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1.
Gynecol Oncol ; 155(2): 262-269, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31604666

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate clinical factors associated with prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in relapsing epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) patients with BRCA mutations and receiving olaparib as maintenance therapy in daily practice. METHODS: Multicenter (8 hospitals) European retrospective study of relapsing EOC patients having germline or somatic mutations of BRCA1/BRCA2 genes and treated with olaparib as maintenance therapy after platinum-based chemotherapy. RESULTS: One hundred and fifteen patients were included. Median age was 54 years. There were 90 BRCA1 carriers, 24 BRCA2 carriers and one patient had germline mutation of BRCA1 and BRCA2. Six patients had somatic mutations (all BRCA1) and 109 had germline mutations. Ninety percent had serous carcinomas and were platinum-sensitive. Following ultimate platinum-based chemotherapy, 69% of the patients had normalization of CA-125 levels and 87% had RECIST objective responses, either partial (53%) or complete (34%). After a median follow-up of 21 months, median PFS was 12.7 months and median OS was 35.4 months. In multivariate analysis, factors associated with prolonged PFS under olaparib were: platinum-free interval (PFI) ≥ 12 months, RECIST complete response (CR) or partial response (PR) and normalization of CA-125 upon ultimate platinum-based chemotherapy. Factors associated with prolonged OS were PFI ≥ 12 months, CR and normalization of CA-125. CONCLUSIONS: Platinum-free interval ≥ 12 months, complete response and normalized CA-125 levels after ultimate platinum-based chemotherapy are associated with prolonged PFS and OS in relapsing BRCA1/BRCA2 mutated ovarian cancer patients who received olaparib as maintenance therapy.

2.
Br J Cancer ; 121(2): 180-192, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213659

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Height and body mass index (BMI) are associated with higher ovarian cancer risk in the general population, but whether such associations exist among BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is unknown. METHODS: We applied a Mendelian randomisation approach to examine height/BMI with ovarian cancer risk using the Consortium of Investigators for the Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) data set, comprising 14,676 BRCA1 and 7912 BRCA2 mutation carriers, with 2923 ovarian cancer cases. We created a height genetic score (height-GS) using 586 height-associated variants and a BMI genetic score (BMI-GS) using 93 BMI-associated variants. Associations were assessed using weighted Cox models. RESULTS: Observed height was not associated with ovarian cancer risk (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.07 per 10-cm increase in height, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.94-1.23). Height-GS showed similar results (HR = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.85-1.23). Higher BMI was significantly associated with increased risk in premenopausal women with HR = 1.25 (95% CI: 1.06-1.48) and HR = 1.59 (95% CI: 1.08-2.33) per 5-kg/m2 increase in observed and genetically determined BMI, respectively. No association was found for postmenopausal women. Interaction between menopausal status and BMI was significant (Pinteraction < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Our observation of a positive association between BMI and ovarian cancer risk in premenopausal BRCA1/2 mutation carriers is consistent with findings in the general population.

3.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 174(3): 775-783, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30635808

