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1.
Endocr Relat Cancer ; 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476737

RESUMO

The first study establishing exposure to ionizing radiations (IR) as a risk factor for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) was published 70 years ago. Given that radiation exposure causes direct DNA damage, genetic alterations in the different DNA repair mechanisms are assumed to play an important role in long-term IR induced DNA damage prevention. Individual variations in DNA repair capacity may cause different reaction to damage made by IR exposure. The aim of this review is to recapitulate current knowledge about constitutional genetic polymorphisms found to be significatively associated with DTC occurring after IR exposure. Studies were screened online using electronic databases, only fully available articles, studies performed among irradiated population or taking radiation exposure as adjustment factors and showing significative results are included. Nine articles were identified. Ten variants in/near to genes in six biological pathways, namely thyroid activity regulations, generic transcription, RET signaling, ATM signaling and DNA repair pathways were found to be associated with radiation-related DTC in these studies. Only seven variants were found to be in interaction with IR exposure in DTC risk. Most of these variants are also associated to sporadic DTC and are not specific to IR related DTC. In the published studies, no data on children treated with radiotherapy is described. In conclusion, more studies carried out on larger cohorts or on case-control studies with well documented individual radiation dose estimations are needed to get a comprehensive picture of genetic susceptibility factors involved in radiation-related DTC.

2.
Allergy ; 2019 Sep 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31506971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Whether the clinical or pathophysiologic significance of the "treatable trait" high blood eosinophil count in COPD is the same as for asthma remains controversial. We sought to determine the relationship between the blood eosinophil count, clinical characteristics and gene expression from bronchial brushings in COPD and asthma. METHODS: Subjects were recruited into a COPD (emphysema versus airway disease [EvA]) or asthma cohort (Unbiased BIOmarkers in PREDiction of respiratory disease outcomes, U-BIOPRED). We determined gene expression using RNAseq in EvA (n = 283) and Affymetrix microarrays in U-BIOPRED (n = 85). We ran linear regression analysis of the bronchial brushings transcriptional signal versus blood eosinophil counts as well as differential expression using a blood eosinophil > 200 cells/µL as a cut-off. The false discovery rate was controlled at 1% (with continuous values) and 5% (with dichotomized values). RESULTS: There were no differences in age, gender, lung function, exercise capacity and quantitative computed tomography between eosinophilic versus noneosinophilic COPD cases. Total serum IgE was increased in eosinophilic asthma and COPD. In EvA, there were 12 genes with a statistically significant positive association with the linear blood eosinophil count, whereas in U-BIOPRED, 1197 genes showed significant associations (266 positive and 931 negative). The transcriptome showed little overlap between genes and pathways associated with blood eosinophil counts in asthma versus COPD. Only CST1 was common to eosinophilic asthma and COPD and was replicated in independent cohorts. CONCLUSION: Despite shared "treatable traits" between asthma and COPD, the molecular mechanisms underlying these clinical entities are predominately different.

3.
Am J Med Genet A ; 179(11): 2257-2262, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390136

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: SMG9 deficiency is an extremely rare autosomal recessive condition originally described in three patients from two families harboring homozygous truncating SMG9 variants in a context of severe syndromic developmental disorder. To our knowledge, no additional patient has been described since this first report. METHODS: We performed exome sequencing in a patient exhibiting a syndromic developmental delay and in her unaffected parents and report the phenotypic features. RESULTS: Our patient presented with a syndromic association of severe global developmental delay and diverse malformations, including cleft lip and palate, facial dysmorphic features, brain abnormalities, heart defect, growth retardation, and severe infections. She carried a novel SMG9 homozygous variant NM_019108.3:c.1177C>T, p.(Gln393*), while her unaffected parents were both heterozygous. CONCLUSIONS: We confirm that bi-allelic truncating SMG9 variants cause a severe developmental syndrome including brain and heart malformations associated with facial dysmorphic features, severe growth and developmental delay with or without ophthalmological abnormalities, severe feeding difficulties, and life-threatening infections.

