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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(3)2021 Jan 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33408250

RESUMO

Genetic variants underlying life-threatening diseases, being unlikely to be transmitted to the next generation, are gradually and selectively eliminated from the population through negative selection. We study the determinants of this evolutionary process in human genes underlying monogenic diseases by comparing various negative selection scores and an integrative approach, CoNeS, at 366 loci underlying inborn errors of immunity (IEI). We find that genes underlying autosomal dominant (AD) or X-linked IEI have stronger negative selection scores than those underlying autosomal recessive (AR) IEI, whose scores are not different from those of genes not known to be disease causing. Nevertheless, genes underlying AR IEI that are lethal before reproductive maturity with complete penetrance have stronger negative selection scores than other genes underlying AR IEI. We also show that genes underlying AD IEI by loss of function have stronger negative selection scores than genes underlying AD IEI by gain of function, while genes underlying AD IEI by haploinsufficiency are under stronger negative selection than other genes underlying AD IEI. These results are replicated in 1,140 genes underlying inborn errors of neurodevelopment. Finally, we propose a supervised classifier, SCoNeS, which predicts better than state-of-the-art approaches whether a gene is more likely to underlie an AD or AR disease. The clinical outcomes of monogenic inborn errors, together with their mode and mechanisms of inheritance, determine the levels of negative selection at their corresponding loci. Integrating scores of negative selection may facilitate the prioritization of candidate genes and variants in patients suspected to carry an inborn error.

2.
J Clin Immunol ; 2021 Jan 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33417088

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Germline heterozygous mutations of GATA2 underlie a variety of hematological and clinical phenotypes. The genetic, immunological, and clinical features of GATA2-deficient patients with mycobacterial diseases in the familial context remain largely unknown. METHODS: We enrolled 15 GATA2 index cases referred for mycobacterial disease. We describe their genetic and clinical features including their relatives. RESULTS: We identified 12 heterozygous GATA2 mutations, two of which had not been reported. Eight of these mutations were loss-of-function, and four were hypomorphic. None was dominant-negative in vitro, and the GATA2 locus was found to be subject to purifying selection, strongly suggesting a mechanism of haploinsufficiency. Three relatives of index cases had mycobacterial disease and were also heterozygous, resulting in 18 patients in total. Mycobacterial infection was the first clinical manifestation in 11 patients, at a mean age of 22.5 years (range: 12 to 42 years). Most patients also suffered from other infections, monocytopenia, or myelodysplasia. Strikingly, the clinical penetrance was incomplete (32.9% by age 40 years), as 16 heterozygous relatives aged between 6 and 78 years, including 4 older than 60 years, were completely asymptomatic. CONCLUSION: Clinical penetrance for mycobacterial disease was found to be similar to other GATA2 deficiency-related manifestations. These observations suggest that other mechanisms contribute to the phenotypic expression of GATA2 deficiency. A diagnosis of autosomal dominant GATA2 deficiency should be considered in patients with mycobacterial infections and/or other GATA2 deficiency-related phenotypes at any age in life. Moreover, all direct relatives should be genotyped at the GATA2 locus.

3.
Cell ; 2020 Dec 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33296702

RESUMO

Inborn errors of human interferon gamma (IFN-γ) immunity underlie mycobacterial disease. We report a patient with mycobacterial disease due to inherited deficiency of the transcription factor T-bet. The patient has extremely low counts of circulating Mycobacterium-reactive natural killer (NK), invariant NKT (iNKT), mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT), and Vδ2+ γδ T lymphocytes, and of Mycobacterium-non reactive classic TH1 lymphocytes, with the residual populations of these cells also producing abnormally small amounts of IFN-γ. Other lymphocyte subsets develop normally but produce low levels of IFN-γ, with the exception of CD8+ αß T and non-classic CD4+ αß TH1∗ lymphocytes, which produce IFN-γ normally in response to mycobacterial antigens. Human T-bet deficiency thus underlies mycobacterial disease by preventing the development of innate (NK) and innate-like adaptive lymphocytes (iNKT, MAIT, and Vδ2+ γδ T cells) and IFN-γ production by them, with mycobacterium-specific, IFN-γ-producing, purely adaptive CD8+ αß T, and CD4+ αß TH1∗ cells unable to compensate for this deficit.

