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1.
Scand J Clin Lab Invest ; : 1-8, 2021 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33426932

RESUMO

Reference intervals (RIs), developed as part of the Nordic Reference Interval Project 2000 (NORIP) are widely used in most European laboratories. We aimed to examine the validity of the NORIP RIs by establishing RIs for 12 frequently used laboratory tests based on data from a local Danish population and compare these local RIs with the NORIP RIs. Using an a posteriori direct sampling approach, blood sample data were assessed from 11,138 participants aged 18+ years in the Lolland-Falster Health Study (LOFUS), of whom 2154 turned out to meet criteria for being healthy for inclusion in establishing RIs according to the NORIP methodology. The 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles were calculated for alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), albumin, alkaline phosphatase, bilirubin, creatinine, hemoglobin, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, iron, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, thrombocytes, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. When comparing our estimates with the NORIP, the lower reference limits (RLs) for bilirubin and iron were lower, and higher for ALAT, thrombocytes and triglycerides. Upper RLs were lower for albumin (males and females ≥70 years), bilirubin and iron, but higher for alkaline phosphatase, triglycerides and for creatinine in men. In LOFUS, approximately 20% of the participants were healthy and qualified for inclusion in the establishment of RIs. Several of the local RIs differed from the NORIP RIs.

2.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1711, 2020 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33198690

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate prevalence and risk factors for prediabetes, undiagnosed diabetes mellitus, poorly and potentially sub-controlled diabetes in a rural-provincial general adult population in Denmark. METHODS: Using cross-sectional data from the Lolland-Falster Health Study, we examined a total of 10,895 individuals aged 20 years and above. RESULTS: Prevalence of prediabetes was 5.8% (men: 6.1%; women: 5.5%); of undiagnosed diabetes 0.8% (men: 1.0%; women: 0.5%); of poorly controlled diabetes 1.2% (men: 1.5%; women: 0.8%); and of potentially sub-controlled diabetes 2% (men: 3.0%; women: 1.3%). In total, 9.8% of all participants had a diabetes-related condition in need of intervention; men at a higher risk than women; RR 1.41 (95% CI 1.26-1.58); person aged + 60 years more than younger; RR 2.66 (95% CI 2.34-3.01); obese more than normal weight person, RR 4.51 (95% CI 3.79-5.38); smokers more than non-smokers, RR 1.38 (95% CI 1.19-1.62); persons with self-reported poor health perception more than those with good, RR 2.59 (95% CI 2.13-3.15); low leisure time physical activity more than those with high, RR 2.64 (95% CI 2.17-3.22); and persons with self-reported hypertension more than those without, RR 3.28 (95% CI 2.93-3.68). CONCLUSIONS: In the Lolland-Falster Health Study, nearly 10% of participants had prediabetes, undiagnosed diabetes, poorly controlled, or potentially sub-controlled diabetes. The risk of these conditions was more than doubled in persons with self-reported poor health perception, self-reported hypertension, low leisure time physical activity, or measured obesity, and a large proportion of people with diabetes-related conditions in need of intervention can therefore be identified relatively easily.

3.
J Hematol Oncol ; 13(1): 129, 2020 09 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32998735

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests that high-density lipoprotein (HDL) may play a role in cancer development. We tested the hypothesis that low HDL levels are associated with increased risk of cancer. METHODS: Individuals from two population-based cohorts, the Copenhagen General Population Study (2003-2015, N = 107 341), and the Copenhagen City Heart Study (1991-1994, N = 9387) were followed prospectively until end of 2016 to assess low plasma HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A1 as risk factors for cancer using Cox proportional hazard regression. RESULTS: During up to 25 years follow-up, we observed 8748 cancers in the Copenhagen General Population Study and 2164 in the Copenhagen City Heart Study. In the Copenhagen General Population Study and compared to individuals with HDL cholesterol ≥ 2.0 mmol/L (≥ 77 mg/dL), multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for any cancer were 1.13 (95% confidence interval 1.04-1.22) for individuals with HDL cholesterol of 1.5-1.99 mmol/L (58-77 mg/dL), 1.18 (1.08-1.30) for HDL cholesterol of 1.0-1.49 mmol/L (39-58 mg/dL), and 1.29 (1.12-1.48) for individuals with HDL cholesterol < 1.0 mmol/L (< 39 mg/dL). Correspondingly, compared to individuals with apolipoprotein A1 ≥ 190 mg/dL, HRs for any cancer were 1.06 (0.96-1.17) for individuals with apolipoprotein A1 of 160-189 mg/dL, 1.18 (1.07-1.30) for apolipoprotein A1 of 130-159 mg/dL, and 1.28 (1.13-1.46) for individuals with apolipoprotein A1 < 130 mg/dL. Among 27 cancer types, low HDL cholesterol and/or apolipoprotein A1 were associated with increased risk of multiple myeloma, myeloproliferative neoplasm, non-Hodgkin lymphoma, breast cancer, lung cancer, and nervous system cancer. Results were overall similar in women and men separately, and in the Copenhagen City Heart Study. CONCLUSIONS: Low HDL levels were associated with increased risk of several cancers. Increased risk was most pronounced for hematological and nervous system cancer, and to a minor extent for breast and respiratory cancer.

