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1.
Anim Sci J ; 92(1): e13611, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34431165

RESUMO

Covariance components were estimated for growth traits (BW, birth weight; WW, weaning weight; YW, yearling weight), visual scores (BQ, breed quality; CS, conformation; MS, muscling; NS, navel; PS, finishing precocity), hip height (HH), and carcass traits (BF, backfat thickness; LMA, longissimus muscle area) measured at yearling. Genetic gains were obtained and validation models on direct and maternal effects for BW and WW were fitted. Genetic correlations of growth traits with CS, PS, MS, and HH ranged from 0.20 ± 0.01 to 0.94 ± 0.01 and were positive and low with NS (0.11 ± 0.01 to 0.20 ± 0.01) and favorable with BQ (0.14 ± 0.02 to 0.37 ± 0.02). Null to moderate genetic correlations were obtained between growth and carcass traits. Genetic gains were positive and significant, except for BW. An increase of 0.76 and 0.72 kg is expected for BW and WW, respectively, per unit increase in estimated breeding value (EBV) for direct effect and an additional 0.74 and 1.43, respectively, kg per unit increase in EBV for the maternal effect. Monitoring genetic gains for HH and NS is relevant to maintain an adequate body size and a navel morphological correction, if necessary. Simultaneous selection for growth, morphological, and carcass traits in line with improve maternal performance is a feasible strategy to increase herd productivity.


Assuntos
Peso ao Nascer/genética , Constituição Corporal/genética , Estatura/genética , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Bovinos/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética/veterinária , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Animais , Cruzamento , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Herança Materna/genética , Fenótipo
2.
J Anim Breed Genet ; 137(5): 449-467, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31777136

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to perform a Bayesian genomewide association study (GWAS) to identify genomic regions associated with growth traits in Hereford and Braford cattle, and to select Tag-SNPs to represent these regions in low-density panels useful for genomic predictions. In addition, we propose candidate genes through functional enrichment analysis associated with growth traits using Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). Phenotypic data from 126,290 animals and genotypes for 131 sires and 3,545 animals were used. The Tag-SNPs were selected with BayesB (π = 0.995) method to compose low-density panels. The number of Tag-single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) ranged between 79 and 103 SNP for the growth traits at weaning and between 78 and 100 SNP for the yearling growth traits. The average proportion of variance explained by Tag-SNP with BayesA was 0.29, 0.23, 0.32 and 0.19 for birthweight (BW), weaning weight (WW205), yearling weight (YW550) and postweaning gain (PWG345), respectively. For Tag-SNP with BayesA method accuracy values ranged from 0.13 to 0.30 for k-means and from 0.30 to 0.65 for random clustering of animals to compose reference and validation groups. Although genomic prediction accuracies were higher with the full marker panel, predictions with low-density panels retained on average 76% of the accuracy obtained with BayesB with full markers for growth traits. The MeSH analysis was able to translate genomic information providing biological meanings of more specific gene products related to the growth traits. The proposed Tag-SNP panels may be useful for future fine mapping studies and for lower-cost commercial genomic prediction applications.


Assuntos
Doenças dos Bovinos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/estatística & dados numéricos , Genoma/genética , Genômica/métodos , Animais , Teorema de Bayes , Peso Corporal/genética , Cruzamento/métodos , Bovinos , Doenças dos Bovinos/patologia , Análise por Conglomerados , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Desmame
4.
Meat Sci ; 148: 32-37, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30296711

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to present heritability estimates and accuracy of genomic prediction using different methods for meat quality traits in Nelore cattle. Approximately 5000 animals with phenotypes and genotypes of 412,000 SNPs, were divided into two groups: (1) training population: animals born from 2008 to 2013 and (2) validation population: animals born in 2014. A single-trait animal model was used to estimate heritability and to adjust the phenotype. The methods of GBLUP, Improved Bayesian Lasso and Bayes Cπ were performed to estimate the SNP effects. Accuracy of genomic prediction was calculated using Pearson's correlations between direct genomic values and adjusted phenotypes, divided by the square root of heritability of each trait (0.03-0.19). The accuracies varied from 0.23 to 0.73, with the lowest accuracies estimated for traits associated with fat content and the greatest accuracies observed for traits of meat color and tenderness. There were small differences in genomic prediction accuracy between methods.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Carne Vermelha/normas , Animais , Brasil , Cruzamento , Feminino , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Genômica/métodos , Masculino
5.
J Anim Sci ; 96(7): 2579-2595, 2018 Jun 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29741705