4.
J Immunol ; 2020 Nov 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33229441

RESUMO

High-dimensional cytometry is a powerful technique for deciphering the immunopathological factors common to multiple individuals. However, rational comparisons of multiple batches of experiments performed on different occasions or at different sites are challenging because of batch effects. In this study, we describe the integration of multibatch cytometry datasets (iMUBAC), a flexible, scalable, and robust computational framework for unsupervised cell-type identification across multiple batches of high-dimensional cytometry datasets, even without technical replicates. After overlaying cells from multiple healthy controls across batches, iMUBAC learns batch-specific cell-type classification boundaries and identifies aberrant immunophenotypes in patient samples from multiple batches in a unified manner. We illustrate unbiased and streamlined immunophenotyping using both public and in-house mass cytometry and spectral flow cytometry datasets. The method is available as the R package iMUBAC (https://github.com/casanova-lab/iMUBAC).

5.
J Clin Immunol ; 40(8): 1065-1081, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32852681

RESUMO

Heterozygous gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in STAT1 in patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC) and hypothyroidism were discovered in 2011. CMC is the recurrent or persistent mucocutaneous infection by Candida fungi, and hypothyroidism results from autoimmune thyroiditis. Patients with these diseases develop other infectious diseases, including viral, bacterial, and fungal diseases, and other autoimmune manifestations, including enterocolitis, immune cytopenia, endocrinopathies, and systemic lupus erythematosus. STAT1-GOF mutations are highly penetrant with a median age at onset of 1 year and often underlie an autosomal dominant trait. As many as 105 mutations at 72 residues, including 65 recurrent mutations, have already been reported in more than 400 patients worldwide. The GOF mechanism involves impaired dephosphorylation of STAT1 in the nucleus. Patient cells show enhanced STAT1-dependent responses to type I and II interferons (IFNs) and IL-27. This impairs Th17 cell development, which accounts for CMC. The pathogenesis of autoimmunity likely involves enhanced type I IFN responses, as in other type I interferonopathies. The pathogenesis of other infections, especially those caused by intramacrophagic bacteria and fungi, which are otherwise seen in patients with diminished type II IFN immunity, has remained mysterious. The cumulative survival rates of patients with and without severe disease (invasive infection, cancer, and/or symptomatic aneurysm) at 60 years of age are 31% and 87%, respectively. Severe autoimmunity also worsens the prognosis. The treatment of patients with STAT1-GOF mutations who suffer from severe infectious and autoimmune manifestations relies on hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and/or oral JAK inhibitors.

6.
J Clin Immunol ; 40(6): 872-882, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32602053

RESUMO

Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases (MSMD) is a rare congenital condition characterized by a selective predisposition to infections caused by weakly virulent mycobacteria and other types of intra-macrophagic pathogens. The 16 genes associated with MSMD display a considerable level of allelic heterogeneity, accounting for 31 distinct disorders with variable clinical presentations and prognosis. Most of MSMD deficiencies are isolated, referred to as selective susceptibility to mycobacterial diseases. However, other deficiencies are syndromic MSMD, defined by the combination of the mycobacterial infection with another, equally common, infectious, specific phenotypes. Herein, we described a series of 32 Iranian MSMD cases identified with seven distinct types of molecular defects, all of which are involved in the interferon gamma (IFNγ) immunity, including interleukin IL-12 receptor-ß1 (IL-12Rß1) deficiency (fifteen cases), IL-12p40 deficiency (ten cases), and IL-23R deficiency (three cases), as well as IFNγ receptor 1 (IFNγR1) deficiency, IFNγ receptor 2 (IFNγR2) deficiency, interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) deficiency, and tyrosine kinase 2 (TYK2) deficiency each in one case. Since the first report of two MSMD patients in our center, we identified 30 other affected patients with similar clinical manifestations. As the number of reported Iranian cases with MSMD diagnosis has increased in recent years and according to the national vaccination protocol, all Iranian newborns receive BCG vaccination at birth, early diagnosis, and therapeutic intervention which are required for a better outcome and also prevention of similar birth defects. Therefore, we investigated the clinical and molecular features of these 32 patients. The current report also defined novel classes of pathological mutations, further expanding our knowledge of the MSMD molecular basis and associated clinical manifestations.