4.
EClinicalMedicine ; 21: 100280, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32382712

RESUMO

Background: Whether inflammation is independently associated with development of JAK2V617F mutation and myeloproliferative neoplasm is not clear. We tested the hypothesis that a loss-of-function polymorphism in IL6R (marked by rs4537545) reduces risk of JAK2V617F mutation and myeloproliferative neoplasm in a Mendelian randomization study. Methods: We genotyped 107,969 Danes from the Copenhagen General Population Study for the IL6R rs4537545 genotype, where the T-allele is associated with impaired interleukin-6 receptor signaling and reduced inflammation. JAK2V617F was examined in a subset of 49,143 individuals. We investigated the association between IL6R rs4537545 and risk of JAK2V617F using logistic regression and myeloproliferative neoplasm using Cox regression. Findings: 36,871 were non-carriers, 52,500 heterozygotes, and 18,598 homozygotes for the T-allele of the IL6R rs4537545 genotype. Among 107,969 individuals, 352 were diagnosed with myeloproliferative neoplasm, and among 49,143 individuals, 62 were JAK2V617F-positive (of these 62 individuals, 46 had myeloproliferative neoplasm diagnosed). Compared to non-carriers, age- and sex-adjusted odds ratios for risk of JAK2V617F were 0·55(95%CI:0·32-0·94) in heterozygotes, 0·51(0·24-1·12) in homozygotes, 0·54(0·33-0·89) in carriers, and 0·66(0·45-0·96) per T-allele. Compared to non-carriers, age- and sex-adjusted hazard ratios for risk of myeloproliferative neoplasm were 0·82(95% CI: 0·65-1·02) in heterozygotes, 0·65(0·47-0·91) in homozygotes, 0·77(0·63-0·96) in carriers, and 0·81(0·70-0·94) per T-allele. Associations were primarily observed for polycythaemia vera and myelofibrosis, and for JAK2V617F-positive myeloproliferative neoplasm. Interpretation: A loss-of-function polymorphism in IL6R reduces risk of JAK2V617F mutation and myeloproliferative neoplasm. This finding supports inflammation as an independent risk factor for JAK2V617F mutation and myeloproliferative neoplasm and indicates that therapeutics designed to block interleukin-6 receptor signaling might prevent or retard progression of myeloproliferative neoplasm. Funding: Karen Elise Jensen Foundation.

6.
EClinicalMedicine ; 21: 100295, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32280939

RESUMO

Background: High cardiovascular comorbidity contributes to excess mortality in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasm, while less is known about respiratory comorbidity and mortality. We tested the hypothesis that individuals with myeloproliferative neoplasm have increased risk of pneumonia and respiratory mortality. Methods: Of 249 294 invited individuals aged ≥20 from the Danish general population from 2003-2015, 107 900 participated and were included in the Copenhagen General Population Study (response-rate: 43%). We examined lung function and respiratory symptoms at baseline examination and followed individuals prospectively from baseline examination through 2018 to determine risk of pneumonia and respiratory mortality using Cox proportional hazard regression. Among 351 individuals with myeloproliferative neoplasm, 131 (37%) were diagnosed at baseline examination and 220 (63%) were diagnosed during follow-up. The follow-up cases were entered in the regression analysis by using a time-varying variable. Findings: In total, 125 (36%) individuals had essential thrombocythaemia, 124 (35%) had polycythaemia vera, and 102 (29%) had myelofibrosis/unclassifiable myeloproliferative neoplasm. During follow-up we observed 5979 pneumonias and 2278 respiratory deaths. Compared to individuals without myeloproliferative neoplasm, multivariable adjusted hazard ratios in individuals with myeloproliferative neoplasm were 2·18 (95% CI: 1·60-2·96) for pneumonia and 2·27 (1·46-3·53) for respiratory mortality. Corresponding hazard ratios were 1·26 (0·71-2·30) and 0·96 (0·31-2·94) for essential thrombocythaemia, 2·50 (1·57-3·98) and 3·58 (1·94-6·59) for polycythaemia vera, and 3·03 (1·86-4·93) and 2·40 (1·11-5·19) for myelofibrosis/unclassifiable myeloproliferative neoplasm, respectively. Results were similar in those with and without airflow limitation, and in never-smokers and ever-smokers separately. Interpretation: Individuals with myeloproliferative neoplasm had two-fold increased risk of pneumonia and respiratory mortality, mainly due to polycythaemia vera and myelofibrosis/unclassifiable myeloproliferative neoplasm. These are novel findings.