RESUMO

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy and bias of direct and blended genomic predictions using different methods and cross-validation techniques for growth traits (weight and weight gains) and visual scores (conformation, precocity, muscling, and size) obtained at weaning and at yearling in Hereford and Braford breeds. Phenotypic data contained 126,290 animals belonging to the Delta G Connection genetic improvement program, and a set of 3,545 animals genotyped with the 50K chip and 131 sires with the 777K. After quality control, 41,045 markers remained for all animals. An animal model was used to estimate (co)variance components and to predict breeding values, which were later used to calculate the deregressed estimated breeding values (DEBV). Animals with genotype and phenotype for the traits studied were divided into 4 or 5 groups by random and k-means clustering cross-validation strategies. The values of accuracy of the direct genomic values (DGV) were moderate to high magnitude for at weaning and at yearling traits, ranging from 0.19 to 0.45 for the k-means and 0.23 to 0.78 for random clustering among all traits. The greatest gain in relation to the pedigree BLUP (PBLUP) was 9.5% with the BayesB method with both the k-means and the random clustering. Blended genomic value accuracies ranged from 0.19 to 0.56 for k-means and from 0.21 to 0.82 for random clustering. The analyses using the historical pedigree and phenotypes contributed additional information to calculate the GEBV, and in general, the largest gains were for the single-step (ssGBLUP) method in bivariate analyses with a mean increase of 43.00% among all traits measured at weaning and of 46.27% for those evaluated at yearling. The accuracy values for the marker effects estimation methods were lower for k-means clustering, indicating that the training set relationship to the selection candidates is a major factor affecting accuracy of genomic predictions. The gains in accuracy obtained with genomic blending methods, mainly ssGBLUP in bivariate analyses, indicate that genomic predictions should be used as a tool to improve genetic gains in relation to the traditional PBLUP selection.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Genoma/genética , Genômica , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Animais , Peso Corporal/genética , Cruzamento , Bovinos/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Análise por Conglomerados , Feminino , Genótipo , Masculino , Análise de Sequência com Séries de Oligonucleotídeos/veterinária , Linhagem , Fenótipo , Desmame , Ganho de Peso/genética
6.
Anim Reprod Sci ; 177: 88-96, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28011117

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the extent (r2) of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the genome of Nellore cattle, and to examine associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) and age at first calving (AFC) and early pregnancy (EP) using a panel of high-density SNPs and data from 1182 Nellore females. A total of 13 contemporary groups (CG) were used consisting of farm, season, and year of birth. For genome-wide association analysis, SNPs with a minor allele frequency (MAF)<0.05 and animals with a call rate<0.90 were excluded, totaling 431,885 SNPs. For statistical analysis, a linear model was used for AFC and a threshold model for EP. To estimate the significance of the associations for the two traits, the model included the categorical fixed effects of CG, SNPs, and sire. In addition, the polygenic effect was included in the analysis. The additive effects and dominance deviations of Bonferroni-adjusted significant SNPs for AFC and EP were estimated using orthogonal contrasts. The average estimate of r2 for all autosomes was 0.18 at a distance of 4.8kb and the mean MAF was 0.25±0.13. The LD decreased as the distance between markers increased: 0.35 (1kb) to 0.12 (100kb). Eleven significant associations were detected in seven different chromosomes. Seven SNPs were associated with AFC and four were associated with EP. Three SNPs were significant for both traits. The identification of SNPs associated with AFC and EP may contribute for selecting sexually precocious animals.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Puberdade Precoce/genética , Animais , Cruzamento , Doenças dos Bovinos/genética , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Gravidez , Reprodução/genética , Maturidade Sexual/genética
7.
Ciênc. rural ; 47(1): 20150989, 2017. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-797924

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of gender on the growth of Criollo foals, in order to use this information as a reference for breeding as well as in future research. Body height, thoracic perimeter, and cannon bone perimeter of 75 foals were measured from two farms in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil (Lat. 32°, 33′, 58″, Long. 53°, 22′, 33″) and from three generations over three years. In both farms, animals were kept under the same range and feeding conditions. Nonlinear regression models were applied to describe the growth curves for the three traits over the experimental period. Cannon bone perimeter was greater in males than in females (P<0.001) but the predicted curves for body height and thoracic perimeter did not differ between genders. For all traits, the highest rate of increase was achieved in the first year of life (body height = 74%, thoracic perimeter = 76%, and cannon bone perimeter = 63% for males and 83% for females). Results of this study indicated that changes in body height and thoracic perimeter can be predicted using nonlinear models in both male and female foals, until they reach three years of age; whereas, changes in cannon bone perimeter should be modeled separately for each gender.


