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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33860702

RESUMO

Objective: To assess patients Quality of life (QoL) and the burden of their caregivers during Covid-19 pandemic and specifically the impact of two-month lockdown period. Methods: In April 2020, a total of 60 patients and 59 caregivers were administered by phone scales assessing patients' QoL (McGill QoL Questionnaire), general health status (EQ-5D-5L), and caregiver burden (Zarit Burden Interview). The administration was repeated one month after the end of lockdown measures, with the addition of a qualitative questionnaire (COVID-QoL Questionnaire) exploring family reorganization and personal perception of lock down. Results: QoL and perceived health status did not worsen during lockdown, while caregiver burden increased (p = 0.01). Patient's QoL and caregiver burden were inversely correlated at T1 (ZBI total score mildly correlated with Mc Gill existential subscore, p = 0.02, rho = 0.30 and with Mc Gill total score, p = 0.05, rho = 0.265). No significant correlations were found at T2. According to the COVID-QoL questionnaire, caregivers perceived lower family help compared to patients (p < 0.001). Conclusions: Restricted measures of lockdown period during COVID-19 pandemic did not result in a significant reduction of QoL in our cohort of ALS patients, while caregiver burden significantly increased. ALS motor impairment may have played a role in the unchanged life conditions of patients. Instead, the restriction of family help for primary caregivers could be responsible of their increased burden, reflecting the importance of a wide social support in the management of this clinical condition.

2.
Audiol Neurootol ; 26(5): 353-360, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849007

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neuromuscular progressive disorder, characterized by limb and bulbar muscle wasting and weakness. 30% of patients present a bulbar onset, while 70% a spinal outbreak, although most of them develop bulbar impairment later on. Due to the lack of an early biomarker of bulbar involvement, we chose to evaluate the role of stapedial reflex (SR) in order to predict preclinical bulbar impairment in ALS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We enrolled 36 ALS patients. We assessed revised-ALS functional-rating-scale and SR for a total of 4 visits. We established the presence of SR, acoustic reflex latency test (ARLT), and SRs Decay. Patients who had not develop bulbar signs at fourth visit continued follow-up up to 15 months. Data were analyzed by using Mann-Whitney U test, Friedman test, and Cox regression analysis. RESULTS: We observed that SRs Decay at 500 and 1,000 Hz is the first parameter of SR to get altered in all ALS patients before the development of bulbar impairment. Twenty-eight patients developed bulbar impairment during the study. We highlighted a correlation between the progression rate of disease and both time of SRs Decay alteration and time of bulbar impairment from disease onset. Four patients who did not develop bulbar impairment had a progression rate lower than the other ones (p < 0.05). DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that SR Decay test could be a sensitive measure for detecting pre-symptomatic bulbar involvement in ALS and could represent a simple, noninvasive, and useful biomarker of disease progression.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Biomarcadores , Humanos , Reflexo Acústico
3.
Neurol Sci ; 42(6): 2211-2222, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33772353

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the degeneration of both upper and lower motoneurons in the brain and spinal cord leading to motor and extra-motor symptoms. Although traditionally considered a pure motor disease, recent evidences suggest that ALS is a multisystem disorder. Neuropsychological alterations, in fact, are observed in more than 50% of patients: while executive dysfunctions have been firstly identified, alterations in verbal fluency, behavior, and pragmatic and social cognition have also been described. Detecting and monitoring ALS cognitive and behavioral impairment even at early disease stages is likely to have staging and prognostic implications, and it may impact the enrollment in future clinical trials. During the last 10 years, humoral, radiological, neurophysiological, and genetic biomarkers have been reported in ALS, and some of them seem to potentially correlate to cognitive and behavioral impairment of patients. In this review, we sought to give an up-to-date state of the art of neuropsychological alterations in ALS: we will describe tests used to detect cognitive and behavioral impairment, and we will focus on promising non-invasive biomarkers to detect pre-clinical cognitive decline. CONCLUSIONS: To date, the research on humoral, radiological, neurophysiological, and genetic correlates of neuropsychological alterations is at the early stage, and no conclusive longitudinal data have been published. Further and longitudinal studies on easily accessible and quantifiable biomarkers are needed to clarify the time course and the evolution of cognitive and behavioral impairments of ALS patients.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Disfunção Cognitiva , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/complicações , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Testes Neuropsicológicos
4.
Neurol Sci ; 42(3): 817-823, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33443668

