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1.
Brain ; 2019 Nov 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31724729

RESUMO

The genetic basis and human-specific character of schizophrenia has led to the hypothesis that human brain evolution may have played a role in the development of the disorder. We examined schizophrenia-related changes in brain connectivity in the context of evolutionary changes in human brain wiring by comparing in vivo neuroimaging data from humans and chimpanzees, one of our closest living evolutionary relatives and a species with which we share a very recent common ancestor. We contrasted the connectome layout between the chimpanzee and human brain and compared differences with the pattern of schizophrenia-related changes in brain connectivity as observed in patients. We show evidence of evolutionary modifications of human brain connectivity to significantly overlap with the cortical pattern of schizophrenia-related dysconnectivity (P < 0.001, permutation testing). We validated these effects in three additional, independent schizophrenia datasets. We further assessed the specificity of effects by examining brain dysconnectivity patterns in seven other psychiatric and neurological brain disorders (including, among others, major depressive disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder, arguably characterized by behavioural symptoms that are less specific to humans), which showed no such associations with modifications of human brain connectivity. Comparisons of brain connectivity across humans, chimpanzee and macaques further suggest that features of connectivity that evolved in the human lineage showed the strongest association to the disorder, that is, brain circuits potentially related to human evolutionary specializations. Taken together, our findings suggest that human-specific features of connectome organization may be enriched for changes in brain connectivity related to schizophrenia. Modifications in human brain connectivity in service of higher order brain functions may have potentially also rendered the brain vulnerable to brain dysfunction.

2.
Psychol Med ; : 1-12, 2019 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589133

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a highly heritable mood disorder with complex genetic architecture and poorly understood etiology. Previous transcriptomic BD studies have had inconsistent findings due to issues such as small sample sizes and difficulty in adequately accounting for confounders like medication use. METHODS: We performed a differential expression analysis in a well-characterized BD case-control sample (Nsubjects = 480) by RNA sequencing of whole blood. We further performed co-expression network analysis, functional enrichment, and cell type decomposition, and integrated differentially expressed genes with genetic risk. RESULTS: While we observed widespread differential gene expression patterns between affected and unaffected individuals, these effects were largely linked to lithium treatment at the time of blood draw (FDR < 0.05, Ngenes = 976) rather than BD diagnosis itself (FDR < 0.05, Ngenes = 6). These lithium-associated genes were enriched for cell signaling and immune response functional annotations, among others, and were associated with neutrophil cell-type proportions, which were elevated in lithium users. Neither genes with altered expression in cases nor in lithium users were enriched for BD, schizophrenia, and depression genetic risk based on information from genome-wide association studies, nor was gene expression associated with polygenic risk scores for BD. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that BD is associated with minimal changes in whole blood gene expression independent of medication use but emphasize the importance of accounting for medication use and cell type heterogeneity in psychiatric transcriptomic studies. The results of this study add to mounting evidence of lithium's cell signaling and immune-related mechanisms.

3.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31645664

RESUMO

Epigenetic mechanisms play a role in the detrimental effects of traumatic stress and the development of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, it is unknown whether successful treatment of PTSD restores these epigenetic marks. This study investigated longitudinal changes of blood-based genome-wide DNA methylation levels in relation to trauma-focused psychotherapy for PTSD in soldiers that obtained remission (N = 21), non-remitted PTSD patients (N = 23), and trauma-exposed military controls (N = 23). In an independent prospective cohort, we then examined whether these DMRs were also relevant for the development of deployment-related PTSD (N = 85). Successful treatment of PTSD was accompanied by significant changes in DNA methylation at 12 differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in the genes: APOB, MUC4, EDN2, ZFP57, GPX6, CFAP45, AFF3, TP73, UBCLP1, RPL13P, and two intergenic regions (p values < 0.0001 were confirmed using permutation and sensitivity analyses). Of the 12 DMRs related to PTSD symptom reduction, consistent prospective evidence was found for ZFP57 methylation changes related to changing PTSD symptoms (B = -0.84, t = -2.49, p = 0.014). Increasing ZFP57 methylation related to PTSD symptom reduction was present over and above the relation with symptoms, suggesting that psychological treatments exert biological effects independent of symptom reduction. Together, these data provide longitudinal evidence that ZFP57 methylation is involved in both the development and successful treatment of deployment-related PTSD. This study is a first step to disentangle the interaction between psychological and biological systems to identify genomic regions relevant for the etiology and treatment of stress-related disorders such as PTSD.