RESUMO: O presente estudo foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de se avaliar o efeito do sexo nos padrões de crescimento em potros da raça Crioula que possam servir de referência à sua criação, assim como base para futuros estudos em equinos dessa raça. Medidas de altura corporal, perímetro de tórax e perímetro de canela de 75 potros, pertencentes a três gerações, foram obtidas do nascimento aos três anos de idade, em duas propriedades no Rio Grande do Sul, Latitude 32°,33′,58″ e Longitude 53°,22′,33″. Em ambas as fazendas avaliadas, os animais eram mantidos no mesmo sistema de criação e manejo alimentar (extensivo e em regime de campo nativo). Foram realizadas análises de regressão não linear para se estimar as curvas de crescimento para as três características estudadas. Os resultados do presente estudo indicam diferença significativa (P<0,001) no crescimento da canela entre machos e fêmeas, sendo maior nos machos. As curvas preditas com modelos não lineares para a altura corporal e perímetro de tórax não apresentaram diferenças estatísticas entre os sexos. Para todas as características estudadas, a maior taxa de crescimento foi obtida ao primeiro ano de vida (altura corporal = 74%, perímetro de tórax = 76% e perímetro de canela = 63% em machos e 83% em fêmeas). Os resultados do presente estudo indicam que a evolução da altura corporal e perímetro de tórax em potros até os três anos de idade pode ser avaliada através de modelos não lineares e de maneira simultânea para machos e fêmeas. Por outro lado, o perímetro de canela deve ser modelado separadamente para cada sexo.

8.
Gene ; 545(2): 215-9, 2014 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24835309

RESUMO

The somatotropic axis consists of genes that are involved in muscular development. These genes are potential regions of study to identify possible QTL for economically important traits in beef cattle. The aim of this study was to verify the existence of GH1, POU1F1, and GHR polymorphisms in Nellore cattle to verify the influence of selection in these mutations and to analyse the association between molecular markers and body weight at different ages, yearling hip height, carcass fat thickness and loin eye area. Six hundred forty-five animals from the Centro APTA Bovinos de Corte, were genotyped by PCR-RFLP techniques. The association analyses were performed with general mixed models taking into consideration the effect of one marker, and other model taking into consideration interactions between two molecular markers. Only the molecular markers rs81109601 on GH1 and rs109136815 on GHR were polymorphic; however, they were not found to be under selection. The association of the GHR rs109136815 marker and loin eye area was observed (p<0.05), as well as the effect of interaction between the markers and the female body weight at 550 days of age (p<0.04). The interaction effect should be considered in situations where the interactivity between two genes is known.


Assuntos
Estudos de Associação Genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Alelos , Animais , Bovinos , Frequência do Gene , Genótipo , Hormônio do Crescimento/genética , Receptores da Somatotropina/genética
9.
Ciênc. rural ; 43(4): 676-681, abr. 2013. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-669363

RESUMO

O presente estudo foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de estimar herdabilidade e repetibilidade para diferentes medidas de eficiência produtiva de vacas e determinar a melhor maneira de calcular as relações de peso, visando a sua utilização como critério de seleção em rebanhos da raça Nelore. Os dados analisados são de animais da raça Nelore, pertencentes ao Projeto de Seleção das Raças Zebuínas e Caracu do Centro APTA Bovinos de Corte, do Instituto de Zootecnia de Sertãozinho. Os animais são selecionados para maior peso ao sobreano (rebanhos NeS e NeT, analisados como um único rebanho) e para peso ao sobreano próximo da média (NeC) do grupo de contemporâneos, desde 1980. As características utilizadas no estudo foram: 1) RPN = relação de peso ao nascer do bezerro / peso da vaca ao parto; 2) RPN2 = relação do peso ao nascer do bezerro / peso metabólico da vaca ao parto; 3) RPD = relação de peso à desmama do bezerro / peso da vaca à desmama; e 4) RPD2 = relação do peso à desmama do bezerro / peso metabólico da vaca à desmama. Os parâmetros genéticos foram estimados considerando dois arquivos: vacas com bezerros (CB) e vacas com e sem bezerros (SB). A RPN e a RPN2 foram calculadas somente no arquivo CB, enquanto que RPD e RPD2 foram calculadas em ambos os arquivos (CB e SB). Os parâmetros genéticos foram estimados pelo método da máxima verossimilhança restrita. As estimativas de herdabilidade para as características RPN; RPN2; RPD_CB; RPD2_CB; RPD_SB e RPD2_SB foram: 0,17±0,02; 0,16±0,02; 0,22±0,04; 0,19±0,03; 0,20±0,01 e 0,16±0,01, respectivamente. As repetibilidades estimadas variaram de 0,22 a 0,68. A utilização das relações de peso como critério de seleção deve promover, a longo prazo, melhorias na eficiência produtiva das vacas. As relações de peso têm sido consideradas apenas como informações para o descarte de vacas em alguns programas de seleção, mas poderiam ser incluídas em índices de seleção, principalmente quando calculada considerando o peso metabólico da vaca à desmama, incluindo tanto as vacas que desmamaram um bezerro, quanto aquelas que falharam em desmamar.