7.
CMAJ ; 192(2): E25-E33, 2020 01 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31932337

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is unknown if incidental lymphopenia detected in the general population is associated with higher all-cause and cause-specific mortality. We aimed to identify the associations between lymphopenia and all-cause and cause specific mortality. METHODS: In a prospective cohort study, we examined and followed participants enrolled in the Copenhagen General Population Study between November 2003 and April 2015. In our analysis, we modelled risks using Cox proportional hazards regression for 3 groups: participants with a lymphocyte count below the 2.5th percentile; those with a lymphocyte count at or between the 2.5th and 97.5th percentiles (reference category); and those with a lymphocyte count above the 97.5th percentile. RESULTS: The cohort included 108 135 participants with a median age of 68 years. During a median follow-up of 9 (interquartile range [IQR] 0-14) years, 10 372 participants died. We found that participants with lymphopenia (lymphocyte count < 1.1 × 109/L) compared with those with a lymphocyte count in the reference range (1.1-3.7 × 109/L) had higher mortality with multivariable adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of 1.63 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.51-1.76) for all causes, 1.67 (95% CI 1.42-1.97) for nonhematologic cancers, 2.79 (95% CI 1.82-4.28) for hematologic cancers, 1.88 (95% CI 1.61-2.20) for cardiovascular diseases, 1.88 (95% CI 1.55-2.29) for respiratory diseases, 1.86 (95% CI 1.53-2.25) for infectious diseases, and 1.50 (95% CI 1.19-1.88) for other causes. For all-cause mortality, the highest absolute 2-year risks of death were observed in women (61%) and men (75%) who smoked and were aged 80 years or older with lymphocyte counts less than 0.5 × 109/L. Participants with a lymphocyte count higher than the reference category had increased mortality (adjusted HR 1.17, 95% CI 1.04-1.31). INTERPRETATION: We found that lymphopenia was associated with an increased risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality.


Assuntos
Linfopenia/mortalidade , Idoso , Doenças Cardiovasculares/mortalidade , Causas de Morte , Doenças Transmissíveis/mortalidade , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Achados Incidentais , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Doenças Respiratórias/mortalidade , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo
8.
Tob Induc Dis ; 17: 72, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31768164

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We examined changes in smoking habits in the general population according to prevalence and incidence of chronic diseases affected by smoking. METHODS: We included 12283 individuals enrolled from 2003 in the Copenhagen General Population Study and re-examined from 2014. Participants were classified as either healthy or suffering from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma, diabetes mellitus, heart disease or stroke. RESULTS: At entry, smoking prevalence was 15.4% in healthy participants, 29.8% with COPD, 15.8% with asthma, 21.7 % with diabetes mellitus, 17.2 % with ischemic heart disease/heart failure and 18.6% in participants with previous stroke. Smoking prevalence declined during the 10 years of observation. Among healthy subjects who developed one of the above mentioned diseases during follow-up, those who developed COPD had the highest initial smoking prevalence (51.5%). Quit rates were highest in those who developed asthma resulting in smoking prevalence of 8.2% versus 27.7% in COPD. After adjustment for age, smoking severity and genotype previously associated with heavy smoking (CHRNA3 rs1051730 AA), significant predictors of quitting were new diagnosis of ischemic heart disease/heart failure (OR=2.33, 95 % CI: 1.61-3.42), new diagnosis of asthma (OR=1.84, 95% CI: 1.18-2.90) and low number of pack-years. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with prevalent smoking related diseases continued to smoke more than healthy individuals. Incident heart disease and asthma, but not incident COPD, stroke or diabetes were associated with a higher chance of quitting. Special focus on smokers with COPD, asthma, diabetes, stroke and ischemic heart disease/heart failure is warranted to decrease smoking prevalence in these groups. Smokers with a new diagnosis of diabetes, stroke and COPD need special smoking cessation support.