5.
Am J Hum Genet ; 105(3): 509-525, 2019 Sep 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31422817

RESUMO

The human RNA helicase DDX6 is an essential component of membrane-less organelles called processing bodies (PBs). PBs are involved in mRNA metabolic processes including translational repression via coordinated storage of mRNAs. Previous studies in human cell lines have implicated altered DDX6 in molecular and cellular dysfunction, but clinical consequences and pathogenesis in humans have yet to be described. Here, we report the identification of five rare de novo missense variants in DDX6 in probands presenting with intellectual disability, developmental delay, and similar dysmorphic features including telecanthus, epicanthus, arched eyebrows, and low-set ears. All five missense variants (p.His372Arg, p.Arg373Gln, p.Cys390Arg, p.Thr391Ile, and p.Thr391Pro) are located in two conserved motifs of the RecA-2 domain of DDX6 involved in RNA binding, helicase activity, and protein-partner binding. We use functional studies to demonstrate that the first variants identified (p.Arg373Gln and p.Cys390Arg) cause significant defects in PB assembly in primary fibroblast and model human cell lines. These variants' interactions with several protein partners were also disrupted in immunoprecipitation assays. Further investigation via complementation assays included the additional variants p.Thr391Ile and p.Thr391Pro, both of which, similarly to p.Arg373Gln and p.Cys390Arg, demonstrated significant defects in P-body assembly. Complementing these molecular findings, modeling of the variants on solved protein structures showed distinct spatial clustering near known protein binding regions. Collectively, our clinical and molecular data describe a neurodevelopmental syndrome associated with pathogenic missense variants in DDX6. Additionally, we suggest DDX6 join the DExD/H-box genes DDX3X and DHX30 in an emerging class of neurodevelopmental disorders involving RNA helicases.

6.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 71(1): 227-243, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31381512

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pathogenic variants in the autosomal dominant genes PSEN1, PSEN2, or APP, APOE4 alleles, and rare variants within TREM2, SORL1, and ABCA7 contribute to early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD). However, sporadic EOAD patients have been insufficiently studied to define the probability of being a carrier of one of these variants. OBJECTIVE: To describe the proportion of each genetic variation among patients with very young-onset sporadic AD. METHODS: We first screened PSEN1, PSEN2, and APP in 154 EOAD patients with an onset before 51 years and a negative family history. Among 99 patients with no mutation (NMC), whole exome sequencing (WES) was performed. We analyzed the APOE genotype and rare protein-truncating or missense predicted damaging variants of TREM2, SORL1, and ABCA7. Neurological examination and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers were systematically retrieved. RESULTS: Nineteen (12.3%) mutation carriers (MC) harbored an APP or PSEN1 pathogenic or likely pathogenic variant. Among the NMC, 54/99 carried at least one genetic risk factor, including 9 APOE4/E4 homozygous, 37 APOE4 heterozygous, and 14 with a rare variant in another risk factor gene: 3 SORL1, 4 TREM2, and 9 ABCA7. MC presented an earlier disease onset (p < 0.0001) and associated neurologic symptoms more frequently (p < 0.002). All but one patient had at least 2 CSF biomarkers in abnormal ranges. CONCLUSION: The genetic component of very early sporadic EOAD gathers a substantial proportion of pathogenic variants in autosomal dominant genes and an even higher proportion of patients carrying genetic risk factors, suggesting an oligogenic determinism, even at this range of ages.

7.
Cell Rep ; 28(6): 1596-1611.e10, 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390572

RESUMO

Apical radial glia (aRGs) are predominant progenitors during corticogenesis. Perturbing their function leads to cortical malformations, including subcortical heterotopia (SH), characterized by the presence of neurons below the cortex. EML1/Eml1 mutations lead to SH in patients, as well as to heterotopic cortex (HeCo) mutant mice. In HeCo mice, some aRGs are abnormally positioned away from the ventricular zone (VZ). Thus, unraveling EML1/Eml1 function will clarify mechanisms maintaining aRGs in the VZ. We pinpoint an unknown EML1/Eml1 function in primary cilium formation. In HeCo aRGs, cilia are shorter, less numerous, and often found aberrantly oriented within vesicles. Patient fibroblasts and human cortical progenitors show similar defects. EML1 interacts with RPGRIP1L, a ciliary protein, and RPGRIP1L mutations were revealed in a heterotopia patient. We also identify Golgi apparatus abnormalities in EML1/Eml1 mutant cells, potentially upstream of the cilia phenotype. We thus reveal primary cilia mechanisms impacting aRG dynamics in physiological and pathological conditions.