The objective of this study was to estimate heritability and repeatability for different measures of cows' productive efficiency and determine the best way to calculate the weight ratios, in order to use as selection criteria in Nelore herds. Data of Nelore animals from Centro APTA Bovinos de Corte-Sertãozinho, Instituto de Zootecnia were analyzed. The animals are selected for higher yearling weight (NeS and NeT herds, considered as a single herd in this paper) and, for mean yearling weight (NeC) within contemporary group, since 1980. The traits used in this study were: 1) RPN = ratio of birth weight of the calf / cow weight at calving; 2) RPN2 = ratio of birth weight of the calf / metabolic cow weight at calving; 3) RPD = ratio of weaning weight of the calf / cow weight at weaning and, 4) RPD2 = ratio of weaning weight of calf / metabolic cow weaning weight. For estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters, were considered two files: cows with calves (CB) or with and without calves (SB). The RPN and RPN2 were calculated only on CB file, and RPD and RPD2 were calculated in both files (CB and SB). Genetic parameters were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood. Estimates of heritability for traits RPN; RPN2; RPD_CB; RPD2_CB; RPD_SB and RPD2_SB were: 0.17±0.02, 0.16±0.02, 0.22±0.04, 0.19±0.03, 0.20±0.01 and 0.16±0.01, respectively. The repeatability estimates ranged from 0.22 to 0.68. The use of weight ratios as selection criteria should promote, at long-term, improvements in production efficiency. In some breeding programs, weight ratios have been considered only as information for disposal of cows, but could be included in selection indices, especially if it is calculated considering the metabolic weight of cow at weaning from both cows, that weaned a calf as those that failed to wean.

10.
Ciênc. rural ; 43(3): 513-519, mar. 2013. ilus, tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-668018

RESUMO

Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de estudar a evolução das características de crescimento e carcaça em função da idade em bovinos da raça Hereford, utilizando modelos não-lineares. Foram utilizados dados de 240 bovinos machos (castrados) da raça Hereford, pertencentes à fazenda Experimental "La Estanzuela" do INIA, Colonia, Uruguai. As características começaram a ser mensuradas a partir da desmama de animais com aproximadamente seis meses de idade, até o abate (dois anos de idade). As medições de peso foram realizadas a cada 15±3 dias durante todo o período e sem jejum prévio. As mensurações de área de olho de lombo, obtidas por ultrassom, e altura dos animais foram obtidas a cada 90 dias, sendo que as medidas de ultrassom foram tomadas entre a 12ª e 13ª costelas. Os modelos não-lineares utilizados foram os modelos de Brody, Gompertz, Logístico e Von Bertalanffy. Para as características peso, altura e área de olho de lombo, todos os modelos avaliados atingiram a convergência. Para descrever a evolução dos dados de peso e área de olho de lombo em função da idade, o modelo de Von Bertalanffy foi o mais indicado, e os modelos de Brody e Logístico mostraram o pior ajuste, respectivamente. A evolução da altura dos animais desde o desmame até os dois anos de idade pode ser modelada através de qualquer um dos modelos não-lineares considerados neste estudo.


The objective of this research was to study the evolution of growth and carcass traits as a function of age in Hereford cattle using nonlinear models. Records from 240 Hereford steers (castrated), belonging to the experimental station "La Estanzuela" of INIA Uruguay, were utilized. The animals were measured from weaning, approximately at 6 months of age, to slaughter (two years of age). The animals were weighed, without fasting, every 15±3 days throughout the period. The measurements of ribeye loin area (between the 12th and 13th rib) were obtained by ultrasound every 90 days. The height of the animals was obtained every 90 days. The Brody, Gompertz, Logistic and Von Bertalanffy nonlinear models were applied to describe the trajectory of weight, height and ribeye loin area along the age. For height, weight and ribeye loin area, all the models reached the convergence. To describe the evolution of weight and ribeye loin area, the Von Bertalanffy nonlinear model was the most suitable. For weight and ribeye loin area, the Brody and Logistic nonlinear models have shown the worst fit, respectively. The height trajectory from weaning until two years of age can be modeled by any of the nonlinear models considered in this research.