RESUMO

PURPOSE: BRCA1 and BRCA2 proteins are central to DNA repair process through homologous recombination. We hypothesize that BRCA1/BRCA2 mutation carriers may exhibit increased hematological toxicity when receiving genotoxic chemotherapy. METHODS: We included women with primary breast cancers screened for BRCA1/BRCA2 germline mutations and treated with (neo)adjuvant chemotherapy in Geneva (Swiss cohort). The primary endpoint was the incidence of febrile neutropenia following the first chemotherapy cycle (C1). Secondary endpoints were the incidence of grade 3-4 neutropenia, grade 4 neutropenia and hospitalization during C1, G-CSF use and chemotherapy dose reduction during the entire chemotherapy regimen. Long-term toxicities (hematological, cardiac and neuropathy) were assessed in the Swiss cohort and a second cohort of patients from Lyon (French cohort). RESULTS: Overall, 221 patients were assessed for acute hematological toxicity, including 23 BRCA1 and 22 BRCA2 carriers. Following the C1, febrile neutropenia had an incidence of 35% (p = 0.002), 14% (p = 0.562) and 10% among BRCA1, BRCA2 and non-carriers, respectively. Grade 4 neutropenia was found in 57% of BRCA1 (p < 0.001), 14% of BRCA2 (p = 0.861) and 18% of non-carriers. G-CSF support was necessary in 86% of BRCA1 (p = 0.005), 64% of BRCA2 (p = 0.285) and 51% of non-carriers. For long-term toxicity analysis, 898 patients were included (167 BRCA1-, 91 BRCA2- and 640 non-carriers). There was no difference between the 3 groups. CONCLUSIONS: BRCA1 germline mutations is associated with greater acute hematological toxicity in breast cancer patients. These observations could have implication for primary prophylaxis with G-CSF.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Quimioterapia Adjuvante/efeitos adversos , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Adulto , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Neutropenia Febril/induzido quimicamente , Neutropenia Febril/epidemiologia , Feminino , França , Fator Estimulador de Colônias de Granulócitos/administração & dosagem , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Suíça
5.
Int J Cancer ; 2018 Oct 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30303537

RESUMO

Pathogenic variants in BRCA1 and BRCA2 only explain the underlying genetic cause of about 10% of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer families. Because of cost-effectiveness, multigene panel testing is often performed even if the clinical utility of testing most of the genes remains questionable. The purpose of our study was to assess the contribution of rare, deleterious-predicted variants in DNA repair genes in familial breast cancer (BC) in a well-characterized and homogeneous population. We analyzed 113 DNA repair genes selected from either an exome sequencing or a candidate gene approach in the GENESIS study, which includes familial BC cases with no BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation and having a sister with BC (N = 1,207), and general population controls (N = 1,199). Sequencing data were filtered for rare loss-of-function variants (LoF) and likely deleterious missense variants (MV). We confirmed associations between LoF and MV in PALB2, ATM and CHEK2 and BC occurrence. We also identified for the first time associations between FANCI, MAST1, POLH and RTEL1 and BC susceptibility. Unlike other associated genes, carriers of an ATM LoF had a significantly higher risk of developing BC than carriers of an ATM MV (ORLoF = 17.4 vs. ORMV = 1.6; p Het = 0.002). Hence, our approach allowed us to specify BC relative risks associated with deleterious-predicted variants in PALB2, ATM and CHEK2 and to add MAST1, POLH, RTEL1 and FANCI to the list of DNA repair genes possibly involved in BC susceptibility. We also highlight that different types of variants within the same gene can lead to different risk estimates.

6.
Bull Cancer ; 105(10): 907-917, 2018 Oct.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30268633

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Next generation sequencing allows the simultaneous analysis of large panel of genes for families or individuals with a strong suspicion of hereditary breast and/or ovarian cancer (HBOC). Because of lack of guidelines, several panels of genes potentially involved in HBOC were designed, with large disparities not only in their composition but also in medical care offered to mutation carriers. Then, homogenization in practices is needed. METHODS: The French Genetic and Cancer Group (GGC) - Unicancer conducted an exhaustive bibliographic work on 18 genes of interest. Only publications with unbiased risk estimates were retained. RESULTS: The expertise of each 18 genes was based on clinical utility criteria, i.e. a relative risk of cancer of 4 and more, available medical tools for screening and prevention of mutation carriers, and pre-symptomatic genetic tests for relatives. Finally, 13 genes were selected to be included in a HBOC diagnosis gene panel: BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, TP53, CDH1, PTEN, RAD51C, RAD51D, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, PMS2, EPCAM. The reasons for excluding NBN, RAD51B, CHEK2, STK11, ATM, BARD1, BRIP1 from the HBOC diagnosis panel are presented. Screening, prevention and genetic counselling guidelines were detailed for each of the 18 genes. DISCUSSION: Due to the rapid increase in knowledge, the GGC has planned a yearly update of the bibliography to take into account new findings. Furthermore, genetic-epidemiological studies are being initiated to better estimate the cancer risk associated with genes which are not yet included in the HBOC diagnosis panel.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética , Antígenos CD , Caderinas , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Molécula de Adesão da Célula Epitelial/genética , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Feminino , França , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Genes p53 , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Humanos , Endonuclease PMS2 de Reparo de Erro de Pareamento/genética , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL/genética , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , PTEN Fosfo-Hidrolase/genética
7.
Hum Mutat ; 39(5): 593-620, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29446198