8.
Clin Chem ; 65(9): 1153-1160, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31292136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rare copy number variations (CNVs) are a major cause of genetic diseases. Simple targeted methods are required for their confirmation and segregation analysis. We developed a simple and universal CNV assay based on digital PCR (dPCR) and universal locked nucleic acid (LNA) hydrolysis probes. METHODS: We analyzed the mapping of the 90 LNA hydrolysis probes from the Roche Universal ProbeLibrary (UPL). For each CNV, selection of the optimal primers and LNA probe was almost automated; probes were reused across assays and each dPCR assay included the CNV amplicon and a reference amplicon. We assessed the assay performance on 93 small and large CNVs and performed a comparative cost-efficiency analysis. RESULTS: UPL-LNA probes presented nearly 20000000 occurrences on the human genome and were homogeneously distributed with a mean interval of 156 bp. The assay accurately detected all the 93 CNVs, except one (<200 bp), with coefficient of variation <10%. The assay was more cost-efficient than all the other methods. CONCLUSIONS: The universal dPCR CNV assay is simple, robust, and cost-efficient because it combines a straightforward design allowed by universal probes and end point PCR, the advantages of a relative quantification of the target to the reference within the same reaction, and the high flexibility of the LNA hydrolysis probes. This method should be a useful tool for genomic medicine, which requires simple methods for the interpretation and segregation analysis of genomic variations.

9.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(11): 1692-1700, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31285529

RESUMO

Early infantile epileptic encephalopathy (EIEE) is a heterogeneous group of severe forms of age-related developmental and epileptic encephalopathies with onset during the first weeks or months of life. The interictal electroencephalogram (EEG) shows a "suppression burst" (SB) pattern. The prognosis is usually poor and most children die within the first two years or survive with very severe intellectual disabilities. EIEE type 3 is caused by variants affecting function, in SLC25A22, which is also responsible for epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures (EIMFS). We report a family with a less severe phenotype of EIEE type 3. We performed exome sequencing and identified two unreported variants in SLC25A22 in the compound heterozygous state: NM_024698.4: c.[813_814delTG];[818 G>A] (p.[Ala272Glnfs*144];[Arg273Lys]). Functional studies in cultured skin fibroblasts from a patient showed that glutamate oxidation was strongly defective, based on a literature review. We clustered the 18 published patients (including those from this family) into three groups according to the severity of the SLC25A22-related disorders. In an attempt to identify genotype-phenotype correlations, we compared the variants according to the location depending on the protein domains. We observed that patients with two variants located in helical transmembrane domains presented a severe phenotype, whereas patients with at least one variant outside helical transmembrane domains presented a milder phenotype. These data are suggestive of a continuum of disorders related to SLC25A22 that could be called SLC25A22-related disorders. This might be a first clue to enable geneticists to outline a prognosis based on genetic molecular data regarding the SLC25A22 gene.