11.
Mol Biol Rep ; 39(12): 10097-104, 2012 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22941250

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to identify molecular markers to be applied to marker-assisted selection. Three SNPs of the FASN gene were studied. PCR-RFLP was used for genotyping. The SNPs g.17924A>G, g.17860C>T and g.15603A>G all in the FASN gene were genotyped using the enzymes MscI, DdeI and Hae III, respectively. The animals were raised in extensive systems and belong to three lines selected for growth as part of the Selection Program of Zebu and Caracu Breeds, São Paulo, Brazil. Allele and genotype frequencies were compared between selection lines using the Genepop 3.4. Associations between polymorphisms and the traits studied were evaluated using the PROC MIXED procedure of the SAS/STAT 9.1.3. The G and C alleles were the most frequent alleles of the g.15603A>G and g.17860C>T loci, respectively. The g.17924A>G locus showed no polymorphism in the population studied. Allele and genotype frequencies differed significantly between the NeT line and the NeC and NeS lines. The g.15603A>G polymorphism tended to exert an additive effect on rump fat thickness and male yearling height. For g.17860C>T, an additive effect on male yearling height was observed. Genotype combination analysis revealed a significant effect on loin eye area. Although this study provided evidence of an association between the FASN gene and some traits, more detailed analyses are needed to obtain more efficient molecular markers.


Assuntos
Bovinos/genética , Ácido Graxo Sintases/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adiposidade/genética , Animais , Biometria , Peso Corporal/genética , Cruzamento/economia , Bovinos/anatomia & histologia , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Estudos de Associação Genética , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Masculino , Análise de Sequência de DNA
12.
Genet Mol Biol ; 34(2): 225-30, 2011 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21734821

RESUMO

Records from 106,212 Nellore animals, born between 1998 and 2006, were used to estimate (co)variance components and genetic parameters for birth weight (BW), average weight gains from birth to weaning (GBW), average weight gains from weaning to after yearling (GWAY), weaning hip height (WHH), postweaning hip height (PHH) and scrotal circumferences at 9 (SC9), 12 (SC12) and 15 (SC15) months of age. (Co)variance components were estimated by an animal model using multi-trait analysis. Heritability estimates for BW, GBW, GWAY, WHH, PHH, SC9, SC12 and SC15 were 0.31 ± 0.01; 0.25 ± 0.02; 0.30 ± 0.04; 0.51 ± 0.04; 0.54 ± 0.04; 0.39 ± 0.01; 0.41 ± 0.01 and 0.44 ± 0.02, respectively. Genetic correlations between growth traits ranged from 0.09 ± 0.01 to 0.88 ± 0.01, thereby implying that, at any age, selection to increase average weight gains will also increase stature. Genetic correlations between BW and average weight gains with scrotal circumferences were all positive and moderate (0.15 ± 0.03 to 0.38 ± 0.01). On the other hand, positive and low genetic associations were estimated between hip height and scrotal circumference at different ages (0.09 ± 0.01 to 0.17 ± 0.02). The results of this study pointed out that selection to larger scrotal circumferences in males will promote changes in average weight gains. In order to obtain Nellore cattle with the stature and size suitable for the production system, both weight gain and hip height should be included in a selection index.

13.
Genet. mol. biol ; 34(2): 225-230, 2011. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-587749

RESUMO

Records from 106,212 Nellore animals, born between 1998 and 2006, were used to estimate (co)variance components and genetic parameters for birth weight (BW), average weight gains from birth to weaning (GBW), average weight gains from weaning to after yearling (GWAY), weaning hip height (WHH), postweaning hip height (PHH) and scrotal circumferences at 9 (SC9), 12 (SC12) and 15 (SC15) months of age. (Co)variance components were estimated by an animal model using multi-trait analysis. Heritability estimates for BW, GBW, GWAY, WHH, PHH, SC9, SC12 and SC15 were 0.31 ± 0.01; 0.25 ± 0.02; 0.30 ± 0.04; 0.51 ± 0.04; 0.54 ± 0.04; 0.39 ± 0.01; 0.41 ± 0.01 and 0.44 ± 0.02, respectively. Genetic correlations between growth traits ranged from 0.09 ± 0.01 to 0.88 ± 0.01, thereby implying that, at any age, selection to increase average weight gains will also increase stature. Genetic correlations between BW and average weight gains with scrotal circumferences were all positive and moderate (0.15 ± 0.03 to 0.38 ± 0.01). On the other hand, positive and low genetic associations were estimated between hip height and scrotal circumference at different ages (0.09 ± 0.01 to 0.17 ± 0.02). The results of this study pointed out that selection to larger scrotal circumferences in males will promote changes in average weight gains. In order to obtain Nellore cattle with the stature and size suitable for the production system, both weight gain and hip height should be included in a selection index.

