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Lipids ; 54(6-7): 381-388, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31141200


Exercise training not only improves the plasma lipid profile but also reduces risk of developing coronary heart disease. We investigate whether plasma lipids and high density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism are affected by aerobic training and whether the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels at baseline influence exercise-induced changes in HDL. Seventy-one male sedentary volunteers were evaluated and allocated in two subgroups, according to the HLD-C levels (< or >40 mg/dL). Participants underwent an 18-week aerobic training period. Blood was sampled before and after training for biochemical analysis. Plasma lipids, apolipoproteins, HDL diameter, and VO2 peak were determined. Lipid transfers to HDL were determined in vitro by incubating plasma samples with a donor lipid artificial nanoemulsion. After the 18-week period of aerobic training, the VO2 peak increased, while the mean body mass index (BMI) decreased. HDL-C concentration was higher after the training period, but low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and non-HDL-C did not change. The transfer of esterified cholesterol and phospholipids was greater after exercise training, but the triacylglycerol and unesterified cholesterol transfers were unchanged. The HDL particle diameter increased after aerobic training in all participants. When the participants were separated in low-HDL and normal-HDL groups, the postaerobic exercise increment in HDL-C was higher in the low-HDL group, while the transfer of esterified cholesterol was lower. In conclusion, aerobic exercise training increases the lipid transfers to HDL, as measured by an in vitro method, which possibly contributes to the classical elevation of the HDL-C associated with training.

Physiol Genomics ; 48(2): 116-23, 2016 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26603150


Besides neuronal plasticity, the neurotrophin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is also important in vascular function. The BDNF has been associated with angiogenesis through its specific receptor tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB). Additionally, Val66Met polymorphism decreases activity-induced BDNF. Since BDNF and TrkB are expressed in vascular endothelial cells and aerobic exercise training can increase serum BDNF, this study aimed to test the hypotheses: 1) Serum BDNF levels modulate peripheral blood flow; 2) The Val66Met BDNF polymorphism impairs exercise training-induced vasodilation. We genotyped 304 healthy male volunteers (Val66Val, n = 221; Val66Met, n = 83) who underwent intense aerobic exercise training on a running track three times/wk for 4 mo. We evaluated pre- and post-exercise training serum BDNF and proBDNF concentration, heart rate (HR), mean blood pressure (MBP), forearm blood flow (FBF), and forearm vascular resistance (FVR). In the pre-exercise training, BDNF, proBDNF, BDNF/proBDNF ratio, FBF, and FVR were similar between genotypes. After exercise training, functional capacity (V̇o2 peak) increased and HR decreased similarly in both groups. Val66Val, but not Val66Met, increased BDNF (interaction, P = 0.04) and BDNF/proBDNF ratio (interaction, P < 0.001). Interestingly, FBF (interaction, P = 0.04) and the FVR (interaction, P = 0.01) responses during handgrip exercise (HG) improved in Val66Val compared with Val66Met, even with similar responses of HR and MBP. There were association between BDNF/proBDNF ratio and FBF (r = 0.64, P < 0.001) and FVR (r = -0.58, P < 0.001) during HG exercise. These results show that peripheral vascular reactivity and serum BDNF responses to exercise training are impaired by the BDNF Val66Met polymorphism and such responsiveness is associated with serum BDNF concentrations in healthy subjects.

Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/sangue , Fator Neurotrófico Derivado do Encéfalo/genética , Exercício , Polimorfismo Genético , Adulto , Velocidade do Fluxo Sanguíneo , Pressão Sanguínea , Teste de Esforço , Antebraço/irrigação sanguínea , Genótipo , Força da Mão , Voluntários Saudáveis , Frequência Cardíaca , Humanos , Masculino , Glicoproteínas de Membrana/genética , Metionina/genética , Proteínas Tirosina Quinases/genética , Receptor trkB , Valina/genética , Adulto Jovem
Int J Sports Physiol Perform ; 10(5): 636-41, 2015 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25569611


AIM: To study the relationship between the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism and oxygen uptake (VO2) before and after exercise training. METHODS: Police recruits (N=206, 25±4 y) with RR (n=75), RX (n=97), and XX (n=33) genotypes were selected. After baseline measures, they underwent 18 wk of running endurance training. Peak VO2 was obtained by cardiopulmonary exercise testing. RESULTS: Baseline body weight was not different among genotypes. At baseline, XX individuals displayed higher VO2 at anaerobic threshold, respiratory compensation point, and exercise peak than did RR individuals (P<.003). Endurance training significantly increased VO2 at anaerobic threshold, respiratory compensation point, and exercise peak (P<2×10(-6)), but the differences between XX and RR were no longer observed. Only relative peak VO2 exercise remained higher in XX than in RR genotype (P=.04). In contrast, the increase in relative peak VO2 was greater in RR than in XX individuals (12% vs 6%; P=.02). CONCLUSION: ACTN3 R577X polymorphism is associated with VO2. XX individuals have greater aerobic capacity. Endurance training eliminates differences in peak VO2 between XX and RR individuals. These findings suggest a ceiling-effect phenomenon, and, perhaps, trained individuals may not constitute an adequate population to explain associations between phenotypic variability and gene variations.

Actinina/genética , Exercício/fisiologia , Variação Genética , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Genótipo , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Fenótipo , Adulto Jovem
Physiol Genomics ; 47(2): 13-23, 2015 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25465030


Peripheral blood cells are an accessible environment in which to visualize exercise-induced alterations in global gene expression patterns. We aimed to identify a peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) signature represented by alterations in gene expression, in response to a standardized endurance exercise training protocol. In addition, we searched for molecular classifiers of the variability in oxygen uptake (V̇o2). Healthy untrained policemen recruits (n = 13, 25 ± 3 yr) were selected. Peak V̇o2 (measured by cardiopulmonary exercise testing) and total RNA from PBMCs were obtained before and after 18 wk of running endurance training (3 times/wk, 60 min). Total RNA was used for whole genome expression analysis using Affymetrix GeneChip Human Gene 1.0 ST. Data were normalized by the robust multiarray average algorithm. Principal component analysis was used to perform correlations between baseline gene expression and V̇o2peak. A set of 211 transcripts was differentially expressed (ANOVA, P < 0.05 and fold change > 1.3). Functional enrichment analysis revealed that transcripts were mainly related to immune function, cell cycle processes, development, and growth. Baseline expression of 98 and 53 transcripts was associated with the absolute and relative V̇o2peak response, respectively, with a strong correlation (r > 0.75, P < 0.01), and this panel was able to classify the 13 individuals according to their potential to improve oxygen uptake. A subset of 10 transcripts represented these signatures to a similar extent. PBMCs reveal a transcriptional signature responsive to endurance training. Additionally, a baseline transcriptional signature was associated with changes in V̇o2peak. Results might illustrate the possibility of obtaining molecular classifiers of endurance capacity changes through a minimally invasive blood sampling procedure.

Exercício/fisiologia , Leucócitos Mononucleares/fisiologia , Resistência Física/genética , Transcriptoma , Adulto , Algoritmos , Teste de Esforço/métodos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Humanos , Masculino , Consumo de Oxigênio/fisiologia , Resistência Física/fisiologia , Corrida