RESUMO

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is having a huge impact on clinical activity of all hospitals, including the ones involved in training of residents. In addition, neurology residents underwent substantial modifications of their training program. Aim of our investigation was to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on the educational activities of Italian neurology residents through an online questionnaire delivered to neurology residents. The results obtained showed that almost 30% of the respondents were redistributed to COVID-19 units. Neurology departments underwent substantial modifications of their organization influencing clinical educational activities; lessons and seminars were rescheduled online and research protocols were stopped and transferred to remote working, when feasible. There was a relevant use of telemedicine approach even if most of the respondents had never been trained before. Some of the changes had a North-South gradient, following the epidemiology of the pandemic. The data obtained from our survey highlight those points to address to be prepared for possible future emergencies.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Educação de Pós-Graduação em Medicina/organização & administração , Internato e Residência/organização & administração , Neurologia/educação , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Inquéritos e Questionários
5.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32924624

RESUMO

We describe the telemedicine experience of an Italian ALS tertiary Center during COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 144 visits were scheduled between 6th March and 6th April 2020. These mostly consisted of neurological or psychological visits (139, 96.5%). One hundred thirty-nine (96.5%) visits were performed as telemedicine and mostly via phone call (112, 80.6%). Three (2.1%) visits were considered as urgent and maintained as outpatient care. Additionally, patients were still able to telephone, being put through directly to their neurologists. Many requests of contact were addressed at getting information about the scheduled visits or examinations (45, 43.3%). Globally, patients and caregivers were satisfied with the telemedicine service. However, the majority (85, 65.9%) would prefer a face-to-face visit. In conclusion, telemedicine could be considered a good complement to face-to-face care, even after social restrictions have been eased.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/terapia , COVID-19 , Neurologia , Preferência do Paciente , Satisfação do Paciente , Psicologia , Telemedicina/métodos , Idoso , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/fisiopatologia , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/psicologia , Gerenciamento Clínico , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Equipe de Assistência ao Paciente , SARS-CoV-2 , Fonoterapia , Centros de Atenção Terciária
6.
Neurol Sci ; 42(1): 9-13, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025327

RESUMO

Over the last months, due to coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, containment measures have led to important social restriction. Healthcare systems have faced a complete rearrangement of resources and spaces, with the creation of wards devoted to COVID-19 patients. In this context, patients affected by chronic neurological diseases, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), are at risk to be lost at follow-up, leading to a higher risk of morbidity and mortality. Telemedicine may allow meet the needs of these patients. In this commentary, we briefly discuss the digital tools to remotely monitor and manage ALS patients. Focusing on detecting disease progression and preventing life-threatening conditions, we propose a toolset able to improve ALS management during this unprecedented situation.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/terapia , COVID-19 , Monitorização Ambulatorial , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Telemedicina , Humanos
7.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32856494

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To validate and assess the reliability of the Italian version of self-administered ALSFRS-R, considering patients' clinical and cognitive features and caregiver's help. Methods: During the COVID-19 pandemic, by analyzing the results of 70 paired self-administered vs standard telephone-administered ALSFRS-R, we calculated overall score, single item scores, ALSFRS-R domain scores, King's and MiToS stage inter-rater agreement and reliability using different validated methods. We created the Italian version of self-administered ALSFRS-R following ENCALS recommendation. Results: Correlation between the two scales was 0.94 and no systematic directional bias was found. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was very high (>0.90) for the vast majority of the considered classification criteria, especially King's total score (0.96) and MiToS score (0.94). A higher ICC was found when the patients answered the questionnaire with the caregiver's help (0.95). Conclusions: Online self-administered ALSFRS-R scale is a valid tool to stratify ALS patients into clinical stages and to implement telemedicine monitoring.