14.
Genet Mol Biol ; 33(1): 68-70, 2010 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21637607

RESUMO

MUC1 is a heavily glycosylated mammalian transmembrane protein expressed by mucosal secretory tissues for both protection against microbial infection and lubrication. An important characteristic of MUC1 is its variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) containing several sites for O-glycosylation. VNTR length has been associated with many human diseases and with certain economically important traits in domestic ruminants. The aim of the present study was to correlate the length of MUC1 gene VNTR with expected progeny differences (EPDs) obtained for growth, fertility and carcass traits. Five alleles were identified, with alleles containing short VNTRs being more frequent than those with long, thereby demonstrating that Brazilian Nelore cattle are characterized by high frequencies in short MUC1 VNTRs. Statistical analyses revealed there to be no significant association between VNTR length and EPDs for weight at 120 days (W(120) ), scrotal circumference at 365 (SC (365) ) and 450 (SC (450) ) days, age at first calving (AFC), and rib eye area (REA).

15.
Genet. mol. biol ; 33(1): 68-70, 2010. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-566120

RESUMO

MUC1 is a heavily glycosylated mammalian transmembrane protein expressed by mucosal secretory tissues for both protection against microbial infection and lubrication. An important characteristic of MUC1 is its variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) containing several sites for O-glycosylation. VNTR length has been associated with many human diseases and with certain economically important traits in domestic ruminants. The aim of the present study was to correlate the length of MUC1 gene VNTR with expected progeny differences (EPDs) obtained for growth, fertility and carcass traits. Five alleles were identified, with alleles containing short VNTRs being more frequent than those with long, thereby demonstrating that Brazilian Nelore cattle are characterized by high frequencies in short MUC1 VNTRs. Statistical analyses revealed there to be no significant association between VNTR length and EPDs for weight at 120 days (W120), scrotal circumference at 365 (SC365) and 450 (SC450) days, age at first calving (AFC), and rib eye area (REA).

16.
Ciênc. rural ; 38(2): 432-436, mar.-abr. 2008. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-474509

RESUMO

Com objetivo de estimar parâmetros genéticos e estudar a utilização de diferentes efeitos em avaliações genéticas para idade ao primeiro parto (IPP) por diferentes modelos, foram utilizados registros de IPP de animais da raça Nelore, nascidos entre os anos de 1990 e 2005. Foram considerados os seguintes modelos (M): M1, incluindo o efeito fixo de GC1 (constituído pelos animais nascidos na mesma fazenda e ano), além da covariável, peso aos 365 dias de idade (efeito linear e quadrático), totalizando 24.263 registros de IPP; M2, considerando os efeitos fixos de GC1, ano e estação de parição, totalizando 59.792 registros de IPP e M3, incluindo os efeitos fixos de GC2 (agrupando os animais nascidos na mesma fazenda, ano e que conceberam no mesmo manejo reprodutivo), ano e estação de parição, totalizando 59.792 registros de IPP. As estimativas dos componentes de variância e herdabilidade e os valores genéticos (VG) foram obtidos pelo método da máxima verossimilhança restrita, com a inclusão da matriz de parentesco disponível. As diferenças esperadas na progênie (DEPs) foram obtidas dividindo os VG por dois. Após a obtenção desses resultados, foram realizadas correlações entre os VG e o ranqueamento das DEPs dos reprodutores para IPP, utilizando-se o procedimento PROC CORR (SAS, 2003). Ao se considerar o ano e a estação de parto nos modelos de análise (M2 e M3), esses produziram um maior R², indicando que tais modelos conseguiram explicar, em maior grau, as diferenças existentes entre os animais para IPP. As herdabilidades estimadas foram de baixa magnitude (0,14 e 0,15). As correlações entre os VG obtidas por diferentes modelos foram 0,73 (M1 x M2); 0,91 (M2 x M3) e 0,66 (M1 x M3).


With the objective of estimate genetic parameters and study the utilization of different effects on the genetic evolution for the age of the first calving (AFC) by different models, they were used AFC records from Nellore breed animals, born from 1990 to 2005. They were considered the following models (M): M1, including the fixed effect of the contemporary group (CG), CG1 (grouping the animals that were born at the same farm and year), besides the co variable, weight at 365 days of age (linear and quadratic effects), totalizing 24,263 records of AFC; M2, considering the effects of CG1, year and season of the calving, totalizing 59,792 records of AFC and M3, including effects CG2 (grouping the animals born at the same farm, year and submitted at the same reproductive management), year and season of calving totalizing 59,792 records of AFC. The components of variance and Genetic Value (GV) were obtained by Restricted Maximun Likelihood Method, with the inclusion for the relationship matrix. The Differences Expected on the Progeny (DEPs) were obtained by dividing the GV by two, after this they were estimated the correlations between GV and ranks of the reproductor's DEPs for AFC, utilizing the procedure CORR (SAS, 2003). While considering year and season of calving in the analysis models (M2 and M3), it was produced a bigger R², indicating that those models could explain, in a larger scale, the existing differences between the animals for AFC. The heritabilities estimated were of low magnitude (0,14 and 0,15). The correlations between the GV obtained by the different models were .73 (M1 x M2); .91 (M2 x M3) and .66 (M1 x M3).


