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2.
Transfusion ; 59(11): 3350-3361, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31574181

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Universal pathogen inactivation of platelet concentrates (PCs) using amotosalen/ultraviolet A with 7-day storage was implemented in Switzerland in 2011. Routine-use data were analyzed at the University Hospital Basel, Switzerland. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective two-cohort study of patient and PC characteristics, component usage, patient outcomes, count increments (CIs), and adverse events were analyzed for two consecutive 5-year periods with either 0- to 5-day-old conventional PC (C-PC) (n = 14,181) or 0- to 7-day-old pathogen-inactivated PC (PI-PC) (n = 22,579). RESULTS: In both periods, PCs were issued for transfusion on a "first in, first out" basis. With 7-day PI-PC, wastage was reduced from 8.7% to 1.5%; 16.6% of transfused PI-PCs were more than 5 days old. Transfusion of PI-PC more than 5 days old compared with 5 days old or less did not increase platelet and RBC use on the same or next day as an indirect measure of hemostasis and did not increase transfusion reactions. Mean corrected count increments (CCIs) for PI-PC stored for 5 days or less were 22.6% lower than for C-PC (p < 0.001), and declined with increasing storage duration for both, although the correlation was weak (r2 = 0.005-0.014). Mean number of PCs used per patient and duration of PC support were not different for hematology/oncology, allogeneic and autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT), and general medical/surgical patients, who used the majority (~92.0%) of PI-PCs. Five-year treatment-related mortality in allogeneic HSCT was unchanged in the PI-PC period. CONCLUSIONS: PI-PCs with 7-day storage reduced wastage and did not increase PC or red blood cell utilization or adverse reactions compared with fresh PI-PC or a historical control group, demonstrating preserved efficacy and safety.

6.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 149: w20007, 2019 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30715722

RESUMO

After decades of ordinary scientific interest, fluid resuscitation of patients with septic and haemorrhagic shock took centre stage in intensive care research at the turn of the millennium. By that time, resuscitation fluids were the mainstay of haemodynamic stabilisation, avoidance of vasopressors and treatment of hypovolaemia in patients in shock, but were accompanied by adverse events such as excessive tissue oedema. With the spread of early goal-directed therapy research intensified and it was realised that type, volume and timing of resuscitation fluids might affect the course and outcome of critically ill patients. At the same time, the importance of microvascular blood flow as target of resuscitation was accepted. Today, once-forbidden albumin is the recommended colloid in severe sepsis and septic shock, and the European Medical Agency is considering the removal of starch solutions from the European market because of an increased incidence of acute kidney injury and mortality. This is unprecedented, especially because the administration of low-molecular-weight starches seems to have advantages in indications other than sepsis, and because practices in fluid resuscitation have changed fundamentally since the negative starch studies. Crystalloids are still the mainstay of hypovolaemia treatment in critically ill patients, but awareness is increasing that electrolyte composition, strong ion gap, tonicity and the bicarbonate-substituting anion may have an effect on adverse effects and outcome. In haemorrhagic shock, the utilisation of crystalloids and colloids is retreating, and plasma and erythrocyte concentrates are gaining more importance in the resuscitation of the patient with acute bleeding. However, there are still influential voices warning against the liberal usage of plasma concentrates and erythrocytes in trauma and haemorrhagic shock. This review describes the evidence relating to fluid resuscitation in sepsis, septic shock and massive haemorrhage. Beside the scientific evidence based on clinical trials, possible effects on the microcirculation and, therefore, organ function will be illustrated and areas of future research highlighted. The critical appraisal of the existing evidence should enable the reader to choose the optimal volume substitution for an individual patient.