RESUMO

The prevalence and spectrum of germline mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2 have been reported in single populations, with the majority of reports focused on White in Europe and North America. The Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA) has assembled data on 18,435 families with BRCA1 mutations and 11,351 families with BRCA2 mutations ascertained from 69 centers in 49 countries on six continents. This study comprehensively describes the characteristics of the 1,650 unique BRCA1 and 1,731 unique BRCA2 deleterious (disease-associated) mutations identified in the CIMBA database. We observed substantial variation in mutation type and frequency by geographical region and race/ethnicity. In addition to known founder mutations, mutations of relatively high frequency were identified in specific racial/ethnic or geographic groups that may reflect founder mutations and which could be used in targeted (panel) first pass genotyping for specific populations. Knowledge of the population-specific mutational spectrum in BRCA1 and BRCA2 could inform efficient strategies for genetic testing and may justify a more broad-based oncogenetic testing in some populations.

8.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 65(6): e27005, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29469200

RESUMO

Germline DICER1 pathogenic variants predispose to numerous benign and malignant tumors. In this report, we describe DICER1 gene analysis in an adolescent diagnosed with multinodular goiter, ovarian Sertoli-Leydig cell tumor, and lung cyst. DICER1 mutational screening at the DNA level failed to detect any pathogenic variant. Subsequent messenger RNA (mRNA) analysis revealed a 132 nucleotide intronic sequence exonization. This truncating event was caused by a deep intronic mutation generating a de novo acceptor splice site. This study demonstrates that some undetected DICER1 mutations should be investigated at the mRNA level.

9.
Clin Cancer Res ; 24(2): 326-333, 2018 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29084914

RESUMO

Purpose: BRCA2 plays a central role in homologous recombination by loading RAD51 on DNA breaks. The objective of this study is to determine whether the location of mutations in the RAD51-binding domain (RAD51-BD; exon 11) of BRCA2 gene affects the clinical outcome of ovarian cancer patients.Experimental Design: A study cohort of 353 women with ovarian cancer who underwent genetic germline testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes was identified. Progression-free survival (PFS), platinum-free interval (PFI), and overall survival (OS) were analyzed. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) cohort of ovarian cancer (n = 316) was used as a validation cohort.Results: In the study cohort, 78 patients were carriers of germline mutations of BRCA2 After adjustment for FIGO stage and macroscopic residual disease, BRCA2 carriers with truncating mutations in the RAD51-BD have significantly prolonged 5-year PFS [58%; adjusted HR, 0.36; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.20-0.64; P = 0.001] and prolonged PFI (29.7 vs. 15.5 months, P = 0.011), compared with noncarriers. BRCA2 carriers with mutations located in other domains of the gene do not have prolonged 5-year PFS (28%, adjusted HR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.42-1.07; P = 0.094) or PFI (19 vs. 15.5 months, P = 0.146). In the TCGA cohort, only BRCA2 carriers harboring germline or somatic mutations in the RAD51-BD have prolonged 5-year PFS (46%; adjusted HR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.13-0.68; P = 0.004) and 5-year OS (78%; adjusted HR, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.02-0.38; P = 0.001).Conclusions: Among ovarian cancer patients, BRCA2 carriers with mutations located in the RAD51-BD (exon 11) have prolonged PFS, PFI, and OS. Clin Cancer Res; 24(2); 326-33. ©2017 AACR.