10.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 27(10): 1589-1598, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31231134

RESUMO

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) has an undisputed genetic component and a stable 2:1 male to female sex ratio in its incidence across populations, suggesting possible sexual dimorphism in its genetic susceptibility. We conducted the first sex-specific genome-wide association analysis of RCC for men (3227 cases, 4916 controls) and women (1992 cases, 3095 controls) of European ancestry from two RCC genome-wide scans and replicated the top findings using an additional series of men (2261 cases, 5852 controls) and women (1399 cases, 1575 controls) from two independent cohorts of European origin. Our study confirmed sex-specific associations for two known RCC risk loci at 14q24.2 (DPF3) and 2p21(EPAS1). We also identified two additional suggestive male-specific loci at 6q24.3 (SAMD5, male odds ratio (ORmale) = 0.83 [95% CI = 0.78-0.89], Pmale = 1.71 × 10-8 compared with female odds ratio (ORfemale) = 0.98 [95% CI = 0.90-1.07], Pfemale = 0.68) and 12q23.3 (intergenic, ORmale = 0.75 [95% CI = 0.68-0.83], Pmale = 1.59 × 10-8 compared with ORfemale = 0.93 [95% CI = 0.82-1.06], Pfemale = 0.21) that attained genome-wide significance in the joint meta-analysis. Herein, we provide evidence of sex-specific associations in RCC genetic susceptibility and advocate the necessity of larger genetic and genomic studies to unravel the endogenous causes of sex bias in sexually dimorphic traits and diseases like RCC.

11.
Cell Death Dis ; 10(6): 423, 2019 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31142736

RESUMO

The family of long noncoding mitochondrial RNAs (ncmtRNAs), comprising sense (SncmtRNA), and antisense (ASncmtRNA-1 and ASncmtRNA-2) members, are differentially expressed according to cell proliferative status; SncmtRNA is expressed in all proliferating cells, while ASncmtRNAs are expressed in normal proliferating cells, but is downregulated in tumor cells. ASncmtRNA knockdown with an antisense oligonucleotide induces massive apoptosis in tumor cell lines, without affecting healthy cells. Apoptotic death is preceded by proliferation blockage, suggesting that these transcripts are involved in cell cycle regulation. Here, we show that ASncmtRNA knockdown induces cell death preceded by proliferative blockage in three different human breast cancer cell lines. This effect is mediated by downregulation of the key cell cycle progression factors cyclin B1, cyclin D1, CDK1, CDK4, and survivin, the latter also constituting an essential inhibitor of apoptosis, underlying additionally the onset of apoptosis. The treatment also induces an increase in the microRNA hsa-miR-4485-3p, whose sequence maps to ASncmtRNA-2 and transfection of MDA-MB-231 cells with a mimic of this miRNA induces cyclin B1 and D1 downregulation. Other miRNAs that are upregulated include nuclear-encoded hsa-miR-5096 and hsa-miR-3609, whose mimics downregulate CDK1. Our results suggest that ASncmtRNA targeting blocks tumor cell proliferation through reduction of essential cell cycle proteins, mediated by mitochondrial and nuclear miRNAs. This work adds to the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms behind cell cycle arrest preceding tumor cell apoptosis induced by ASncmtRNA knockdown. As proof-of-concept, we show that in vivo knockdown of ASncmtRNAs results in drastic inhibition of tumor growth in a xenograft model of MDA-MB-231 subcutaneous tumors, further supporting this approach for the development of new therapeutic strategies against breast cancer.