Assuntos
Atividades Cotidianas , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/epidemiologia , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Inquéritos e Questionários/normas , Telemedicina/normas , Atividades Cotidianas/psicologia , Idoso , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/psicologia , COVID-19/psicologia , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Telemedicina/métodos
9.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 90(7): 734-739, 2019 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30733331

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: In 2017, the diagnostic criteria for cognitive and behavioural impairment in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) with frontotemporal dementia (ALSFTD-1) have been modified (ALSFTD-2) with the inclusion of a novel category (ALS with combined cognitive and behavioural impairment, ALScbi) and with changes of operational criteria of the other categories (ALS with cognitive impairment (ALSci), ALS with behavioural impairment (ALSbi) and ALS with frontotemporal dementia (ALS-FTD)). We compared the two sets of criteria to assess the effect of the revised criteria on the cognitive classification of patients with ALS. METHODS: Two cohorts of patients with ALS were included in this study: a population-based cohort including patients identified through the Piemonte/Valle d'Aosta register for ALS in the 2014-2017 period (n=321), and a referral cohort recruited at the Turin ALS centre and at the ALS centre of the Maugeri Institute in Milan in the same period (n=205). Cognitive function was classified in blind by two neuropsychologists expert in ALS. RESULTS: ALSFTD-2 criteria determined a shift of about 15% of patients from their original category to a new one. In both cohorts, about 9% of patients were reclassified to the novel category ALScbi. Among patients previously classified as cognitively normal, 14 (4.3%, population-based cohort) and 19 (9.3%, referral cohort) were reclassified as ALSbi or ALSci. The median survival of the different categories was significantly different with both with sets of criteria. CONCLUSIONS: The new ALSFTD-2 criteria, compared with the old ones, have positive effects on the clinical practice being more sensitive to the early cognitive impairment and having a better prognostic yield.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral , Disfunção Cognitiva , Demência Frontotemporal , Idoso , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/classificação , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Demência Frontotemporal/classificação , Demência Frontotemporal/diagnóstico , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos
10.
J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry ; 90(6): 666-673, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30630957

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: To assess the role of body mass index (BMI) and of the rate of weight loss as prognostic factors in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and to explore the clinical correlates of weight loss in the early phases of the disease. METHODS: The study cohort included all ALS patients in Piemonte/Valle d'Aosta in the 2007-2011 period. Overall survival and the probability of death/tracheostomy at 18 months (logistic regression model) were calculated. RESULTS: Of the 712 patients, 620 (87.1%) were included in the study. Patients ' survival was related to the mean monthly percentage of weight loss at diagnosis (p<0.0001), but not to pre-morbid BMI or BMI at diagnosis. Spinal onset patients with dysphagia at diagnosis had a median survival similar to bulbar onset patients. About 20% of spinal onset patients without dysphagia at diagnosis had severe weight loss and initial respiratory impairment, and had a median survival time similar to bulbar onset patients. CONCLUSIONS: The rate of weight loss from onset to diagnosis was found to be a strong and independent prognostic factor in ALS. Weight loss was mainly due to the reduction of nutritional intake related to dysphagia, but a subgroup of spinal onset patients without dysphagia at diagnosis had a severe weight loss and an outcome similar to bulbar patients. According to our findings, we recommend that in clinical trials patients should be stratified according to the presence of dysphagia at the time of enrolment and not by site of onset of symptoms.


Assuntos
Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/patologia , Perda de Peso , Idoso , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/diagnóstico , Esclerose Amiotrófica Lateral/mortalidade , Índice de Massa Corporal , Estudos de Coortes , Progressão da Doença , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Análise de Sobrevida
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