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1.
Nat Genet ; 51(7): 1137-1148, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31253982

RESUMO

Genetic studies promise to provide insight into the molecular mechanisms underlying type 2 diabetes (T2D). Variants associated with T2D are often located in tissue-specific enhancer clusters or super-enhancers. So far, such domains have been defined through clustering of enhancers in linear genome maps rather than in three-dimensional (3D) space. Furthermore, their target genes are often unknown. We have created promoter capture Hi-C maps in human pancreatic islets. This linked diabetes-associated enhancers to their target genes, often located hundreds of kilobases away. It also revealed >1,300 groups of islet enhancers, super-enhancers and active promoters that form 3D hubs, some of which show coordinated glucose-dependent activity. We demonstrate that genetic variation in hubs impacts insulin secretion heritability, and show that hub annotations can be used for polygenic scores that predict T2D risk driven by islet regulatory variants. Human islet 3D chromatin architecture, therefore, provides a framework for interpretation of T2D genome-wide association study (GWAS) signals.

2.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 78(3)2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30552173

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a chronic inflammatory arthritis affecting up to 30% of patients with psoriasis (Ps). To date, most of the known risk loci for PsA are shared with Ps, and identifying disease-specific variation has proven very challenging. The objective of the present study was to identify genetic variation specific for PsA. METHODS: We performed a genome-wide association study in a cohort of 835 patients with PsA and 1558 controls from Spain. Genetic association was tested at the single marker level and at the pathway level. Meta-analysis was performed with a case-control cohort of 2847 individuals from North America. To confirm the specificity of the genetic associations with PsA, we tested the associated variation using a purely cutaneous psoriasis cohort (PsC, n=614) and a rheumatoid arthritis cohort (RA, n=1191). Using network and drug-repurposing analyses, we further investigated the potential of the PsA-specific associations to guide the development of new drugs in PsA. RESULTS: We identified a new PsA risk single-nucleotide polymorphism at B3GNT2 locus (p=1.10e-08). At the pathway level, we found 14 genetic pathways significantly associated with PsA (pFDR<0.05). From these, the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) metabolism pathway was confirmed to be disease-specific after comparing the PsA cohort with the cohorts of patients with PsC and RA. Finally, we identified candidate drug targets in the GAG metabolism pathway as well as new PsA indications for approved drugs. CONCLUSION: These findings provide insights into the biological mechanisms that are specific for PsA and could contribute to develop more effective therapies.

3.
PLoS Med ; 15(9): e1002654, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30240442

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a heterogeneous disease for which (1) disease-causing pathways are incompletely understood and (2) subclassification may improve patient management. Unlike other biomarkers, germline genetic markers do not change with disease progression or treatment. In this paper, we test whether a germline genetic approach informed by physiology can be used to deconstruct T2D heterogeneity. First, we aimed to categorize genetic loci into groups representing likely disease mechanistic pathways. Second, we asked whether the novel clusters of genetic loci we identified have any broad clinical consequence, as assessed in four separate subsets of individuals with T2D. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In an effort to identify mechanistic pathways driven by established T2D genetic loci, we applied Bayesian nonnegative matrix factorization (bNMF) clustering to genome-wide association study (GWAS) results for 94 independent T2D genetic variants and 47 diabetes-related traits. We identified five robust clusters of T2D loci and traits, each with distinct tissue-specific enhancer enrichment based on analysis of epigenomic data from 28 cell types. Two clusters contained variant-trait associations indicative of reduced beta cell function, differing from each other by high versus low proinsulin levels. The three other clusters displayed features of insulin resistance: obesity mediated (high body mass index [BMI] and waist circumference [WC]), "lipodystrophy-like" fat distribution (low BMI, adiponectin, and high-density lipoprotein [HDL] cholesterol, and high triglycerides), and disrupted liver lipid metabolism (low triglycerides). Increased cluster genetic risk scores were associated with distinct clinical outcomes, including increased blood pressure, coronary artery disease (CAD), and stroke. We evaluated the potential for clinical impact of these clusters in four studies containing individuals with T2D (Metabolic Syndrome in Men Study [METSIM], N = 487; Ashkenazi, N = 509; Partners Biobank, N = 2,065; UK Biobank [UKBB], N = 14,813). Individuals with T2D in the top genetic risk score decile for each cluster reproducibly exhibited the predicted cluster-associated phenotypes, with approximately 30% of all individuals assigned to just one cluster top decile. Limitations of this study include that the genetic variants used in the cluster analysis were restricted to those associated with T2D in populations of European ancestry. CONCLUSION: Our approach identifies salient T2D genetically anchored and physiologically informed pathways, and supports the use of genetics to deconstruct T2D heterogeneity. Classification of patients by these genetic pathways may offer a step toward genetically informed T2D patient management.

