets, even without technical replicates. After overlaying cells from multiple healthy controls across batches, iMUBAC learns batch-specific cell-type classification boundaries and identifies aberrant immunophenotypes in patient samples from multiple batches in a unified manner. We illustrate unbiased and streamlined immunophenotyping using both public and in-house mass cytometry and spectral flow cytometry datasets. The method is available as the R package iMUBAC (https://github.com/casanova-lab/iMUBAC).

2.
J Clin Invest ; 2020 Sep 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960813

RESUMO

Inborn errors of TLR3-dependent IFN-α/ß- and -λ-mediated immunity in the central nervous system (CNS) can underlie herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE). The respective contributions of IFN-α/ß and -λ are unknown. We report a child homozygous for a genomic deletion of the entire coding sequence and part of the 3'UTR of the last exon of IFNAR1, who died from HSE at the age of two years. An older cousin died following vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella at 12 months of age, and another 17-year-old cousin homozygous for the same variant has had other, less severe viral illnesses. The encoded IFNAR1 protein is expressed on the cell surface but is truncated and cannot interact with the tyrosine kinase TYK2. The patient's fibroblasts and EBV-B cells did not respond to IFN-α2b or IFN-ß, in terms of STAT1, STAT2 and STAT3 phosphorylation, or the genome-wide induction of IFN-stimulated genes. The patient's fibroblasts were susceptible to viruses, including HSV-1, even in the presence of exogenous IFN-α2b or IFN-ß. HSE is therefore a consequence of inherited complete IFNAR1 deficiency. This viral disease occurred in natural conditions, unlike those previously reported in other patients with IFNAR1 or IFNAR2 deficiency. This experiment of Nature indicates that IFN-α/ß are essential for anti-HSV-1 immunity in the CNS.

4.
J Pediatr ; 223: 207-211.e1, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423680

RESUMO

The genetic investigation of a family presenting with a dominant form of hyper IgM syndrome published in 1963 and 1975 revealed a R190X nonsense mutation in activation-induced cytidine deaminase. This report illustrates the progress made over 6 decades in the characterization of primary immunodeficiencies, from immunochemistry to whole-exome sequencing.

5.
Cell Rep ; 31(6): 107633, 2020 05 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402279

RESUMO

Most monogenic disorders have a primary clinical presentation. Inherited ISG15 deficiency, however, has manifested with two distinct presentations to date: susceptibility to mycobacterial disease and intracranial calcifications from hypomorphic interferon-II (IFN-II) production and excessive IFN-I response, respectively. Accordingly, these patients were managed for their infectious and neurologic complications. Herein, we describe five new patients with six novel ISG15 mutations presenting with skin lesions who were managed for dermatologic disease. Cellularly, we denote striking specificity to the IFN-I response, which was previously assumed to be universal. In peripheral blood, myeloid cells display the most robust IFN-I signatures. In the affected skin, IFN-I signaling is observed in the keratinocytes of the epidermis, endothelia, and the monocytes and macrophages of the dermis. These findings define the specific cells causing circulating and dermatologic inflammation and expand the clinical spectrum of ISG15 deficiency to dermatologic presentations as a third phenotype co-dominant to the infectious and neurologic manifestations.

7.
Sci Immunol ; 5(44)2020 02 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111619

RESUMO

We investigated the molecular and cellular basis of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) in six patients with otofaciocervical syndrome type 2 who failed to attain T cell reconstitution after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, despite successful engraftment in three of them. We identified rare biallelic PAX1 rare variants in all patients. We demonstrated that these mutant PAX1 proteins have an altered conformation and flexibility of the paired box domain and reduced transcriptional activity. We generated patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells and differentiated them into thymic epithelial progenitor cells and found that they have an altered transcriptional profile, including for genes involved in the development of the thymus and other tissues derived from pharyngeal pouches. These results identify biallelic, loss-of-function PAX1 mutations as the cause of a syndromic form of SCID due to altered thymus development.