7.
J Clin Immunol ; 40(6): 807-819, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32572726

RESUMO

Down syndrome (DS) is characterized by the occurrence of three copies of human chromosome 21 (HSA21). HSA21 contains a cluster of four interferon receptor (IFN-R) genes: IFNAR1, IFNAR2, IFNGR2, and IL10RB. DS patients often develop mucocutaneous infections and autoimmune diseases, mimicking patients with heterozygous gain-of-function (GOF) STAT1 mutations, which enhance cellular responses to three types of interferon (IFN). A gene dosage effect at these four loci may contribute to the infectious and autoimmune manifestations observed in individuals with DS. We report high levels of IFN-αR1, IFN-αR2, and IFN-γR2 expression on the surface of monocytes and EBV-transformed-B (EBV-B) cells from studying 45 DS patients. Total and phosphorylated STAT1 (STAT1 and pSTAT1) levels were constitutively high in unstimulated and IFN-α- and IFN-γ-stimulated monocytes from DS patients but lower than those in patients with GOF STAT1 mutations. Following stimulation with IFN-α or -γ, but not with IL-6 or IL-21, pSTAT1 and IFN-γ activation factor (GAF) DNA-binding activities were significantly higher in the EBV-B cells of DS patients than in controls. These responses resemble the dysregulated responses observed in patients with STAT1 GOF mutations. Concentrations of plasma type I IFNs were high in 12% of the DS patients tested (1.8% in the healthy controls). Levels of type I IFNs, IFN-Rs, and STAT1 were similar in DS patients with and without recurrent skin infections. We performed a genome-wide transcriptomic analysis based on principal component analysis and interferon modules on circulating monocytes. We found that DS monocytes had levels of both IFN-α- and IFN-γ-inducible ISGs intermediate to those of monocytes from healthy controls and from patients with GOF STAT1 mutations. Unlike patients with GOF STAT1 mutations, patients with DS had normal circulating Th17 counts and a high proportion of terminally differentiated CD8+ T cells with low levels of STAT1 expression. We conclude a mild interferonopathy in Down syndrome leads to an incomplete penetrance at both cellular and clinical level, which is not correlate with recurrent skin bacterial or fungal infections. The constitutive upregulation of type I and type II IFN-R, at least in monocytes of DS patients, may contribute to the autoimmune diseases observed in these individuals.

8.
J Clin Invest ; 130(6): 3158-3171, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163377

RESUMO

Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD) is characterized by a selective predisposition to clinical disease caused by the Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine and environmental mycobacteria. The known genetic etiologies of MSMD are inborn errors of IFN-γ immunity due to mutations of 15 genes controlling the production of or response to IFN-γ. Since the first MSMD-causing mutations were reported in 1996, biallelic mutations in the genes encoding IFN-γ receptor 1 (IFN-γR1) and IFN-γR2 have been reported in many patients of diverse ancestries. Surprisingly, mutations of the gene encoding the IFN-γ cytokine itself have not been reported, raising the remote possibility that there might be other agonists of the IFN-γ receptor. We describe 2 Lebanese cousins with MSMD, living in Kuwait, who are both homozygous for a small deletion within the IFNG gene (c.354_357del), causing a frameshift that generates a premature stop codon (p.T119Ifs4*). The mutant allele is loss of expression and loss of function. We also show that the patients' herpesvirus Saimiri-immortalized T lymphocytes did not produce IFN-γ, a phenotype that can be rescued by retrotransduction with WT IFNG cDNA. The blood T and NK lymphocytes from these patients also failed to produce and secrete detectable amounts of IFN-γ. Finally, we show that human IFNG has evolved under stronger negative selection than IFNGR1 or IFNGR2, suggesting that it is less tolerant to heterozygous deleterious mutations than IFNGR1 or IFNGR2. This may account for the rarity of patients with autosomal-recessive, complete IFN-γ deficiency relative to patients with complete IFN-γR1 and IFN-γR2 deficiencies.