5.
Nat Genet ; 50(8): 1072-1080, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30013184

RESUMO

Allergic rhinitis is the most common clinical presentation of allergy, affecting 400 million people worldwide, with increasing incidence in westernized countries1,2. To elucidate the genetic architecture and understand the underlying disease mechanisms, we carried out a meta-analysis of allergic rhinitis in 59,762 cases and 152,358 controls of European ancestry and identified a total of 41 risk loci for allergic rhinitis, including 20 loci not previously associated with allergic rhinitis, which were confirmed in a replication phase of 60,720 cases and 618,527 controls. Functional annotation implicated genes involved in various immune pathways, and fine mapping of the HLA region suggested amino acid variants important for antigen binding. We further performed genome-wide association study (GWAS) analyses of allergic sensitization against inhalant allergens and nonallergic rhinitis, which suggested shared genetic mechanisms across rhinitis-related traits. Future studies of the identified loci and genes might identify novel targets for treatment and prevention of allergic rhinitis.

6.
Arthritis Res Ther ; 20(1): 100, 2018 May 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29848360

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a common systemic autoimmune disease with a complex genetic inheritance. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have significantly increased the number of significant loci associated with SLE risk. To date, however, established loci account for less than 30% of the disease heritability and additional risk variants have yet to be identified. Here we performed a GWAS followed by a meta-analysis to identify new genome-wide significant loci for SLE. METHODS: We genotyped a cohort of 907 patients with SLE (cases) and 1524 healthy controls from Spain and performed imputation using the 1000 Genomes reference data. We tested for association using logistic regression with correction for the principal components of variation. Meta-analysis of the association results was subsequently performed on 7,110,321 variants using genetic data from a large cohort of 4036 patients with SLE and 6959 controls of Northern European ancestry. Genetic association was also tested at the pathway level after removing the effect of known risk loci using PASCAL software. RESULTS: We identified five new loci associated with SLE at the genome-wide level of significance (p < 5 × 10- 8): GRB2, SMYD3, ST8SIA4, LAT2 and ARHGAP27. Pathway analysis revealed several biological processes significantly associated with SLE risk: B cell receptor signaling (p = 5.28 × 10- 6), CTLA4 co-stimulation during T cell activation (p = 3.06 × 10- 5), interleukin-4 signaling (p = 3.97 × 10- 5) and cell surface interactions at the vascular wall (p = 4.63 × 10- 5). CONCLUSIONS: Our results identify five novel loci for SLE susceptibility, and biologic pathways associated via multiple low-effect-size loci.

7.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 2162, 2018 05 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29849136

RESUMO

In the originally published version of this Article, the affiliation details for Santi González, Jian'an Luan and Claudia Langenberg were inadvertently omitted. Santi González should have been affiliated with 'Barcelona Supercomputing Center (BSC), Joint BSC-CRG-IRB Research Program in Computational Biology, 08034 Barcelona, Spain', and Jian'an Luan and Claudia Langenberg should have been affiliated with 'MRC Epidemiology Unit, University of Cambridge School of Clinical Medicine, Cambridge Biomedical Campus, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, UK'. Furthermore, the abstract contained an error in the SNP ID for the rare variant in chromosome Xq23, which was incorrectly given as rs146662057 and should have been rs146662075. These errors have now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.

8.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 321, 2018 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29358691

RESUMO

The reanalysis of existing GWAS data represents a powerful and cost-effective opportunity to gain insights into the genetics of complex diseases. By reanalyzing publicly available type 2 diabetes (T2D) genome-wide association studies (GWAS) data for 70,127 subjects, we identify seven novel associated regions, five driven by common variants (LYPLAL1, NEUROG3, CAMKK2, ABO, and GIP genes), one by a low-frequency (EHMT2), and one driven by a rare variant in chromosome Xq23, rs146662057, associated with a twofold increased risk for T2D in males. rs146662057 is located within an active enhancer associated with the expression of Angiotensin II Receptor type 2 gene (AGTR2), a modulator of insulin sensitivity, and exhibits allelic specific activity in muscle cells. Beyond providing insights into the genetics and pathophysiology of T2D, these results also underscore the value of reanalyzing publicly available data using novel genetic resources and analytical approaches.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos X/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Alelos , Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Masculino , Modelos Genéticos , Fatores de Risco
9.
Diabetes ; 66(11): 2903-2914, 2017 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28838971