4.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4558, 2019 Oct 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31594949

RESUMO

The risk of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following trauma is heritable, but robust common variants have yet to be identified. In a multi-ethnic cohort including over 30,000 PTSD cases and 170,000 controls we conduct a genome-wide association study of PTSD. We demonstrate SNP-based heritability estimates of 5-20%, varying by sex. Three genome-wide significant loci are identified, 2 in European and 1 in African-ancestry analyses. Analyses stratified by sex implicate 3 additional loci in men. Along with other novel genes and non-coding RNAs, a Parkinson's disease gene involved in dopamine regulation, PARK2, is associated with PTSD. Finally, we demonstrate that polygenic risk for PTSD is significantly predictive of re-experiencing symptoms in the Million Veteran Program dataset, although specific loci did not replicate. These results demonstrate the role of genetic variation in the biology of risk for PTSD and highlight the necessity of conducting sex-stratified analyses and expanding GWAS beyond European ancestry populations.

5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606302

RESUMO

Exposure to traumatic stress increases the odds of developing a broad range of psychiatric conditions. Genetic studies targeting multiple stress-related quantitative phenotypes may shed light on mechanisms underlying vulnerability to psychopathology in the aftermath of stressful events. We applied a multivariate genome-wide association study (GWAS) to a unique military cohort (N = 583) in which we measured biochemical and behavioral phenotypes. The availability of pre- and post-deployment measurements allowed to capture changes in these phenotypes in response to stress. For genome-wide significant loci, we performed functional annotation, phenome-wide analysis and quasi-replication in PTSD case-control GWASs. We discovered one genetic variant reaching genome-wide significant association, surviving permutation and sensitivity analyses (rs10100651, p = 9.9 × 10-9). Functional annotation prioritized the genes INTS8 and TP53INP1. A phenome-wide scan revealed a significant association of these same genes with sleeping problems, hypertension and subjective well-being. Finally, a targeted lookup revealed nominally significant association of rs10100651 in a PTSD case-control GWAS in the UK Biobank (p = 0.02). We provide comprehensive evidence from multiple resources hinting at a role of the highlighted genetic variant in the human stress response, marking the power of multivariate genome-wide analysis of quantitative measures in stress research. Future genetic and functional studies can target this locus to further assess its effects on stress mediation and its possible role in psychopathology or resilience.

6.
Nat Hum Behav ; 3(9): 988-998, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31384023

RESUMO

Macroscale white matter pathways are the infrastructure for large-scale communication in the human brain and a prerequisite for healthy brain function. Disruptions in the brain's connectivity architecture play an important role in many psychiatric and neurological brain disorders. Here we show that connections important for global communication and network integration are particularly vulnerable to brain alterations across multiple brain disorders. We report on a cross-disorder connectome study comprising in total 1,033 patients and 1,154 matched controls across 8 psychiatric and 4 neurological disorders. We extracted disorder connectome fingerprints for each of these 12 disorders and combined them into a 'cross-disorder disconnectivity involvement map' describing the level of cross-disorder involvement of each white matter pathway of the human brain network. Network analysis revealed connections central to global network communication and integration to display high disturbance across disorders, suggesting a general cross-disorder involvement and the importance of these pathways in normal function.