9.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 28(7): 1228-1237, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31263055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer mortality with relatively few prognostic biomarkers. We investigated associations with overall survival for telomere length (TL) and genetic variation in chromosome 5p15.33, an established telomere maintenance locus. METHODS: Leukocyte TL was measured after diagnosis in 807 patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) from the Princess Margaret Cancer Center in Toronto and assessed prospectively in 767 NSCLC cases from the Copenhagen City Heart Study and the Copenhagen General Population Study. Associations with all-cause mortality were tested for 723 variants in 5p15.33, genotyped in 4,672 NSCLC cases. RESULTS: Short telomeres (≤10th percentile) were associated with poor prognosis for adenocarcinoma in both populations: TL measured 6 months after diagnosis [HR = 1.65; 95% confidence intervals (CI), 1.04-2.64] and for those diagnosed within 5 years after blood sampling (HR = 2.42; 95% CI, 1.37-4.28). Short TL was associated with mortality in never smokers with NSCLC (HR = 10.29; 95% CI, 1.86-56.86) and adenocarcinoma (HR = 11.31; 95% CI, 1.96-65.24). Analyses in 5p15.33 identified statistically significant prognostic associations for rs56266421-G in LPCAT1 (HR = 1.86; 95% CI, 1.38-2.52; P = 4.5 × 10-5) in stage I-IIIA NSCLC, and for the SLC6A3 gene with OS in females with NSCLC (P = 1.6 × 10-3). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support the potential clinical utility of TL, particularly for adenocarcinoma patients, while associations in chromosome 5p15.33 warrant further exploration. IMPACT: This is the largest lung cancer study of leukocyte TL and OS, and the first to examine the impact of the timing of TL measurement. Our findings suggest that extremely short telomeres are indicative of poor prognosis in NSCLC.


Assuntos
Variação Genética/genética , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Telômero/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Risco
10.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0217398, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150433

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: While physical activity reduces risk of developing myocardial infarction (MI), it is unknown whether a history of physical activity is also protective of fatal arrhythmia and case-fatality in patients who have suffered an acute MI. METHODS: 104,801 individuals included in 2003-2014 in the Copenhagen General Population Study (CGPS), a prospective population-based study with self-reported leisure time physical activity (LTPA) in three categories measured at baseline, were followed until 2014 through national registries. The 1,517 individuals who suffered a first time MI during follow-up constituted the study population. Outcomes were fatal MI, defined as date of death same as date of MI (including out-of-hospital deaths) and 28-day fatality. Through multivariable analyses the association between baseline LTPA and outcomes were assessed adjusted for CVD risk factors. RESULTS: Of 1,517 MI events, 117 (7.7%) were fatal and another 79 (5.6%) lead to death within 28 days. Median time from baseline to MI was 3.6 years (IQR 1.7-5.8). LTPA was associated with lower risk of fatal MI with odds ratios of 0.40 (95% CI: 0.22-0.73) for light and 0.41 (0.22-0.76) for moderate/high LTPA after multivariable adjustment with sedentary LTPA as reference. Age, alcohol-intake, education and smoking were identified as other predictors for fatal MI. We found no association between LTPA and 28-day case fatality. CONCLUSIONS: Among individuals with MI, those that have engaged in any light or moderate physical activity were more likely to survive their MI. Results are consistent with effect of exercise preconditioning on risk of fatal arrhythmia.