12.
Brain ; 142(6): 1573-1586, 2019 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009047

RESUMO

Primary familial brain calcification (PFBC) is a rare neurogenetic disorder with diverse neuropsychiatric expression. Mutations in four genes cause autosomal dominant PFBC: SLC20A2, XPR1, PDGFB and PDGFRB. Recently, biallelic mutations in the MYORG gene have been reported to cause PFBC with an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance. We screened MYORG in 29 unrelated probands negatively screened for the autosomal dominant PFBC genes and identified 11 families with a biallelic rare or novel predicted damaging variant. We studied the clinical and radiological features of 16 patients of these 11 families and compared them to that of 102 autosomal dominant PFBC patients carrying a mutation in one of the four known autosomal dominant PFBC genes. We found that MYORG patients exhibited a high clinical penetrance with a median age of onset of 52 years (range: 21-62) with motor impairment at the forefront. In particular, dysarthria was the presenting sign in 11/16 patients. In contrast to patients with autosomal dominant PFBC, 12/15 (80%) symptomatic patients eventually presented at least four of the following five symptoms: dysarthria, cerebellar syndrome, gait disorder of any origin, akinetic-hypertonic syndrome and pyramidal signs. In addition to the most severe clinical pattern, MYORG patients exhibited the most severe pattern of calcifications as compared to the patients from the four autosomal dominant PFBC gene categories. Strikingly, 12/15 presented with brainstem calcifications in addition to extensive calcifications in other brain areas (lenticular nuclei, thalamus, cerebellar hemispheres, vermis, ±cortex). Among them, eight patients exhibited pontine calcifications, which were observed in none of the autosomal dominant PFBC patients and hence appeared to be highly specific. Finally, all patients exhibited cerebellar atrophy with diverse degrees of severity on CT scans. We confirmed the existence of cerebellar atrophy by performing MRI voxel-based morphometry analyses of MYORG patients with autosomal dominant PFBC mutation carriers as a comparison group. Of note, in three families, the father carried small pallido-dentate calcifications while carrying the mutation at the heterozygous state, suggesting a putative phenotypic expression in some heterozygous carriers. In conclusion, we confirm that MYORG is a novel major PFBC causative gene and that the phenotype associated with such mutations may be recognized based on pedigree, clinical and radiological features.

13.
Hum Mutat ; 40(6): 765-787, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30825406

RESUMO

Inherited retinal disorders (IRD) represent clinically and genetically heterogeneous diseases. To date, pathogenic variants have been identified in ~260 genes. Albeit that many genes are implicated in IRD, for 30-50% of the cases, the gene defect is unknown. These cases may be explained by novel gene defects, by overlooked structural variants, by variants in intronic, promoter or more distant regulatory regions, and represent synonymous variants of known genes contributing to the dysfunction of the respective proteins. Patients with one subgroup of IRD, namely incomplete congenital stationary night blindness (icCSNB), show a very specific phenotype. The major cause of this condition is the presence of a hemizygous pathogenic variant in CACNA1F. A comprehensive study applying direct Sanger sequencing of the gene-coding regions, exome and genome sequencing applied to a large cohort of patients with a clinical diagnosis of icCSNB revealed indeed that seven of the 189 CACNA1F-related cases have intronic and synonymous disease-causing variants leading to missplicing as validated by minigene approaches. These findings highlight that gene-locus sequencing may be a very efficient method in detecting disease-causing variants in clinically well-characterized patients with a diagnosis of IRD, like icCSNB.

14.
Nat Genet ; 51(3): 414-430, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30820047

RESUMO

Risk for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD), the most prevalent dementia, is partially driven by genetics. To identify LOAD risk loci, we performed a large genome-wide association meta-analysis of clinically diagnosed LOAD (94,437 individuals). We confirm 20 previous LOAD risk loci and identify five new genome-wide loci (IQCK, ACE, ADAM10, ADAMTS1, and WWOX), two of which (ADAM10, ACE) were identified in a recent genome-wide association (GWAS)-by-familial-proxy of Alzheimer's or dementia. Fine-mapping of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region confirms the neurological and immune-mediated disease haplotype HLA-DR15 as a risk factor for LOAD. Pathway analysis implicates immunity, lipid metabolism, tau binding proteins, and amyloid precursor protein (APP) metabolism, showing that genetic variants affecting APP and Aß processing are associated not only with early-onset autosomal dominant Alzheimer's disease but also with LOAD. Analyses of risk genes and pathways show enrichment for rare variants (P = 1.32 × 10-7), indicating that additional rare variants remain to be identified. We also identify important genetic correlations between LOAD and traits such as family history of dementia and education.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/genética , Loci Gênicos/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Imunidade/genética , Lipídeos/genética , Proteínas tau/genética , Idoso , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Testes Genéticos/métodos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Haplótipos/genética , Humanos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/genética , Masculino
15.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0213387, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30845214