7.
Bipolar Disord ; 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449716

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical utility of two staging models for bipolar disorder by examining distribution, correlation, and the relationship to external criteria. These are primarily defined by the recurrence of mood episodes (model A), or by intra-episodic functioning (model B). METHODS: In the Dutch Bipolar Cohort, stages according to models A and B were assigned to all patients with bipolar-I-disorder (BD-I; N = 1396). The dispersion of subjects over the stages was assessed and the association between the two models calculated. For both models, change in several clinical markers were concordant with the stage was investigated. RESULTS: Staging was possible in 87% of subjects for model A and 75% for model B. For model A, 1079 participants (93%) were assigned to stage 3c (recurrent episodes). Subdividing stage 3c with cut-offs at 5 and 10 episodes resulted in subgroups containing 242, 510, and 327 subjects. For model B, most participants were assigned to stage II (intra-episodic symptoms, N = 431 (41%)) or stage III (inability to work, N = 451 (43%)). A low association between models was found. For both models, the clinical markers "age at onset," "treatment resistance," and "episode acceleration" changed concordant with the stages. CONCLUSION: The majority of patients with BD-I clustered in recurrent stage 3 of Model A. Model B showed a larger dispersion. The stepwise change in several clinical markers supports the construct validity of both models. Combining the two staging models and sub-differentiating the recurrent stage into categories with cut-offs at 5 and 10 lifetime episodes improves the clinical utility of staging for individual patients.

9.
Psychoneuroendocrinology ; 106: 293-311, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31154264

RESUMO

Aging is associated with complex biological changes that can be accelerated, slowed, or even temporarily reversed by biological and non-biological factors. This article focuses on the link between biological aging, psychological stressors, and mental illness. Rather than comprehensively reviewing this rapidly expanding field, we highlight challenges in this area of research and propose potential strategies to accelerate progress in this field. This effort requires the interaction of scientists across disciplines - including biology, psychiatry, psychology, and epidemiology; and across levels of analysis that emphasize different outcome measures - functional capacity, physiological, cellular, and molecular. Dialogues across disciplines and levels of analysis naturally lead to new opportunities for discovery but also to stimulating challenges. Some important challenges consist of 1) establishing the best objective and predictive biological age indicators or combinations of indicators, 2) identifying the basis for inter-individual differences in the rate of biological aging, and 3) examining to what extent interventions can delay, halt or temporarily reverse aging trajectories. Discovering how psychological states influence biological aging, and vice versa, has the potential to create novel and exciting opportunities for healthcare and possibly yield insights into the fundamental mechanisms that drive human aging.

10.
Nat Neurosci ; 22(7): 1196, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31168101

RESUMO

Several occurrences of the word 'schizophrenia' have been re-worded as 'liability to schizophrenia' or 'schizophrenia risk', including in the title, which should have been "GWAS of lifetime cannabis use reveals new risk loci, genetic overlap with psychiatric traits, and a causal effect of schizophrenia liability," as well as in Supplementary Figures 1-10 and Supplementary Tables 7-10, to more accurately reflect the findings of the work.

11.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 103: 150-162, 2019 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31163205

RESUMO

Bipolar disorder (BD) is a complex neurobiological disease. It is likely that both neurons and glial cells are affected in BD, yet how these cell types are changed at the structural and functional level is still largely unknown. In this review we provide an overview of postmortem studies analyzing structural cellular changes in BD, including the density, number and size of neurons and glia. We categorize the results per cell-type and validate outcome measures per brain region. Despite variations by brain region, outcome measure and methodology, several patterns could be identified. Total neuron, total glia, and cell subtypes astrocyte, microglia and oligodendrocyte presence appears unchanged in the BD brain. Interneuron density may be decreased across various cortical areas, yet findings of interneuron subpopulations show discrepancies. This structural review brings to light issues in validation and replication. Future research should therefore prioritize the validation of existing studies in order to increasingly refine the conceptual models of BD.