Assuntos
Exercício Físico/fisiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/mortalidade , Infarto do Miocárdio/fisiopatologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Arritmias Cardíacas/mortalidade , Arritmias Cardíacas/fisiopatologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Atividades de Lazer , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Atividade Motora/fisiologia , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Sistema de Registros , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
11.
Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol ; 39(5): 965-977, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30866659

RESUMO

Objective- Whether tobacco smoking causally affects white and red blood cells and thrombocyte counts is unknown. Using a Mendelian randomization approach, we tested the hypothesis that smoking causes increases in these blood cell indices. Approach and Results- We included 104 607 white Danes aged 20 to 100 years from the Copenhagen General Population Study with information on blood cell indices, smoking habits, and CHRNA3 (alpha 3 nicotinic cholinergic receptor) rs1051730 genotype, where the T allele causes higher tobacco consumption; 41 759 were former smokers and 17 852 current smokers. In multivariable adjusted observational analyses and compared with never smokers, white blood cells were associated with up to 19% increases, thrombocytes with up to 4.7% increases, and red blood cell indices with up to 2.3% increases in former and current smokers. All associations were dose dependent, with tobacco consumption but for white blood cells and thrombocytes also dependent on smoking cessation time in former smokers; highest increases were for <1-year smoking cessation and lowest increases for >10-year smoking cessation. In age- and sex-adjusted genetic analyses, percent differences per T allele increase in current smokers were 1.15% (95% CI, 0.61%-1.68%) for leukocytes, 1.07% (0.38%-1.76%) for neutrophils, 1.34% (0.66%-2.02%) for lymphocytes, 1.50% (0.83%-2.18%) for monocytes, -0.60% (-1.91% to 0.74%) for eosinophils, 0.17% (-0.94% to 1.29%) for basophils, 0.38% (-0.17% to 0.93%) for thrombocytes, 0.04% (-0.14% to 0.23%) for erythrocytes, 0.34% (0.17% to 0.50%) for hematocrit, 0.26% (0.09% to 0.43%) for hemoglobin, and 0.29% (0.18% to 0.41%) for mean corpuscular volume. Conclusions- Smoking causes increased blood leukocytes, neutrophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes, as well as increased hematocrit, hemoglobin, and mean corpuscular volume. The observational smoking relationships were long term for white blood cells and short term for red blood cell indices.


Assuntos
Contagem de Eritrócitos , Contagem de Leucócitos , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Dinamarca , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Medição de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Adulto Jovem
12.
PLoS One ; 14(2): e0211745, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30730943

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Prior studies have shown that AHRR (cg05575921) hypomethylation may be a marker of smoking, lung cancer risk and potentially lung cancer survival (in some lung cancer subtypes). It is unknown if AHRR (cg05575921) hypomethylation is associated with reduced survival among lung cancer patients. METHODS: In bisulfite treated leukocyte DNA from 465 lung cancer patients from the Copenhagen prospective lung cancer study, we measured AHRR (cg05575921) methylation. 380 died during max follow-up of 4.4 years. Cox proportional hazard models were used to analyze survival as a function of AHRR (cg05575921) methylation. RESULTS: We observed the expected inverse correlation between cumulative smoking and AHRR methylation, as methylation (%) decreased (Coefficient -0.03; 95% confidence interval, -0.04- -0.02, p = 8.6x10-15) for every pack-year. Cumulative smoking > 60 pack-years was associated with reduced survival (hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval 1.48; 1.05-2.09), however, AHRR (cg05575921) methylation was not associated with survival when adjusted for sex, body mass index, smoking status, ethnicity, performance status, TNM Classification, and histology type of lung cancer. CONCLUSION: AHRR (cg05575921) methylation is linked to smoking but does not provide independent prognostic information in lung cancer patients.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/sangue , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Metilação de DNA , DNA de Neoplasias/sangue , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , Proteínas de Neoplasias/sangue , Proteínas Repressoras/sangue , Idoso , Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , DNA de Neoplasias/genética , Intervalo Livre de Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Leucócitos/patologia , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Estudos Prospectivos , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Fumar/sangue , Fumar/genética , Fumar/mortalidade , Taxa de Sobrevida
13.
Int J Epidemiol ; 48(3): 751-766, 2019 06 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30059977