8.
J Exp Med ; 217(6)2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32207811

RESUMO

Autosomal dominant hyper-IgE syndrome (AD-HIES) is typically caused by dominant-negative (DN) STAT3 mutations. Patients suffer from cold staphylococcal lesions and mucocutaneous candidiasis, severe allergy, and skeletal abnormalities. We report 12 patients from 8 unrelated kindreds with AD-HIES due to DN IL6ST mutations. We identified seven different truncating mutations, one of which was recurrent. The mutant alleles encode GP130 receptors bearing the transmembrane domain but lacking both the recycling motif and all four STAT3-recruiting tyrosine residues. Upon overexpression, the mutant proteins accumulate at the cell surface and are loss of function and DN for cellular responses to IL-6, IL-11, LIF, and OSM. Moreover, the patients' heterozygous leukocytes and fibroblasts respond poorly to IL-6 and IL-11. Consistently, patients with STAT3 and IL6ST mutations display infectious and allergic manifestations of IL-6R deficiency, and some of the skeletal abnormalities of IL-11R deficiency. DN STAT3 and IL6ST mutations thus appear to underlie clinical phenocopies through impairment of the IL-6 and IL-11 response pathways.

9.
Hum Genet ; 139(6-7): 981-991, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31980906

RESUMO

Many bacteria can cause pyogenic lesions in humans. Most of these bacteria are harmless in most individuals, but they, nevertheless, cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. The inherited and acquired immunodeficiencies underlying these pyogenic infections differ between bacteria. This short review focuses on two emblematic pyogenic bacteria: pneumococcus (Streptococcus pneumoniae) and Staphylococcus, both of which are Gram-positive encapsulated bacteria. We will discuss the contribution of human genetic studies to the identification of germline mutations of the TLR and IL-1R pathways.


Assuntos
Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Infecções Pneumocócicas/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Receptores de Interleucina-1/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/genética , Receptores Toll-Like/genética , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/imunologia , Genética Humana , Humanos , Infecções Pneumocócicas/imunologia , Infecções Pneumocócicas/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/imunologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus/patogenicidade , Streptococcus pneumoniae/patogenicidade , Virulência/genética
10.
Sci Immunol ; 4(41)2019 11 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31784499

RESUMO

Genetic etiologies of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) disrupt human IL-17A/F-dependent immunity at mucosal surfaces, whereas those of connective tissue disorders (CTDs) often impair the TGF-ß-dependent homeostasis of connective tissues. The signaling pathways involved are incompletely understood. We report a three-generation family with an autosomal dominant (AD) combination of CMC and a previously undescribed form of CTD that clinically overlaps with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS). The patients are heterozygous for a private splice-site variant of MAPK8, the gene encoding c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1 (JNK1), a component of the MAPK signaling pathway. This variant is loss-of-expression and loss-of-function in the patients' fibroblasts, which display AD JNK1 deficiency by haploinsufficiency. These cells have impaired, but not abolished, responses to IL-17A and IL-17F. Moreover, the development of the patients' TH17 cells was impaired ex vivo and in vitro, probably due to the involvement of JNK1 in the TGF-ß-responsive pathway and further accounting for the patients' CMC. Consistently, the patients' fibroblasts displayed impaired JNK1- and c-Jun/ATF-2-dependent induction of key extracellular matrix (ECM) components and regulators, but not of EDS-causing gene products, in response to TGF-ß. Furthermore, they displayed a transcriptional pattern in response to TGF-ß different from that of fibroblasts from patients with Loeys-Dietz syndrome caused by mutations of TGFBR2 or SMAD3, further accounting for the patients' complex and unusual CTD phenotype. This experiment of nature indicates that the integrity of the human JNK1-dependent MAPK signaling pathway is essential for IL-17A- and IL-17F-dependent mucocutaneous immunity to Candida and for the TGF-ß-dependent homeostasis of connective tissues.

11.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(33): 16463-16472, 2019 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346092

RESUMO

Heterozygous in-frame mutations in coding regions of human STAT3 underlie the only known autosomal dominant form of hyper IgE syndrome (AD HIES). About 5% of familial cases remain unexplained. The mutant proteins are loss-of-function and dominant-negative when tested following overproduction in recipient cells. However, the production of mutant proteins has not been detected and quantified in the cells of heterozygous patients. We report a deep intronic heterozygous STAT3 mutation, c.1282-89C>T, in 7 relatives with AD HIES. This mutation creates a new exon in the STAT3 complementary DNA, which, when overexpressed, generates a mutant STAT3 protein (D427ins17) that is loss-of-function and dominant-negative in terms of tyrosine phosphorylation, DNA binding, and transcriptional activity. In immortalized B cells from these patients, the D427ins17 protein was 2 kDa larger and 4-fold less abundant than wild-type STAT3, on mass spectrometry. The patients' primary B and T lymphocytes responded poorly to STAT3-dependent cytokines. These findings are reminiscent of the impaired responses of leukocytes from other patients with AD HIES due to typical STAT3 coding mutations, providing further evidence for the dominance of the mutant intronic allele. These findings highlight the importance of sequencing STAT3 introns in patients with HIES without candidate variants in coding regions and essential splice sites. They also show that AD HIES-causing STAT3 mutant alleles can be dominant-negative even if the encoded protein is produced in significantly smaller amounts than wild-type STAT3.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Síndrome de Job/genética , Sítios de Splice de RNA/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Linfócitos B/patologia , Pré-Escolar , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Síndrome de Job/patologia , Mutação com Perda de Função/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/patologia
12.
J Exp Med ; 216(8): 1777-1790, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213488