9.
J Clin Immunol ; 40(3): 475-493, 2020 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040803

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency characterized by an inability of phagocytes to produce reactive oxygen species, impairing their killing of various bacteria and fungi. We summarize here the 93 cases of CGD diagnosed in Mexico from 2011 to 2019. METHODS: Thirteen Mexican hospitals participated in this study. We describe the genetic, immunological, and clinical features of the 93 CGD patients from 78 unrelated kindreds. RESULTS: Eighty-two of the patients (88%) were male. All patients developed bacterial infections and 30% suffered from some kind of fungal infection. Fifty-four BCG-vaccinated patients (58%) presented infectious complications of BCG vaccine. Tuberculosis occurred in 29%. Granulomas were found in 56% of the patients. Autoimmune and inflammatory diseases were present in 15% of patients. A biological diagnosis of CGD was made in 89/93 patients, on the basis of NBT assay (n = 6), DHR (n = 27), and NBT plus DHR (n = 56). The deficiency was complete in all patients. The median age of biological diagnosis was 17 months (range, 0-186 months). A genetic diagnosis was made in 83/93 patients (when material was available), corresponding to CYBB (n = 64), NCF1 (n = 7), NCF2 (n = 7), and CYBA (n = 5) mutations. CONCLUSIONS: The clinical manifestations in these Mexican CGD patients were similar to those in patients elsewhere. This cohort is the largest in Latin America. Mycobacterial infections are an important cause of morbidity in Mexico, as in other countries in which tuberculosis is endemic and infants are vaccinated with BCG. X-linked CGD accounted for most of the cases in Mexico, as in other Latin American countries. However, a significant number of CYBA and NCF2 mutations were identified, expanding the spectrum of known causal mutations.

10.
Cells ; 9(2)2020 02 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32093117

RESUMO

Interferon γ (IFN-γ) was shown to be a macrophage activating factor already in 1984. Consistently, inborn errors of IFN-γ immunity underlie Mendelian Susceptibility to Mycobacterial Disease (MSMD). MSMD is characterized by genetic predisposition to disease caused by weakly virulent mycobacterial species. Paradoxically, macrophages from patients with MSMD were little tested. Here, we report a disease modeling platform for studying IFN-γ related pathologies using macrophages derived from patient specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). We used iPSCs from patients with autosomal recessive complete- and partial IFN-γR2 deficiency, partial IFN-γR1 deficiency and complete STAT1 deficiency. Macrophages from all patient iPSCs showed normal morphology and IFN-γ-independent functionality like phagocytic uptake of bioparticles and internalization of cytokines. For the IFN-γ-dependent functionalities, we observed that the deficiencies played out at various stages of the IFN-γ pathway, with the complete IFN-γR2 and complete STAT1 deficient cells showing the most severe phenotypes, in terms of upregulation of surface markers and induction of downstream targets. Although iPSC-derived macrophages with partial IFN-γR1 and IFN-γR2 deficiency still showed residual induction of downstream targets, they did not reduce the mycobacterial growth when challenged with Bacillus Calmette-Guérin. Taken together, we report a disease modeling platform to study the role of macrophages in patients with inborn errors of IFN-γ immunity.

11.
Hum Genet ; 139(6-7): 1001-1009, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32055999

RESUMO

The pathogenesis of tuberculosis (TB) remains poorly understood, as no more than 5-10% of individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis go on developing clinical disease. The contribution of human genetics to TB pathogenesis has been amply documented by means of classic genetics since the turn of the twentieth century. Over the last 20 years, following-up on the study of Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD), monogenic disorders have been found to underlie TB in some patients. Rare inborn errors of immunity, such as autosomal recessive, complete IL-12Rß1 and TYK2 deficiencies, impairing the IL-12- and IL-23-dependent induction of IFN-γ, were initially identified in a few patients. More recently, homozygosity for a common variant of TYK2 (P1104A) that selectively disrupts cellular responses to IL-23 was found in two cohorts of TB patients. It shows high penetrance in areas endemic for TB and appears to be responsible for about 1% of TB cases in populations of European descent. Both rare and common genetic etiologies of TB affect IFN-γ immunity, providing a rationale for novel preventive and therapeutic approaches for TB control, including the use of recombinant IFN-γ.