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Evidence from observational studies of telomere length (TL) has been conflicting regarding its direction of association with cancer risk. We investigated the causal relevance of TL for lung and head and neck cancers using Mendelian Randomization (MR) and mediation analyses. METHODS: We developed a novel genetic instrument for TL in chromosome 5p15.33, using variants identified through deep-sequencing, that were genotyped in 2051 cancer-free subjects. Next, we conducted an MR analysis of lung (16 396 cases, 13 013 controls) and head and neck cancer (4415 cases, 5013 controls) using eight genetic instruments for TL. Lastly, the 5p15.33 instrument and distinct 5p15.33 lung cancer risk loci were evaluated using two-sample mediation analysis, to quantify their direct and indirect, telomere-mediated, effects. RESULTS: The multi-allelic 5p15.33 instrument explained 1.49-2.00% of TL variation in our data (p = 2.6 × 10-9). The MR analysis estimated that a 1000 base-pair increase in TL increases risk of lung cancer [odds ratio (OR) = 1.41, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.20-1.65] and lung adenocarcinoma (OR = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.51-2.22), but not squamous lung carcinoma (OR = 1.04, 95% CI: 0.83-1.29) or head and neck cancers (OR = 0.90, 95% CI: 0.70-1.05). Mediation analysis of the 5p15.33 instrument indicated an absence of direct effects on lung cancer risk (OR = 1.00, 95% CI: 0.95-1.04). Analysis of distinct 5p15.33 susceptibility variants estimated that TL mediates up to 40% of the observed associations with lung cancer risk. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support a causal role for long telomeres in lung cancer aetiology, particularly for adenocarcinoma, and demonstrate that telomere maintenance partially mediates the lung cancer susceptibility conferred by 5p15.33 loci.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Leucócitos/metabolismo , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas de Cabeça e Pescoço/epidemiologia , Homeostase do Telômero/genética , Telômero/metabolismo , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Cromossomos Humanos Par 5/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
J Clin Pathol ; 72(2): 172-176, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30514740

RESUMO

AIMS: The JAK2 V617F mutation is highly recurrent in many of the myeloproliferative neoplasms, a molecular variant that can be easily detected using sensitive and minimally invasive techniques. Given the ease of JAK2 V617F testing, this test may be improperly requested for the purposes of patient 'screening' and to optimise laboratory resource utilisation, it behooves clinicians and laboratorians to perform JAK2 V617F testing only when most appropriate. METHODS: To assist with the screening of patients being considered for JAK2 V617F testing, we developed a clinical decision rule, "JAK2-tree", which can be easily applied to basic CBC parameters (haemoglobin, platelet and white blood cell counts). RESULTS: We tested JAK2-tree on two independent datasets, one an unselected population-based sample (the Copenhagen General Population Study) and the other an historical clinical laboratory referral set, with sensitivities for JAK2 V617F detection of 91% and 94%, respectively. As applied to the historical laboratory referral dataset, moreover, the JAK2-tree algorithm would have reduced JAK2 V617F testing volume over the period of evaluation by 15%. CONCLUSIONS: Our work supports a simple decision-tree-based screening approach to optimize the selection of patients most appropriate for JAK2 V617F testing.


Assuntos
Contagem de Células Sanguíneas , Análise Mutacional de DNA/normas , Árvores de Decisões , Janus Quinase 2/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/diagnóstico , Transtornos Mieloproliferativos/genética , Adulto Jovem
15.
PLoS Med ; 15(11): e1002685, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30383787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Neutropenia increases the risk of infection, but it is unknown if this also applies to lymphopenia. We therefore tested the hypotheses that lymphopenia is associated with increased risk of infection and infection-related death in the general population. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Of the invited 220,424 individuals, 99,191 attended examination. We analyzed 98,344 individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study (Denmark), examined from November 25, 2003, to July 9, 2013, and with available blood lymphocyte count at date of examination. During a median of 6 years of follow-up, they developed 8,401 infections and experienced 1,045 infection-related deaths. Due to the completeness of the Danish civil and health registries, none of the 98,344 individuals were lost to follow-up, and those emigrating (n = 385) or dying (n = 5,636) had their follow-up truncated at the day of emigration or death. At date of examination, mean age was 58 years, and 44,181 (44.9%) were men. Individuals with lymphopenia (lymphocyte count < 1.1 × 109/l, n = 2,352) compared to those with lymphocytes in the reference range (1.1-3.7 × 109/l, n = 93,538) had multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios of 1.41 (95% CI 1.28-1.56) for any infection, 1.31 (1.14-1.52) for pneumonia, 1.44 (1.15-1.79) for skin infection, 1.26 (1.02-1.56) for urinary tract infection, 1.51 (1.21-1.89) for sepsis, 1.38 (1.01-1.88) for diarrheal disease, 2.15 (1.16-3.98) for endocarditis, and 2.26 (1.21-4.24) for other infections. The corresponding hazard ratio for infection-related death was 1.70 (95% CI 1.37-2.10). Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, smoking status, cumulative smoking, alcohol intake, body mass index, plasma C-reactive protein, blood neutrophil count, recent infection, Charlson comorbidity index, autoimmune diseases, medication use, and immunodeficiency/hematologic disease. The findings were robust in all stratified analyses and also when including only events later than 2 years after first examination. However, due to the observational design, the study cannot address questions of causality, and our analyses might theoretically have been affected by residual confounding and reverse causation. In principle, fluctuating lymphocyte counts over time might also have influenced analyses, but lymphocyte counts in 5,181 individuals measured 10 years after first examination showed a regression dilution ratio of 0.68. CONCLUSIONS: Lymphopenia was associated with increased risk of hospitalization with infection and increased risk of infection-related death in the general population. Notably, causality cannot be deduced from our data.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Linfopenia/epidemiologia , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causas de Morte , Doenças Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Transmissíveis/mortalidade , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Linfopenia/diagnóstico , Linfopenia/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Fatores de Tempo , Adulto Jovem
16.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3927, 2018 09 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30254314