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Feminino , Bovinos , Parâmetros de Referência/métodos , Reprodução , Comportamento Sexual Animal
17.
Ciênc. rural ; 38(2): 451-456, mar.-abr. 2008. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-474512

RESUMO

Para estudar a viabilidade da utilização das produções de leite no dia do controle (PLDC) em avaliações genéticas, foram utilizados 33.775 controles mensais da primeira lactação de 4.241 vacas da raça Holandesa, filhas de 561 touros, distribuídas em 23 rebanhos no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, no período de 1992 a 2001. Os componentes de (co)variância foram obtidos pelo método da Máxima Verossimilhança Restrita, com modelo animal. Os modelos consideraram as PLDC e as produções em 305 dias (PL305), segundo os efeitos aleatórios, genético aditivo direto, de ambiente permanente e residual, e dos efeitos fixos de grupo de contemporâneos e rebanho, além das covariáveis, idade da vaca ao parto e intervalo parto primeiro controle (somente para as PLDC), com os componentes linear e quadrático. As estimativas de herdabilidade para as PLDC e as correlações genéticas destas com PL305 foram altas, sugerindo que as PLDC podem ser utilizadas em avaliações genéticas em substituição a PL305. A eficiência relativa de seleção das PLDC como critério de seleção foi superior em relação à PL305.


To verify the possibility of the Test Day Model Methodology (PLCD) to be used in genetic evaluations, records on 33,775 monthly test day were studied. The records were obtained from 4,241 first lactation Holstein cows, sired by 561 bulls, distributed in 23 herds in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, from 1992 to 2001. The (co)variance components were estimated by Restricted Maximun Likelihood method, on animal model. The model considered PLCD and 305 days yield (PL305), as functions of the aditive genetic direct, permanent environmental, and residual random effects; the contemporary group and the herd as fixed effects and the covariables, age of cow at birth and calving-first control interval (only for PLCD), linear and quadratics effects. The high heritabilities for PLCD and the high genetic correlations estimated among PLCD and PL305 suggest that PLCD can be used in genetic evaluation of Holtein cows. The relative selection efficiency for PLCD, as a selection criteriun, was higher than that for PL305.


Assuntos
Animais , Feminino , Bovinos , Genética , Leite , Parâmetros de Referência , Seleção Genética
18.
Ciênc. rural ; 37(3): 809-814, jun. 2007. tab
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: lil-450248

RESUMO

O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito da inclusão da covariância entre o efeito genético aditivo direto e o materno (covd-m) no modelo de análise, sobre o valor das estimativas de parâmetros genéticos e de valores genéticos preditos (VG) para ganho médio diário do nascimento à desmama (GMDND) e da desmama ao sobreano (GMDDS), na raça Brangus (5/8 Angus x 3/8 Nelore). Foram analizados 28.949 registros de desempenho para GMDND e 11.884 para GMDDS, coletados no período entre 1986 e 2002. Os componentes de (co)variância foram obtidos pelo método REML. Para GMDND, foi utilizado um modelo animal que considerou como aleatórios o efeito, genético aditivo direto, o materno e o residual, e como fixos os efeitos de grupo de contemporâneos à desmama (Gc²05) e da interação fração gênica Nelore-Angus do touro e da vaca (FGNA), além das covariáveis idade da vaca ao parto (ID) e idade do bezerro à desmama. Para GMDDS, o modelo foi o mesmo, apenas substituindo Gc²05 por grupo de contemporâneos ao sobreano (GC550) e ID por idade ao sobreano. O ambiente permanente da vaca foi considerado como efeito aleatório em ambos os modelos. O teste da razão de verossimilhança mostrou não haver diferença significativa, em nível de 5 por cento de probabilidade, entre os modelos adotados para ambas as características. As herdabilidades diretas variaram de 0,14 ± 0,03 a 0,21 ± 0,03 e as maternas de 0,00 ± 0,01 a 0,15 ± 0,02, sendo o valor das estimativas menor quando a covd-m foi considerada no modelo, para GMDND. As correlações entre o valor genético aditivo direto e o materno foram negativas tanto para GMDND (-0,25 ± 0,12) quanto para GMDDS (-0,77 ± 0,19). A correlação de ordem ("rank correlation"), entre a classificação dos VG dos animais, preditas pelos dois modelos, foram 0,89 para GMDND e 0,98 para GMDND, sugerindo que pode ocorrer, alteração, embora pequena, na ordem de classificação dos animais em relação a GMDND.