Assuntos
Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Heterogeneidade Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Interferon gama/imunologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/imunologia , Tuberculose/genética , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/imunologia , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/microbiologia , Homozigoto , Humanos , Receptores de Interleucina-12/genética , Receptores de Interleucina-12/imunologia , TYK2 Quinase/genética , TYK2 Quinase/imunologia , Tuberculose/imunologia , Tuberculose/microbiologia , Tuberculose/patologia
12.
N Engl J Med ; 382(5): 437-445, 2020 01 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31995689

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) can cause severe disease in children and adults with a variety of inherited or acquired T-cell immunodeficiencies, who are prone to multiple infections. It can also rarely cause disease in otherwise healthy persons. The pathogenesis of idiopathic CMV disease is unknown. Inbred mice that lack the gene encoding nitric oxide synthase 2 (Nos2) are susceptible to the related murine CMV infection. METHODS: We studied a previously healthy 51-year-old man from Iran who after acute CMV infection had an onset of progressive CMV disease that led to his death 29 months later. We hypothesized that the patient may have had a novel type of inborn error of immunity. Thus, we performed whole-exome sequencing and tested candidate mutant alleles experimentally. RESULTS: We found a homozygous frameshift mutation in NOS2 encoding a truncated NOS2 protein that did not produce nitric oxide, which determined that the patient had autosomal recessive NOS2 deficiency. Moreover, all NOS2 variants that we found in homozygosity in public databases encoded functional proteins, as did all other variants with an allele frequency greater than 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that inherited NOS2 deficiency was clinically silent in this patient until lethal infection with CMV. Moreover, NOS2 appeared to be redundant for control of other pathogens in this patient. (Funded by the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences and others.).


Assuntos
Infecções por Citomegalovirus , Mutação da Fase de Leitura , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/deficiência , Evolução Fatal , Feminino , Genótipo , Homozigoto , Humanos , Mutação com Perda de Função , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/genética , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Linhagem , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
14.
PLoS One ; 14(8): e0221081, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31415649

RESUMO

Increased prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) has been observed among high-risk populations such as healthcare workers (HCWs). The results may depend on the method of LTBI assessment, interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) and/or tuberculin skin test (TST). Here, we investigated the prevalence and risk factors for LTBI assessed by both IGRAs and TST in HCWs living in Morocco, a country with intermediate tuberculosis (TB) endemicity and high BCG vaccination coverage. HCWs were recruited in two Moroccan hospitals, Rabat and Meknes. All the participants underwent testing for LTBI by both IGRA (QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube, QFT-GIT) and TST. Different combinations of IGRA and TST results defined the LTBI status. Risk factors associated with LTBI were investigated using a mixed-effect logistic regression model. The prevalence of LTBI among 631 HCWs (age range 18-60 years) varied from 40.7% (95%CI 36.9-44.5%) with QFT-GIT to 52% (95%CI 48.2-56.0%) with TST using a 10 mm cut-off. The highest agreement between QFT-GIT and TST (κ = 0.50; 95%CI 0.43-0.56) was observed with the 10 mm cut-off for a positive TST. For a definition of LTBI status using a double positive result for both QFT-GIT and TST, significant associations were found with the following risk factors: being male (OR = 2.21; 95%CI 1.40-3.49; p = 0.0007), belonging to age groups 35-44 years (OR = 2.43; 95%CI 1.45-4.06; p = 0.0007) and even more 45-60 years (OR = 4.81; 95%CI 2.72-8.52; p = 7.10-8), having a family history of TB (OR = 6.62; 95%CI 2.59-16.94; p = 8.10-5), and working at a pulmonology unit (OR = 3.64; 95%CI 1.44-9.23; p = 0.006). Smoking was associated with LTBI status when defined by a positive QFT-GIT result (OR = 1.89; 95%CI 1.12-3.21; p = 0.02). A high prevalence of LTBI was observed among HCWs in two Moroccan hospitals. Male gender, increased age, family history of TB, and working at a pulmonology unit were consistent risk factors associated with LTBI.