RESUMO

Lung cancer has several genetic associations identified within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC); although the basis for these associations remains elusive. Here, we analyze MHC genetic variation among 26,044 lung cancer patients and 20,836 controls densely genotyped across the MHC, using the Illumina Illumina OncoArray or Illumina 660W SNP microarray. We impute sequence variation in classical HLA genes, fine-map MHC associations for lung cancer risk with major histologies and compare results between ethnicities. Independent and novel associations within HLA genes are identified in Europeans including amino acids in the HLA-B*0801 peptide binding groove and an independent HLA-DQB1*06 loci group. In Asians, associations are driven by two independent HLA allele sets that both increase risk in HLA-DQB1*0401 and HLA-DRB1*0701; the latter better represented by the amino acid Ala-104. These results implicate several HLA-tumor peptide interactions as the major MHC factor modulating lung cancer susceptibility.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Complexo Principal de Histocompatibilidade/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Asiático/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Predisposição Genética para Doença/etnologia , Genótipo , Antígenos HLA/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/etnologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Peptídeos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
17.
Br J Psychiatry ; 210(1): 31-38, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27810892

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Depression has been cross-sectionally associated with short telomeres as a measure of biological age. However, the direction and nature of the association is currently unclear. AIMS: We examined whether short telomere length is associated with depression cross-sectionally as well as prospectively and genetically. METHOD: Telomere length and three polymorphisms, TERT, TERC and OBFC1, were measured in 67 306 individuals aged 20-100 years from the Danish general population and associated with register-based attendance at hospital for depression and purchase of antidepressant medication. RESULTS: Attendance at hospital for depression was associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally, but not prospectively. Further, purchase of antidepressant medication was not associated with short telomere length cross-sectionally or prospectively. Mean follow-up was 7.6 years (range 0.0-21.5). The genetic analyses suggested that telomere length was not causally associated with attendance at hospital for depression or with purchase of antidepressant medication. CONCLUSIONS: Short telomeres were not associated with depression in prospective or in causal, genetic analyses.


Assuntos
Depressão/genética , Transtorno Depressivo/genética , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Sistema de Registros , Encurtamento do Telômero/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos Transversais , Dinamarca , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Prospectivos , Adulto Jovem
18.
Epidemiology ; 26(3): 353-61, 2015 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25695354

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol consumption, increased body mass index (BMI), and hormone therapy are risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer, but their combined effects are not well understood. Because hormone therapy is effective for the relief of menopausal symptoms, the identification of "high-risk" users is important for therapeutic reasons. We investigated interactions between hormone therapy use and alcohol-use/high BMI status in relation to invasive breast cancer risk, both overall and according to estrogen receptor (ER) status. METHODS: Two Danish prospective cohorts were pooled, including 30,789 women ages 50+ years (study period 1981 to 2009). Information on risk factors was obtained in baseline questionnaires. We performed analyses using the Aalen additive hazards model. Serum estradiol and testosterone measurements were obtained in a subsample of approximately 1000 women. RESULTS: During 392,938 person-years of follow-up, 1579 women developed invasive breast cancer. Among nonusers of hormone therapy, the risk of breast cancer was slightly increased with overweight/obesity and increasing alcohol consumption. Compared with normal-weight nonusers, the risk of breast cancer was higher in hormone therapy users across all BMI strata (P for interaction = 0.003). A markedly higher risk of breast cancer was also observed for alcohol combined with hormone therapy use compared with abstinent nonusers (P for interaction = 0.02). These effects were primarily restricted to ER-positive cases. Combined effects of hormone therapy/high BMI and hormone therapy/alcohol on serum estradiol and testosterone supported the hypothesis of a hormonal pathway linking these exposures to breast cancer. CONCLUSION: These analyses suggest an increased risk of breast cancer associated with hormone therapy use-a risk that may be particularly strong among women consuming alcohol.