12.
Clin Epigenetics ; 11(1): 80, 2019 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31097004

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation has recently been identified as a mediator between in utero famine exposure and a range of metabolic and psychiatric traits. However, genome-wide analyses are scarce and cross-sectional analyses are hampered by many potential confounding factors. Moreover, causal relations are hard to identify due to the lack of controlled experimental designs. In the current study, we therefore combined a comprehensive assessment of genome-wide DNA methylation differences in people exposed to the great Chinese famine in utero with an in vitro study in which we deprived fibroblasts of nutrition. METHODS: We compared whole blood DNA methylation differences between 25 individuals in utero exposed to famine and 54 healthy control individuals using the HumanMethylation450 platform. In vitro, we analyzed DNA methylation changes in 10 fibroblast cultures that were nutritionally deprived for 72 h by withholding fetal bovine serum. RESULTS: We identified three differentially methylated regions (DMRs) in four genes (ENO2, ZNF226, CCDC51, and TMA7) that were related to famine exposure in both analyses. Pathway analysis with data from both Chinese famine samples and fibroblasts highlighted the nervous system and neurogenesis pathways as the most affected by nutritional deprivation. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of cross-sectional and experimental data provides indications that biological adaptation to famine leads to DNA methylation changes in genes involved in the central nervous system.

13.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142820

RESUMO

Disruption of persistent, stress-associated memories is relevant for treating posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and related syndromes, which develop in a subset of individuals following a traumatic event. We previously developed a stress-enhanced fear learning (SEFL) paradigm in inbred mice that produces PTSD-like characteristics in a subset of mice, including persistently enhanced memory and heightened cFos in the basolateral amygdala complex (BLC) with retrieval of the remote (30-day-old) stress memory. Here, the contribution of BLC microRNAs (miRNAs) to stress-enhanced memory was investigated because of the molecular complexity they achieve through their ability to regulate multiple targets simultaneously. We performed small-RNA sequencing (smRNA-Seq) and quantitative proteomics on BLC tissue collected from mice 1 month after SEFL and identified persistently changed microRNAs, including mir-135b-5p, and proteins associated with PTSD-like heightened fear expression. Viral-mediated overexpression of mir-135b-5p in the BLC of stress-resilient animals enhanced remote fear memory expression and promoted spontaneous renewal 14 days after extinction. Conversely, inhibition of BLC mir-135b-5p in stress-susceptible animals had the opposite effect, promoting a resilient-like phenotype. mir-135b-5p is highly conserved across mammals and was detected in post mortem human amygdala, as well as human serum samples. The mir-135b passenger strand, mir-135b-3p, was significantly elevated in serum from PTSD military veterans, relative to combat-exposed control subjects. Thus, miR-135b-5p may be an important therapeutic target for dampening persistent, stress-enhanced memory and its passenger strand a potential biomarker for responsivity to a mir-135-based therapeutic.

14.
Schizophr Res ; 2019 May 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31130400

RESUMO

A role for immune processes in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia has been suggested by genetic and epidemiological studies, as well as cross-sectional studies on blood and brain samples. However, results are heterogeneous, which is likely caused by low samples sizes, insufficient control of confounders that influence immune processes, and potentially publication bias. Large hypothesis-free 'omic' studies partially circumvent these problems and could provide further evidence for a role of immune pathways in schizophrenia. In this review we assessed whether the largest genome, transcriptome and methylome studies in schizophrenia to date support a link with the immune system. We constructed an overview of the schizophrenia-associated genes and transcripts that were identified in these large 'omic' studies. We then performed a hypothesis-driven analysis to examine the association and enrichment of immune system-related genes and transcripts in these datasets. Additionally, we reviewed secondary analyses that were previously performed on these 'omic' studies. Except for the link between complement factor 4 (C4), we found limited evidence for a role of microglia and immune processes among genetic risk variants. Transcriptome and methylome studies point towards alterations in immune system related genes, pathways and cells. This includes changes in microglia, as well as complement, nuclear factor-κB, toll-like receptor and interferon signaling pathways. Many of these associated immune-related genes and pathways have been shown to be involved in neurodevelopment and neuronal functioning. Additional replication of these findings is needed, but once further conformation is provided, these findings could be a potentially interesting target for future therapies.