Assuntos
Pessoal de Saúde , Tuberculose Latente/epidemiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Adolescente , Adulto , Vacina BCG/administração & dosagem , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Humanos , Testes de Liberação de Interferon-gama , Tuberculose Latente/diagnóstico , Tuberculose Latente/prevenção & controle , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Marrocos/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Teste Tuberculínico , Vacinação
15.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(33): 16463-16472, 2019 08 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346092

RESUMO

Heterozygous in-frame mutations in coding regions of human STAT3 underlie the only known autosomal dominant form of hyper IgE syndrome (AD HIES). About 5% of familial cases remain unexplained. The mutant proteins are loss-of-function and dominant-negative when tested following overproduction in recipient cells. However, the production of mutant proteins has not been detected and quantified in the cells of heterozygous patients. We report a deep intronic heterozygous STAT3 mutation, c.1282-89C>T, in 7 relatives with AD HIES. This mutation creates a new exon in the STAT3 complementary DNA, which, when overexpressed, generates a mutant STAT3 protein (D427ins17) that is loss-of-function and dominant-negative in terms of tyrosine phosphorylation, DNA binding, and transcriptional activity. In immortalized B cells from these patients, the D427ins17 protein was 2 kDa larger and 4-fold less abundant than wild-type STAT3, on mass spectrometry. The patients' primary B and T lymphocytes responded poorly to STAT3-dependent cytokines. These findings are reminiscent of the impaired responses of leukocytes from other patients with AD HIES due to typical STAT3 coding mutations, providing further evidence for the dominance of the mutant intronic allele. These findings highlight the importance of sequencing STAT3 introns in patients with HIES without candidate variants in coding regions and essential splice sites. They also show that AD HIES-causing STAT3 mutant alleles can be dominant-negative even if the encoded protein is produced in significantly smaller amounts than wild-type STAT3.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Síndrome de Job/genética , Sítios de Splice de RNA/genética , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Linfócitos B/metabolismo , Linfócitos B/patologia , Pré-Escolar , Éxons/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Síndrome de Job/patologia , Mutação com Perda de Função/genética , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Linfócitos T/patologia
16.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(21): 10430-10434, 2019 05 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31068474

RESUMO

The human genetic basis of tuberculosis (TB) has long remained elusive. We recently reported a high level of enrichment in homozygosity for the common TYK2 P1104A variant in a heterogeneous cohort of patients with TB from non-European countries in which TB is endemic. This variant is homozygous in ∼1/600 Europeans and ∼1/5,000 people from other countries outside East Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. We report a study of this variant in the UK Biobank cohort. The frequency of P1104A homozygotes was much higher in patients with TB (6/620, 1%) than in controls (228/114,473, 0.2%), with an odds ratio (OR) adjusted for ancestry of 5.0 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.96-10.31, P = 2 × 10-3]. Conversely, we did not observe enrichment for P1104A heterozygosity, or for TYK2 I684S or V362F homozygosity or heterozygosity. Moreover, it is unlikely that more than 10% of controls were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, as 97% were of European genetic ancestry, born between 1939 and 1970, and resided in the United Kingdom. Had all of them been infected, the OR for developing TB upon infection would be higher. These findings suggest that homozygosity for TYK2 P1104A may account for ∼1% of TB cases in Europeans.


Assuntos
TYK2 Quinase/genética , Tuberculose/genética , África ao Sul do Saara , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos de Coortes , Extremo Oriente , Feminino , Variação Genética/genética , Heterozigoto , Homozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/patogenicidade , Razão de Chances , Reino Unido
17.
Immunol Cell Biol ; 97(4): 360-367, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30264912

RESUMO

Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease (MSMD) is caused by inborn errors of IFN-γ immunity. Since 1996, disease-causing mutations have been found in 11 genes, which, through allelic heterogeneity, underlie 21 different genetic disorders. We briefly review here progress in the study of molecular, cellular and clinical aspects of MSMD since the last comprehensive review published in 2014. Highlights include the discoveries of (1) a new genetic etiology, autosomal recessive signal peptide peptidase-like 2 A deficiency, (2) TYK2-deficient patients with a clinical phenotype of MSMD, (3) an allelic form of partial recessive IFN-γR2 deficiency, and (4) two forms of syndromic MSMD: RORγ/RORγT and JAK1 deficiencies. These recent findings illustrate how genetic and immunological studies of MSMD can shed a unique light onto the mechanisms of protective immunity to mycobacteria in humans.