The objective of this research was to study the effect of accouting for the covariance between the additive genetic direct and the maternal effects (covd-m) on the estimates of genetic parameters and on predictions of genetic values (VG), for average daily gain from birth to weaning (GMDND) and from weaning to 550 days of age (GMDDS). They were analyzed 28,949 records for GMDND and 11,884 for GMDDS of a Brangus breed population (5/8 Angus x 3/8 Nellore), collected from 1986 to 2002. The (co)variance components were obtained by REML. In the animal model for GMDND, the additive genetic direct and maternal and residual effects were considered as random, and the effects of contemporaneous group at weaning (Gc²05), the interaction of the Nellore-Angus breed genetic percentage of the bull and cow (FGNA) and the covariables, age of the cow at birth (IV) and age at weaning (ID) as fixed effects. For GMDDS, the model was the same, except that Gc²05 was substituted by contemporaneous group at 550 days of age (CG550) and ID by age at 550 days. In both models, permanent environmental effect of the cow was considered as a random effect. The heritabilities estimated for direct genetic effects ranged from 0.14 ± 0.03 to 0.21 ± 0.03 and for maternal effects from 0.00 ± 0.01 to 0.15 ± 0.02, the estimates had smaller values when covd-m was included in the model for GMDND. The correlations between genetic direct and maternal effects were negative -0.25 ± 0.12 (GMDND) and -0.77 ± 0.19 (GMDDS). The likelihood ratio test showed that there is no significant diference, at 5 percent significance level, between the adopted models for boths characteristics. The rank correlation between the VG predicted by the two models, were 0.89 for GMDND and 0.98 for GMDND, suggesting that a slight change in the rank of the animals can happen, for GMDND.

19.
Ciênc. rural ; 36(2): 579-585, mar.-abr. 2006. tab, graf
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: lil-423202

RESUMO

Para avaliar a influência de alguns fatores de ambiente sobre escores de avaliação visual à desmama em animais da raça Charolês e estimar parâmetros genéticos, foram utilizadas informações coletadas pelo PROMEBO durante os anos de 1994 a 2002. As características estudadas foram os escores de conformação (C), precocidade (P), musculatura (M) e tamanho (T) à desmama. Inicialmente foi realizada uma análise de variância, para verificar quais fatores apresentavam efeito significativo sobre as características em estudo. O modelo considerou como fixo, o efeito de grupo de contemporâneos (GC), constituído por fazenda, sexo, estação e ano de nascimento e, como covariáveis, a idade da vaca ao parto (IV), a idade do bezerro à desmama (ID) e a data juliana de nascimento (DJ), além do efeito residual, como aleatório. Todos os efeitos incluídos no modelo foram significativos para os escores visuais (P<0,05), exceto DJ, para M, P e C. A partir das médias ajustadas de C, P, M e T, foram estimadas equações de regressão para IV, ID e DJ. Observou-se que vacas que pariram aos 7-8 anos tiveram bezerros com escores visuais maiores. Com relação à idade à desmama, verificou-se que animais desmamados mais tardiamente receberam Escores Visuais mais elevados. Com relação à data juliana de nascimento, constatou-se que bezerros nascidos em junho foram favorecidos em seus escores, quando comparados com animais nascidos em dezembro ou janeiro. Os parâmetros genéticos foram estimados pelo método da Máxima Verossimilhança Restrita livre de derivada, utilizando um modelo animal, considerando como fixo o efeito de GC e, como covariáveis, IV, ID e DJ e, como aleatórios, os efeitos genéticos aditivos diretos e maternos e o residual. As estimativas de herdabilidade encontradas e respectivos erros padrões, para os efeitos genéticos diretos, foram 0,37 (0,09), 0,35 (0,09), 0,33 (0,09),e 0,27 (0,09), respectivamente, para C, M, P e T. Os resultados evidenciam que as avaliações para escores visuais devem levar em consideração os efeitos fixos estudados e existe a possibilidade de inserção destas características em programas de melhoramento genético, desde que ocorra redução do componente de variância ambiental, através de um melhor controle do ambiente.


Assuntos
Análise de Variância , Bovinos , Constituição Corporal/fisiologia , Constituição Corporal/genética , Genética/tendências , Ganho de Peso
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