RESUMO

The triggering and development of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is conditioned by environmental and genetic factors. Despite the identification of more than one hundred genetic variants associated with the disease, not all the cases can be explained. Here, we performed Whole Exome Sequencing in 9 multiplex families (N = 30) to identify rare variants susceptible to play a role in the disease pathogenesis. We pre-selected 77 genes which carried rare variants with a complete segregation with RA in the studied families. Follow-up linkage and association analyses with pVAAST highlighted significant RA association of 43 genes (p-value < 0.05 after 106 permutations) and pinpointed their most likely causal variant. We re-sequenced the 10 most significant likely causal variants (p-value ≤ 3.78*10-3 after 106 permutations) in the extended pedigrees and 9 additional multiplex families (N = 110). Only one SNV in SUPT20H: c.73A>T (p.Lys25*), presented a complete segregation with RA in an extended pedigree with early-onset cases. In summary, we identified in this study a new variant associated with RA in SUPT20H gene. This gene belongs to several biological pathways like macro-autophagy and monocyte/macrophage differentiation, which contribute to RA pathogenesis. In addition, these results showed that analyzing rare variants using a family-based approach is a strategy that allows to identify RA risk loci, even with a small dataset.

16.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 68(3): 1243-1255, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30909216

RESUMO

Early-onset Alzheimer's disease (EOAD) accounts for 5-10% of all AD cases, with a heritability ranging between 92% to 100%. With the exception of rare mutations in APP, PSEN1, and PSEN2 genes causing autosomal dominant EOAD, little is known about the genetic factors underlying most of the EOAD cases. In this study, we hypothesized that copy number variations (CNVs) in microRNA (miR) genes could contribute to risk for EOAD. miRs are short non-coding RNAs previously implicated in the regulation of AD-related genes and phenotypes. Using whole exome sequencing, we screened a series of 546 EOAD patients negative for autosomal dominant EOAD mutations and 597 controls. We identified 86 CNVs in miR genes of which 31 were exclusive to EOAD cases, including a duplication of the MIR138-2 locus. In functional studies in human cultured cells, we could demonstrate that miR-138 overexpression leads to higher Aß production as well as tau phosphorylation, both implicated in AD pathophysiology. These changes were mediated in part by GSK-3ß and FERMT2, a potential risk factor for AD. Additional disease-related genes were also prone to miR-138 regulation including APP and BACE1. This study suggests that increased gene dosage of MIR138-2 could contribute to risk for EOAD by regulating different biological pathways implicated in amyloid and tau metabolism. Additional studies are now required to better understand the role of miR-CNVs in EOAD.

17.
Genome Biol Evol ; 11(3): 748-758, 2019 03 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30715341

RESUMO

The Austronesian dispersal across the Indonesian Ocean to Madagascar and the Comoros has been well documented, but in an unexplained anomaly, few to no traces have been found of the Austronesian expansion in East Africa or the Arabian Peninsula. To revisit this peculiarity, we surveyed the Western Indian Ocean rim populations to identify potential Austronesian genetic ancestry. We generated full mitochondrial DNA genomes and genome-wide genotyping data for these individuals and compared them with the Banjar, the Indonesian source population of the westward Austronesian dispersal. We find strong support for Asian genetic contributions to maternal lineages and autosomal variation in modern day Somalia and Yemen. Surprisingly, this input reveals two apparently different geographic origins and timings of admixture for the Austronesian contact; one at a very early phase (likely associated with the early Austronesian dispersals), and a later movement dating to the end of nineteenth century. These Austronesian gene flows come, respectively, from Madagascar and directly from an unidentified location in Island Southeast Asia. This result reveals a far more complex dynamic of Austronesian dispersals through the Western Indian Ocean than has previously been understood and suggests that Austronesian movements within the Indian Ocean may have been part of a lengthy process, probably continuing well into the modern era.