Assuntos
Predisposição Genética para Doença , Infecções por Mycobacterium/genética , Alelos , Loci Gênicos , Geografia , Humanos , Mutação/genética
19.
Sci Immunol ; 3(30)2018 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578351

RESUMO

Hundreds of patients with autosomal recessive, complete IL-12p40 or IL-12Rß1 deficiency have been diagnosed over the last 20 years. They typically suffer from invasive mycobacteriosis and, occasionally, from mucocutaneous candidiasis. Susceptibility to these infections is thought to be due to impairments of IL-12-dependent IFN-γ immunity and IL-23-dependent IL-17A/IL-17F immunity, respectively. We report here patients with autosomal recessive, complete IL-12Rß2 or IL-23R deficiency, lacking responses to IL-12 or IL-23 only, all of whom, unexpectedly, display mycobacteriosis without candidiasis. We show that αß T, γδ T, B, NK, ILC1, and ILC2 cells from healthy donors preferentially produce IFN-γ in response to IL-12, whereas NKT cells and MAIT cells preferentially produce IFN-γ in response to IL-23. We also show that the development of IFN-γ-producing CD4+ T cells, including, in particular, mycobacterium-specific TH1* cells (CD45RA-CCR6+), is dependent on both IL-12 and IL-23. Last, we show that IL12RB1, IL12RB2, and IL23R have similar frequencies of deleterious variants in the general population. The comparative rarity of symptomatic patients with IL-12Rß2 or IL-23R deficiency, relative to IL-12Rß1 deficiency, is, therefore, due to lower clinical penetrance. There are fewer symptomatic IL-23R- and IL-12Rß2-deficient than IL-12Rß1-deficient patients, not because these genetic disorders are rarer, but because the isolated absence of IL-12 or IL-23 is, in part, compensated by the other cytokine for the production of IFN-γ, thereby providing some protection against mycobacteria. These experiments of nature show that human IL-12 and IL-23 are both required for optimal IFN-γ-dependent immunity to mycobacteria, both individually and much more so cooperatively.


Assuntos
Imunidade Inata/imunologia , Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-12/imunologia , Interleucina-23/imunologia , Infecções por Mycobacterium não Tuberculosas/imunologia , Mycobacterium/imunologia , Humanos , Interleucina-12/deficiência , Interleucina-12/genética , Interleucina-23/deficiência , Interleucina-23/genética , Linhagem
20.
Sci Immunol ; 3(30)2018 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30578352

RESUMO

Inherited IL-12Rß1 and TYK2 deficiencies impair both IL-12- and IL-23-dependent IFN-γ immunity and are rare monogenic causes of tuberculosis, each found in less than 1/600,000 individuals. We show that homozygosity for the common TYK2 P1104A allele, which is found in about 1/600 Europeans and between 1/1000 and 1/10,000 individuals in regions other than East Asia, is more frequent in a cohort of patients with tuberculosis from endemic areas than in ethnicity-adjusted controls (P = 8.37 × 10-8; odds ratio, 89.31; 95% CI, 14.7 to 1725). Moreover, the frequency of P1104A in Europeans has decreased, from about 9% to 4.2%, over the past 4000 years, consistent with purging of this variant by endemic tuberculosis. Surprisingly, we also show that TYK2 P1104A impairs cellular responses to IL-23, but not to IFN-α, IL-10, or even IL-12, which, like IL-23, induces IFN-γ via activation of TYK2 and JAK2. Moreover, TYK2 P1104A is properly docked on cytokine receptors and can be phosphorylated by the proximal JAK, but lacks catalytic activity. Last, we show that the catalytic activity of TYK2 is essential for IL-23, but not IL-12, responses in cells expressing wild-type JAK2. In contrast, the catalytic activity of JAK2 is redundant for both IL-12 and IL-23 responses, because the catalytically inactive P1057A JAK2, which is also docked and phosphorylated, rescues signaling in cells expressing wild-type TYK2. In conclusion, homozygosity for the catalytically inactive P1104A missense variant of TYK2 selectively disrupts the induction of IFN-γ by IL-23 and is a common monogenic etiology of tuberculosis.


Assuntos
Interferon gama/imunologia , Interleucina-23/imunologia , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , TYK2 Quinase/genética , Tuberculose/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Homozigoto , Humanos , Interleucina-23/deficiência , TYK2 Quinase/imunologia
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