Assuntos
Soluções Cristaloides/administração & dosagem , Hidratação/métodos , Microcirculação/fisiologia , Choque Hemorrágico/terapia , Choque Séptico/terapia , Cuidados Críticos/métodos , Hidratação/normas , Hemodinâmica , Humanos
7.
Heart ; 105(11): 826-833, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30541757

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Recently, daytime variation in perioperative myocardial injury (PMI) has been observed in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. We aim at investigating whether daytime variation also occurs in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery. METHODS: In a prospective diagnostic study, we evaluated the presence of daytime variation in PMI in patients at increased cardiovascular risk undergoing non-cardiac surgery, as well as its possible impact on the incidence of acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and death during 1-year follow-up in a propensity score-matched cohort. PMI was defined as an absolute increase in high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) concentration of ≥14 ng/L from preoperative to postoperative measurements. RESULTS: Of 1641 patients, propensity score matching defined 630 with similar baseline characteristics, half undergoing non-cardiac surgery in the morning (starting from 8:00 to 11:00) and half in the afternoon (starting from 14:00 to 17:00). There was no difference in PMI incidence between both groups (morning: 50, 15.8% (95% CI 12.3 to 20.3); afternoon: 52, 16.4% (95% CI 12.7 to 20.9), p=0.94), nor if analysing hs-cTnT release as a quantitative variable (median morning group: 3 ng/L (95% CI 1 to 7 ng/L); median afternoon group: 2 ng/L (95% CI 0 to 7 ng/L; p=0.16). During 1-year follow-up, the incidence of AMI was 1.2% (95% CI 0.4% to 3.2%) among morning surgeries versus 4.1% (95% CI 2.3% to 6.9%) among the afternoon surgeries (corrected HR for afternoon surgery 3.44, bootstrapped 95% CI 1.33 to 10.49, p log-rank=0.03), whereas no difference in mortality emerged (p=0.70). CONCLUSIONS: Although there is no daytime variation in PMI in patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery, the incidence of AMI during follow-up is increased in afternoon surgeries and requires further study. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT02573532;Results.

8.
Interact Cardiovasc Thorac Surg ; 28(5): 665-673, 2019 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30535154

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to evaluate the impact of the discontinuation times of dual antiplatelet therapy with clopidogrel, prasugrel or ticagrelor on postoperative bleeding rates and the use of blood products in patients undergoing isolated urgent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). METHODS: We retrospectively analysed 334 patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing urgent CABG at the University Hospital Basel. A total of 262 patients continued to take dual antiplatelet therapy during the surgery (72 received clopidogrel; 68, prasugrel; and 122, ticagrelor). They were stratified by the discontinuation time of dual antiplatelet therapy (<24 h, 24-48 h, 48-72 h and >72 h). Seventy-two patients taking acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) as monotherapy served as a comparison group. RESULTS: Median postsurgical bleeding rates were significantly higher with ticagrelor if it was discontinued <24 h [1220 ml, interquartile range (IQR) 978-1520 ml; P < 0.001], 24-48 h (1200 ml, IQR 800-1550 ml; P < 0.001) and 48-72 h (1100 ml, IQR 845-1245 ml; P = 0.036) but not if discontinued >72 h (700 ml, IQR 520-825 ml; P = 0.22) and with prasugrel if discontinued <24 h (1320 ml, IQR 900-1950 ml; P < 0.001) but not if discontinued 24-48 h (1050 ml, IQR 638-1438 ml; P = 0.089) or >72 h (750 ml, IQR 488-1040; P = 0.63) compared to ASA monotherapy (800 ml, IQR 593-1043 ml). The postsurgical use of blood products compared to ASA monotherapy (0, IQR 0-2 units) was significantly higher with ticagrelor and prasugrel if discontinued <24 h (2.5 units, IQR 0-6; P < 0.001 and 2 units, IQR 1-6; P < 0.001, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Discontinuation of ticagrelor and prasugrel for more than 72 h before urgent CABG was not associated with higher bleeding rates compared to treatment with ASA monotherapy. In contrast, discontinuation for less than 24 h was associated with higher use of blood products. For ticagrelor, this study supports evidence and recent guidelines proposing a shorter discontinuation time of 3 days and raises the question of whether the same could be true for prasugrel.