RESUMO

Fulminant viral hepatitis (FVH) is a devastating and unexplained condition that strikes otherwise healthy individuals during primary infection with common liver-tropic viruses. We report a child who died of FVH upon infection with hepatitis A virus (HAV) at age 11 yr and who was homozygous for a private 40-nucleotide deletion in IL18BP, which encodes the IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP). This mutation is loss-of-function, unlike the variants found in a homozygous state in public databases. We show that human IL-18 and IL-18BP are both secreted mostly by hepatocytes and macrophages in the liver. Moreover, in the absence of IL-18BP, excessive NK cell activation by IL-18 results in uncontrolled killing of human hepatocytes in vitro. Inherited human IL-18BP deficiency thus underlies fulminant HAV hepatitis by unleashing IL-18. These findings provide proof-of-principle that FVH can be caused by single-gene inborn errors that selectively disrupt liver-specific immunity. They also show that human IL-18 is toxic to the liver and that IL-18BP is its antidote.

13.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 47(W1): W623-W631, 2019 07 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045209

RESUMO

Human whole-genome-sequencing reveals about 4 000 000 genomic variants per individual. These data are mostly stored as VCF-format files. Although many variant analysis methods accept VCF as input, many other tools require DNA or protein sequences, particularly for splicing prediction, sequence alignment, phylogenetic analysis, and structure prediction. However, there is no existing webserver capable of extracting DNA/protein sequences for genomic variants from VCF files in a user-friendly and efficient manner. We developed the SeqTailor webserver to bridge this gap, by enabling rapid extraction of (i) DNA sequences around genomic variants, with customizable window sizes and options to annotate the splice sites closest to the variants and to consider the neighboring variants within the window; and (ii) protein sequences encoded by the DNA sequences around genomic variants, with built-in SnpEff annotator and customizable window sizes. SeqTailor supports 11 species, including: human (GRCh37/GRCh38), chimpanzee, mouse, rat, cow, chicken, lizard, zebrafish, fruitfly, Arabidopsis and rice. Standalone programs are provided for command-line-based needs. SeqTailor streamlines the sequence extraction process, and accelerates the analysis of genomic variants with software requiring DNA/protein sequences. It will facilitate the study of genomic variation, by increasing the feasibility of sequence-based analysis and prediction. The SeqTailor webserver is freely available at http://shiva.rockefeller.edu/SeqTailor/.

14.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(3): 298-308, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30838481

RESUMO

DOCK2 is a guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor for Rac proteins. Activated Rac serves various cellular functions including the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton in lymphocytes and neutrophils and production of reactive oxygen species in neutrophils. Since 2015, six unrelated patients with combined immunodeficiency and early-onset severe viral infections caused by bi-allelic loss-of-function mutations in DOCK2 have been described. Until now, the function of phagocytes, specifically neutrophils, has not been assessed in human DOCK2 deficiency. Here, we describe a new kindred with four affected siblings harboring a homozygous splice-site mutation (c.2704-2 A > C) in DOCK2. The mutation results in alternative splicing and a complete loss of DOCK2 protein expression. The patients presented with leaky severe combined immunodeficiency or Omenn syndrome. The novel mutation affects EBV-B cell migration and results in NK cell dysfunction similar to previous observations. Moreover, both cytoskeletal rearrangement and reactive oxygen species production are partially impaired in DOCK2-deficient neutrophils.

16.
Nat Immunol ; 20(3): 350-361, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718914

RESUMO

Despite the known importance of zinc for human immunity, molecular insights into its roles have remained limited. Here we report a novel autosomal recessive disease characterized by absent B cells, agammaglobulinemia and early onset infections in five unrelated families. The immunodeficiency results from hypomorphic mutations of SLC39A7, which encodes the endoplasmic reticulum-to-cytoplasm zinc transporter ZIP7. Using CRISPR-Cas9 mutagenesis we have precisely modeled ZIP7 deficiency in mice. Homozygosity for a null allele caused embryonic death, but hypomorphic alleles reproduced the block in B cell development seen in patients. B cells from mutant mice exhibited a diminished concentration of cytoplasmic free zinc, increased phosphatase activity and decreased phosphorylation of signaling molecules downstream of the pre-B cell and B cell receptors. Our findings highlight a specific role for cytosolic Zn2+ in modulating B cell receptor signal strength and positive selection.