15.
Nat Genet ; 51(5): 793-803, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043756

RESUMO

Bipolar disorder is a highly heritable psychiatric disorder. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) including 20,352 cases and 31,358 controls of European descent, with follow-up analysis of 822 variants with P < 1 × 10-4 in an additional 9,412 cases and 137,760 controls. Eight of the 19 variants that were genome-wide significant (P < 5 × 10-8) in the discovery GWAS were not genome-wide significant in the combined analysis, consistent with small effect sizes and limited power but also with genetic heterogeneity. In the combined analysis, 30 loci were genome-wide significant, including 20 newly identified loci. The significant loci contain genes encoding ion channels, neurotransmitter transporters and synaptic components. Pathway analysis revealed nine significantly enriched gene sets, including regulation of insulin secretion and endocannabinoid signaling. Bipolar I disorder is strongly genetically correlated with schizophrenia, driven by psychosis, whereas bipolar II disorder is more strongly correlated with major depressive disorder. These findings address key clinical questions and provide potential biological mechanisms for bipolar disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Loci Gênicos , Transtorno Bipolar/classificação , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transtornos Psicóticos/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Biologia de Sistemas
16.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 29(6): 766-776, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975584

RESUMO

Cannabis produces a broad range of acute, dose-dependent psychotropic effects. Only a limited number of neuroimaging studies have mapped these effects by examining the impact of cannabis on resting state brain neurophysiology. Moreover, how genetic variation influences the acute effects of cannabis on resting state brain function is unknown. Here we investigated the acute effects of ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, on resting state brain neurophysiology, and their modulation by catechol-methyl-transferase (COMT) Val158Met genotype. Thirty-nine healthy volunteers participated in a pharmacological MRI study, where we applied Arterial Spin Labelling (ASL) to measure perfusion and functional MRI to assess resting state connectivity. THC increased perfusion in bilateral insula, medial superior frontal cortex, and left middle orbital frontal gyrus. This latter brain area showed significantly decreased connectivity with the precuneus after THC administration. THC effects on perfusion in the left insula were significantly related to subjective changes in perception and relaxation. These findings indicate that THC enhances metabolism and thus neural activity in the salience network. Furthermore, results suggest that recruitment of brain areas within this network is involved in the acute effects of THC. Resting state perfusion was modulated by COMT genotype, indicated by a significant interaction effect between drug and genotype on perfusion in the executive network, with increased perfusion after THC in Val/Met heterozygotes only. This finding suggests that prefrontal dopamine levels are involved in the susceptibility to acute effects of cannabis.

17.
Mol Psychiatry ; 2019 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30867562

RESUMO

Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is the most effective treatment for depression, yet its working mechanism remains unclear. In the animal analog of ECT, neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus is observed. In humans, volume increase of the hippocampus has been reported, but accurately measuring the volume of subfields is limited with common MRI protocols. If the volume increase of the hippocampus in humans is attributable to neurogenesis, it is expected to be exclusively present in the DG, whereas other processes (angiogenesis, synaptogenesis) also affect other subfields. Therefore, we acquired an optimized MRI scan at 7-tesla field strength allowing sensitive investigation of hippocampal subfields. A further increase in sensitivity of the within-subjects measurements is gained by automatic placement of the field of view. Patients receive two MRI scans: at baseline and after ten bilateral ECT sessions (corresponding to a 5-week interval). Matched controls are also scanned twice, with a similar 5-week interval. A total of 31 participants (23 patients, 8 controls) completed the study. A large and significant increase in DG volume was observed after ECT (M = 75.44 mm3, std error = 9.65, p < 0.001), while other hippocampal subfields were unaffected. We note that possible type II errors may be present due to the small sample size. In controls no changes in volume were found. Furthermore, an increase in DG volume was related to a decrease in depression scores, and baseline DG volume predicted clinical response. These findings suggest that the volume change of the DG is related to the antidepressant properties of ECT, and may reflect neurogenesis.