12.
Am Heart J ; 203: 67-73, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30041065

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We aimed to directly compare preoperative high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) I and T concentration for the prediction of major cardiac complications after non-cardiac surgery. METHODS: We measured hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT preoperatively in a blinded fashion in 1022 patients undergoing non-cardiac surgery. The primary endpoint was a composite of major cardiac complications including cardiac death, cardiac arrest, myocardial infarction, clinically relevant arrhythmias, and acute heart failure within 30 days. We hypothesized that the type of surgery may impact on the predictive accuracy of hs-cTnI/T and stratified all analyses according to the type of surgery. RESULTS: Major cardiac complications occurred in 108 (11%) patients, 58/243 (24%) patients undergoing vascular surgery and 50/779 (6%, P < .001) patients undergoing non-vascular surgery. Using regulatory-approved 99th percentile cut-off concentrations, preoperative hs-cTnI elevations were less than one-fifth as common as preoperative hs-cTnT elevations (P < .001). Among patients undergoing vascular surgery, preoperative hs-cTnI concentrations, but not hs-cTnT, was an independent predictor of cardiac complications (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.5, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.0-2.1). The area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve (AUC) was 0.67 (95% CI, 0.59-0.75) for hs-cTnI versus 0.59 (95% CI 0.51-0.67, P = .012) for hs-cTnT. In contrast, among patients undergoing non-vascular surgery both preoperative hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT were independent predictors of the primary endpoint (aOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.3-2.0, and aOR 3.0, 95% CI 2.0-4.6, respectively) and showed higher predictive accuracy (AUC 0.77, 95% CI, 0.71-0.83, and 0.79, 95% CI 0.73-0.85, P = ns). CONCLUSIONS: Preoperative hs-cTnI and hs-cTnT concentrations predict major cardiac complications after non-vascular surgery, while, in patients undergoing vascular surgery, hs-cTnI may have better accuracy.

14.
Eur J Anaesthesiol ; 35(9): 682-690, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29750698

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Copeptin levels in conjunction with cardiac troponin may be used to rule out early myocardial infarction in patients presenting with chest pain. Raised pre-operative copeptin has been shown to be associated with postoperative cardiac events. However, very little is known about the peri-operative time course of copeptin or the feasibility of very early postoperative copeptin measurement to diagnose or rule-out myocardial injury. OBJECTIVES: In this preparatory analysis for a larger trial, we sought to examine the time course of peri-operative copeptin and identify the time at which concentrations returned to pre-operative levels. Second, in an explorative analysis, we sought to examine the association of copeptin in general and at various time points with myocardial injury occurring within the first 48 h. DESIGN: Preparatory analysis of a prospective, observational cohort study. SETTING: Single university centre from February to July 2016. PATIENTS: A total of 30 consecutive adults undergoing vascular surgery. INTERVENTION: Serial peri-operative copeptin measurements. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: We measured copeptin concentrations before and immediately after surgery (0 h), then at 2, 4, 6 and 8 h after surgery and on the first and second postoperative day. Postoperative concentrations were compared with pre-operative levels with a Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Second, we explored an association between postoperative copeptin concentrations and myocardial injury by the second postoperative day. Myocardial injury was defined as a 5 ng l increase between pre-operative and postoperative high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T with an absolute peak of at least 20 ng l. RESULTS: Immediate postoperative copeptin concentrations (median [interquartile range]) increased nearly eight-fold from pre-operative values (8.5 [3.6 to 13.8] to 64.75 pmol l [29.6 to 258.7]; P < 0.001). Copeptin concentrations remained elevated until returning to baseline on the second postoperative day. Postoperative copeptin was significantly higher in patients experiencing myocardial injury than in those who did not (P = 0.02). The earliest most promising single time point for diagnosis may be immediately after surgery (0 h). The receiver-operating characteristics curve for immediate postoperative copeptin and myocardial injury by the second postoperative day was 0.743 (95% confidence interval 0.560 to 0.926). CONCLUSION: Copeptin concentrations are greatly increased after vascular surgery and remain so until the 2nd postoperative day. Postoperative copeptin concentrations appear to be higher in patients who go on to exhibit myocardial injury. Immediate postoperative copeptin concentrations show promise for eliminating or identifying those at risk of myocardial injury. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02687776, Mauermann/Lurati Buse.

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