Assuntos
Agamaglobulinemia/imunologia , Linfócitos B/imunologia , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/imunologia , Zinco/imunologia , Agamaglobulinemia/genética , Agamaglobulinemia/metabolismo , Animais , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/deficiência , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Pré-Escolar , Citosol/imunologia , Citosol/metabolismo , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Retículo Endoplasmático/imunologia , Retículo Endoplasmático/metabolismo , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Transgênicos , Mutação , Linhagem , Zinco/metabolismo
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(3): 950-959, 2019 01 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30591557

RESUMO

Computational analyses of human patient exomes aim to filter out as many nonpathogenic genetic variants (NPVs) as possible, without removing the true disease-causing mutations. This involves comparing the patient's exome with public databases to remove reported variants inconsistent with disease prevalence, mode of inheritance, or clinical penetrance. However, variants frequent in a given exome cohort, but absent or rare in public databases, have also been reported and treated as NPVs, without rigorous exploration. We report the generation of a blacklist of variants frequent within an in-house cohort of 3,104 exomes. This blacklist did not remove known pathogenic mutations from the exomes of 129 patients and decreased the number of NPVs remaining in the 3,104 individual exomes by a median of 62%. We validated this approach by testing three other independent cohorts of 400, 902, and 3,869 exomes. The blacklist generated from any given cohort removed a substantial proportion of NPVs (11-65%). We analyzed the blacklisted variants computationally and experimentally. Most of the blacklisted variants corresponded to false signals generated by incomplete reference genome assembly, location in low-complexity regions, bioinformatic misprocessing, or limitations inherent to cohort-specific private alleles (e.g., due to sequencing kits, and genetic ancestries). Finally, we provide our precalculated blacklists, together with ReFiNE, a program for generating customized blacklists from any medium-sized or large in-house cohort of exome (or other next-generation sequencing) data via a user-friendly public web server. This work demonstrates the power of extracting variant blacklists from private databases as a specific in-house but broadly applicable tool for optimizing exome analysis.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados de Ácidos Nucleicos , Exoma , Variação Genética , Genoma Humano , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Software , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino
20.
J Clin Invest ; 129(2): 583-597, 2019 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30422821

RESUMO

X-linked dominant incontinentia pigmenti (IP) and X-linked recessive anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia with immunodeficiency (EDA-ID) are caused by loss-of-function and hypomorphic IKBKG (also known as NEMO) mutations, respectively. We describe a European mother with mild IP and a Japanese mother without IP, whose 3 boys with EDA-ID died from ID. We identify the same private variant in an intron of IKBKG, IVS4+866 C>T, which was inherited from and occurred de novo in the European mother and Japanese mother, respectively. This mutation creates a new splicing donor site, giving rise to a 44-nucleotide pseudoexon (PE) generating a frameshift. Its leakiness accounts for NF-κB activation being impaired but not abolished in the boys' cells. However, aberrant splicing rates differ between cell types, with WT NEMO mRNA and protein levels ranging from barely detectable in leukocytes to residual amounts in induced pluripotent stem cell-derived (iPSC-derived) macrophages, and higher levels in fibroblasts and iPSC-derived neuronal precursor cells. Finally, SRSF6 binds to the PE, facilitating its inclusion. Moreover, SRSF6 knockdown or CLK inhibition restores WT NEMO expression and function in mutant cells. A recurrent deep intronic splicing mutation in IKBKG underlies a purely quantitative NEMO defect in males that is most severe in leukocytes and can be rescued by the inhibition of SRSF6 or CLK.


Assuntos
Displasia Ectodérmica , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Quinase I-kappa B , Incontinência Pigmentar , Íntrons , Displasia Ectodérmica/genética , Displasia Ectodérmica/metabolismo , Displasia Ectodérmica/patologia , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fibroblastos/patologia , Humanos , Quinase I-kappa B/deficiência , Quinase I-kappa B/metabolismo , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/genética , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/metabolismo , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/patologia , Incontinência Pigmentar/genética , Incontinência Pigmentar/metabolismo , Incontinência Pigmentar/patologia , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/patologia , Masculino
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