RESUMO

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) affects more than 415 million people worldwide, and its costs to the health care system continue to rise. To identify common or rare genetic variation with potential therapeutic implications for T2D, we analyzed and replicated genome-wide protein coding variation in a total of 8,227 individuals with T2D and 12,966 individuals without T2D of Latino descent. We identified a novel genetic variant in the IGF2 gene associated with ∼20% reduced risk for T2D. This variant, which has an allele frequency of 17% in the Mexican population but is rare in Europe, prevents splicing between IGF2 exons 1 and 2. We show in vitro and in human liver and adipose tissue that the variant is associated with a specific, allele-dosage-dependent reduction in the expression of IGF2 isoform 2. In individuals who do not carry the protective allele, expression of IGF2 isoform 2 in adipose is positively correlated with both incidence of T2D and increased plasma glycated hemoglobin in individuals without T2D, providing support that the protective effects are mediated by reductions in IGF2 isoform 2. Broad phenotypic examination of carriers of the protective variant revealed no association with other disease states or impaired reproductive health. These findings suggest that reducing IGF2 isoform 2 expression in relevant tissues has potential as a new therapeutic strategy for T2D, even beyond the Latin American population, with no major adverse effects on health or reproduction.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like II/metabolismo , Sítios de Splice de RNA/genética , Tecido Adiposo , Linhagem Celular , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/fisiologia , Variação Genética , Genótipo , Humanos , Fator de Crescimento Insulin-Like II/genética , Fígado , Americanos Mexicanos/genética , México , Isoformas de Proteínas , Células-Tronco
10.
Nat Genet ; 46(1): 51-5, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24241537

RESUMO

Asthma exacerbations are among the most frequent causes of hospitalization during childhood, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We performed a genome-wide association study of a specific asthma phenotype characterized by recurrent, severe exacerbations occurring between 2 and 6 years of age in a total of 1,173 cases and 2,522 controls. Cases were identified from national health registries of hospitalization, and DNA was obtained from the Danish Neonatal Screening Biobank. We identified five loci with genome-wide significant association. Four of these, GSDMB, IL33, RAD50 and IL1RL1, were previously reported as asthma susceptibility loci, but the effect sizes for these loci in our cohort were considerably larger than in the previous genome-wide association studies of asthma. We also obtained strong evidence for a new susceptibility gene, CDHR3 (encoding cadherin-related family member 3), which is highly expressed in airway epithelium. These results demonstrate the strength of applying specific phenotyping in the search for asthma susceptibility genes.


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Caderinas/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Proteínas de Membrana/genética , Asma/etiologia , Caderinas/química , Caderinas/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cromossomos Humanos Par 17 , Enzimas Reparadoras do DNA/genética , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Dinamarca , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Proteína 1 Semelhante a Receptor de Interleucina-1 , Interleucina-33 , Interleucinas/genética , Masculino , Proteínas de Membrana/química , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Modelos Moleculares , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Conformação Proteica , Receptores de Superfície Celular/genética
11.
PLoS Genet ; 8(12): e1003046, 2012.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23236286

RESUMO

Type 2 Diabetes (T2D) is a highly prevalent chronic metabolic disease with strong co-morbidity with obesity and cardiovascular diseases. There is growing evidence supporting the notion that a crosstalk between mitochondria and the insulin signaling cascade could be involved in the etiology of T2D and insulin resistance. In this study we investigated the molecular basis of this crosstalk by using systems biology approaches. We combined, filtered, and interrogated different types of functional interaction data, such as direct protein-protein interactions, co-expression analyses, and metabolic and signaling dependencies. As a result, we constructed the mitochondria-insulin (MITIN) network, which highlights 286 genes as candidate functional linkers between these two systems. The results of internal gene expression analysis of three independent experimental models of mitochondria and insulin signaling perturbations further support the connecting roles of these genes. In addition, we further assessed whether these genes are involved in the etiology of T2D using the genome-wide association study meta-analysis from the DIAGRAM consortium, involving 8,130 T2D cases and 38,987 controls. We found modest enrichment of genes associated with T2D amongst our linker genes (p = 0.0549), including three already validated T2D SNPs and 15 additional SNPs, which, when combined, were collectively associated to increased fasting glucose levels according to MAGIC genome wide meta-analysis (p = 8.12×10(-5)). This study highlights the potential of combining systems biology, experimental, and genome-wide association data mining for identifying novel genes and related variants that increase vulnerability to complex diseases.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Mitocôndrias , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Glucose/metabolismo , Humanos , Insulina/genética , Insulina/metabolismo , Redes e Vias Metabólicas , Mitocôndrias/genética , Mitocôndrias/metabolismo , Obesidade/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Biologia de Sistemas
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