18.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 29(5): 643-652, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30879928

RESUMO

The relation of heavy cannabis use with decreased neuropsychological function has frequently been described but the underlying biological mechanisms are still largely unknown. This study investigates the relation of cannabis use with genome wide gene expression and subsequently examines the relations with neuropsychological function. Genome-wide gene expression in whole blood was compared between heavy cannabis users (N = 90) and cannabis naïve participants (N = 100) that were matched for psychotic like experiences. The results were validated using quantitative real-time PCR. Psychotic like experiences were assessed using the Comprehensive Assessment of Psychotic Experiences (CAPE). Neuropsychological function was estimated using four subtasks of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS). Subsequent in vitro studies in monocytes and a neuroblastoma cell line investigated expression changes in response to two major psychotropic components of cannabis; tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). mRNA expression of Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase Receptor Type F Polypeptide-Interacting-Protein Alpha-2 (PPFIA2) was significantly higher in cannabis users (LogFold Change 0.17) and confirmed by qPCR analysis. PPFIA2 expression level was negatively correlated with estimated intelligence (B=-22.9, p = 0.002) also in the 100 non-users (B=-28.5, p = 0.037). In vitro exposure of monocytes to CBD led to significant increase in PPFIA2 expression. However, exposure of monocytes to THC and neuroblastoma cells to THC or CBD did not change PPFIA2 expression. Change in PPFIA2 gene expression in response to cannabinoids is a putative mechanism by which cannabis could influence neuropsychological functions. The findings warrant further exploration of the role of PPFIA2 in cannabis induced changes of neuropsychological function, particularly in relation to CBD.

19.
Eur Neuropsychopharmacol ; 29(3): 405-415, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30773389

RESUMO

Exposure to trauma strongly increases the risk to develop stress-related psychopathology, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or major depressive disorder (MDD). In addition, liability to develop these moderately heritable disorders is partly determined by common genetic variance, which is starting to be uncovered by genome-wide association studies (GWASs). However, it is currently unknown to what extent genetic vulnerability and trauma interact. We investigated whether genetic risk based on summary statistics of large GWASs for PTSD and MDD predisposed individuals to report an increase in MDD and PTSD symptoms in a prospective military cohort (N = 516) at five time points after deployment to Afghanistan: one month, six months and one, two and five years. Linear regression was used to analyze the contribution of polygenic risk scores (PRSs, at multiple p-value thresholds) and their interaction with deployment-related trauma to the development of PTSD- and depression-related symptoms. We found no main effects of PRSs nor evidence for interactions with trauma on the development of PTSD or depressive symptoms at any of the time points in the five years after military deployment. Our results based on a unique long-term follow-up of a deployed military cohort suggest limited validity of current PTSD and MDD polygenic risk scores, albeit in the presence of minimal severe psychopathology in the target cohort. Even though the predictive value of PRSs will likely benefit from larger sample sizes in discovery and target datasets, progress will probably also depend on (endo)phenotype refinement that in turn will reduce etiological heterogeneity.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Transtornos de Estresse Pós-Traumáticos/genética , Adulto , Campanha Afegã de 2001- , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Masculino , Metanálise como Assunto , Militares/psicologia , Psicopatologia , Adulto Jovem
20.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 96: 127-142, 2018 Nov 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30496762

RESUMO

The human oxytocin (OXT) system is implicated in the regulation of complex social behaviors, as well as in psychopathologies characterized by social deficits. Emerging evidence suggests that variation in epigenetic regulation of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) provides the oxytocin system with flexibility in response to environmental events, especially those occurring during early childhood. Changes in DNA methylation patterns of OXTR associated with these events may reflect biological alterations of social sensitivity. This is often related to an increased risk of developing mental disorders later in life. Here, we systematically reviewed all human studies (n = 30) discussing OXTR methylation in relation to socio-behavioral phenotypes. As such, we provide a complete and up-to-date overview of the literature that will aid future research in the interdisciplinary field of epigenetics and socio-behavioral sciences.

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