Assuntos
Consumo de Bebidas Alcoólicas/efeitos adversos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Terapia de Reposição de Estrogênios/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias da Mama/induzido quimicamente , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Estradiol/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Obesidade/complicações , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Inquéritos e Questionários , Testosterona/sangue
19.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 34(2): 178-83, 2010 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20117066

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: CYP2C9 enzymes are important in the metabolism of procarcinogenic chemicals such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) found in tobacco smoke. Two functional variants in the CYP2C9 gene (CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3) are known to be associated with decreased enzyme activity towards tolbutamide and warfarin, while this has not been investigated for PAHs. We hypothesised that these two variants in the CYP2C9 gene influence risk of tobacco-related cancer. METHODS: In a prospective study of the general population (n=10 392) with 60 years of follow-up, the Copenhagen City Heart Study, we associated two variants of CYP2C9 (CYP2C9*2 and CYP2C9*3) with risk of tobacco-related cancer and all cancer. All results were re-tested in a cross-sectional study of the general population (n=36 856), the Copenhagen General Population Study. RESULTS: We found no association between any of the CYP2C9 genotypes and risk of tobacco-related cancer, individual tobacco-related cancers, or all cancer. For the combined carriers (any CYP2C9*2 or CYP2C9*3 heterozygotes or homozygotes) vs. non-carriers we had 90% statistical power to exclude measures of relative risks below/above 0.8/1.2 and 0.9/1.1 in the Copenhagen City Heart Study and below/above 0.8/1.3 and 0.9/1.1 in the Copenhagen General Population Study for tobacco-related cancer and all cancer, respectively. CONCLUSION: Genetic variations in CYP2C9 do not affect risk of tobacco-related cancers.


Assuntos
Hidrocarboneto de Aril Hidroxilases/genética , Neoplasias/genética , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Idoso , Hidrocarboneto de Aril Hidroxilases/metabolismo , Cocarcinogênese , Estudos de Coortes , Citocromo P-450 CYP2C9 , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias/enzimologia , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Polimorfismo Genético , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Estudos Prospectivos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Fumar/genética , Fumar/metabolismo
20.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 18(8): 2339-42, 2009 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19661094

RESUMO

PURPOSE: BRCA1 and BRCA2 are key tumor suppressors with a role in cellular DNA repair, genomic stability, and checkpoint control. Mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 often cause hereditary breast and ovarian cancer; however, missense polymorphisms in these genes pose a problem in genetic counseling, as their impact on risk of breast and ovarian cancer is unclear. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We resequenced BRCA1 and BRCA2 in 194 women with a familial history of breast and/or ovarian cancer and identified nine possibly biologically relevant polymorphisms (BRCA1 Gln356Arg, Pro871Leu, Glu1038Gly, Ser1613Gly, and Met1652Ile. BRCA2 Asn289His, Asn372His, Asp1420Tyr, and Thr1915Met). [corrected] We evaluated risk of breast and/or ovarian cancer by these polymorphisms in a prospective study of 5,743 women from the general population followed for 39 years and in a case-control study of 1,201 breast cancer cases and 4,120 controls. RESULTS: We found no association between heterozygosity or homozygosity for any of the nine polymorphisms and risk of breast and/or ovarian cancer in either study. We had 80% power to exclude hazard/odds ratios for heterozygotes and/or homozygotes for all nine missense polymorphisms above 1.3 to 3.3 in the prospective study, and above 1.2 to 3.2 in the case-control study. CONCLUSIONS: Heterozygosity and homozygosity of any of the examined nine BRCA1 and BRCA2 missense polymorphisms cannot explain the increased risk of breast and/or ovarian cancer observed in families with hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer. Therefore, genetic counseling of such families safely can disregard findings of these missense polymorphisms.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Ovarianas/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Fatores de Risco
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