Assuntos
Fluxo Gênico , Genoma Mitocondrial , Migração Humana , África Oriental , Arábia , Bornéu , Humanos , Ilhas do Oceano Índico
18.
PLoS Med ; 16(1): e1002724, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30605491

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Several obesity-related factors have been associated with renal cell carcinoma (RCC), but it is unclear which individual factors directly influence risk. We addressed this question using genetic markers as proxies for putative risk factors and evaluated their relation to RCC risk in a mendelian randomization (MR) framework. This methodology limits bias due to confounding and is not affected by reverse causation. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Genetic markers associated with obesity measures, blood pressure, lipids, type 2 diabetes, insulin, and glucose were initially identified as instrumental variables, and their association with RCC risk was subsequently evaluated in a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 10,784 RCC patients and 20,406 control participants in a 2-sample MR framework. The effect on RCC risk was estimated by calculating odds ratios (ORSD) for a standard deviation (SD) increment in each risk factor. The MR analysis indicated that higher body mass index increases the risk of RCC (ORSD: 1.56, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.44-1.70), with comparable results for waist-to-hip ratio (ORSD: 1.63, 95% CI 1.40-1.90) and body fat percentage (ORSD: 1.66, 95% CI 1.44-1.90). This analysis further indicated that higher fasting insulin (ORSD: 1.82, 95% CI 1.30-2.55) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP; ORSD: 1.28, 95% CI 1.11-1.47), but not systolic blood pressure (ORSD: 0.98, 95% CI 0.84-1.14), increase the risk for RCC. No association with RCC risk was seen for lipids, overall type 2 diabetes, or fasting glucose. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides novel evidence for an etiological role of insulin in RCC, as well as confirmatory evidence that obesity and DBP influence RCC risk.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Renais/etiologia , Neoplasias Renais/etiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Glicemia/análise , Pressão Sanguínea , Índice de Massa Corporal , Carcinoma de Células Renais/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/complicações , Feminino , Marcadores Genéticos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Insulina/sangue , Neoplasias Renais/genética , Lipídeos/sangue , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Obesidade/genética , Fatores de Risco
19.
Int J Cancer ; 145(7): 1745-1753, 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30665264

RESUMO

Circadian rhythms regulate several physiological functions and genes controlling the circadian rhythm were found to regulate cell proliferation, cell cycle and apoptosis. Few studies have investigated the role of those circadian genes in prostate cancer occurrence. We aim to investigate the relationship between circadian genes polymorphisms and prostate cancer risk based on data from the EPICAP study, a population-based case-control study including 1,515 men (732 cases / 783 controls) with genotyped data. Odds Ratios (ORs) for association between prostate cancer and circadian gene variants were estimated for each of the 872 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 31 circadian clock genes. We also used a gene-based and pathway-based approach with a focus on the pathway including 9 core circadian genes. Separate analyses were conducted by prostate cancer aggressiveness. The core-circadian pathway (p = 0.0006) was significantly associated to prostate cancer, for either low (p = 0.002) or high (p = 0.01) grade tumor. At the gene level, we observed significant associations between all prostate cancer and NPAS2 and PER1 after correcting for multiple testing, while only RORA was significant for aggressive tumors. At the SNP-level, no significant association was observed. Our findings provide additional evidence of a potential link between genetic variants in circadian genes and prostate cancer risk. Further investigation is warranted to confirm these findings and to better understand the biological pathways involved.

20.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 94, 2019 01 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30643170

RESUMO

The synaptic protein SHANK3 encodes a multidomain scaffold protein expressed at the postsynaptic density of neuronal excitatory synapses. We previously identified de novo SHANK3 mutations in patients with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and showed that SHANK3 represents one of the major genes for ASD. Here, we analyzed the pyramidal cortical neurons derived from induced pluripotent stem cells from four patients with ASD carrying SHANK3 de novo truncating mutations. At 40-45 days after the differentiation of neural stem cells, dendritic spines from pyramidal neurons presented variable morphologies: filopodia, thin, stubby and muschroom, as measured in 3D using GFP labeling and immunofluorescence. As compared to three controls, we observed a significant decrease in SHANK3 mRNA levels (less than 50% of controls) in correlation with a significant reduction in dendritic spine densities and whole spine and spine head volumes. These results, obtained through the analysis of de novo SHANK3 mutations in the patients' genomic background, provide further support for the presence of synaptic abnormalities in a subset of patients with ASD.

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