10.
Ann Hematol ; 96(10): 1635-1639, 2017 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28752392

RESUMO

The genetic predisposition to familial hematological malignancies has been previously reported highlighting inherited gene mutations. Several genes have been reported but genetic basis remains not well defined. In this study, we extended our investigation to a potential candidate GATA2 gene which was analyzed by direct sequencing in 119 cases including familial aggregations with a variety of hematological malignancies and sporadic acute leukemia belonging to Tunisian and French populations. We reported a deleterious p.Arg396Gln GATA2 mutation in one patient diagnosed with both sporadic acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and breast cancer. We also reported several GATA2 variations in familial cases. The absence of deleterious mutations in this large cohort of familial aggregations of hematological malignancies may strengthen the hypothesis that GATA2 mutations are an important predisposing factor, although as a secondary genetic event, required for the development of overt malignant disease.


Assuntos
Família , Fator de Transcrição GATA2/genética , Neoplasias Hematológicas/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Neoplasias Hematológicas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/epidemiologia , Masculino , Tunísia/epidemiologia
11.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 161(1): 117-134, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27796716

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Cis-acting regulatory SNPs resulting in differential allelic expression (DAE) may, in part, explain the underlying phenotypic variation associated with many complex diseases. To investigate whether common variants associated with DAE were involved in breast cancer susceptibility among BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers, a list of 175 genes was developed based of their involvement in cancer-related pathways. METHODS: Using data from a genome-wide map of SNPs associated with allelic expression, we assessed the association of ~320 SNPs located in the vicinity of these genes with breast and ovarian cancer risks in 15,252 BRCA1 and 8211 BRCA2 mutation carriers ascertained from 54 studies participating in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2. RESULTS: We identified a region on 11q22.3 that is significantly associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA1 mutation carriers (most significant SNP rs228595 p = 7 × 10-6). This association was absent in BRCA2 carriers (p = 0.57). The 11q22.3 region notably encompasses genes such as ACAT1, NPAT, and ATM. Expression quantitative trait loci associations were observed in both normal breast and tumors across this region, namely for ACAT1, ATM, and other genes. In silico analysis revealed some overlap between top risk-associated SNPs and relevant biological features in mammary cell data, which suggests potential functional significance. CONCLUSION: We identified 11q22.3 as a new modifier locus in BRCA1 carriers. Replication in larger studies using estrogen receptor (ER)-negative or triple-negative (i.e., ER-, progesterone receptor-, and HER2-negative) cases could therefore be helpful to confirm the association of this locus with breast cancer risk.


Assuntos
Alelos , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Genes BRCA1 , Genes BRCA2 , Heterozigoto , Mutação , Biomarcadores Tumorais , Cromossomos Humanos Par 11 , Feminino , Expressão Gênica , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Humanos , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Risco
12.
Bull Cancer ; 104(2): 123-127, 2017 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27866680

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Genetic predisposition to familial hematological malignancies was previously described through several epidemiological analyses, but the genetic basis remains unclear. The tumor-suppressor ARLTS1 gene was previously described in sporadic hematological malignancies and familial cancer context. METHODS: In this study, we sequence the ARLTS1 gene in 100 patients belonging to 88 independent Tunisian and French families. RESULTS: After gene sequencing, we report 8 genetic variations, most of which were previously reported in several cancer forms. The most common variants were W149X and C148R and were previously associated to B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia and to high-risk of familial breast cancer. CONCLUSIONS: These results emphasize the fact that ARLTS1 gene mutations can be considered as a potential predisposing factor in familial hematological malignancies and other several cancer forms.


Assuntos
Fatores de Ribosilação do ADP/genética , Genes Supressores de Tumor , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Variação Genética , Neoplasias Hematológicas/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , França , Humanos , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/genética , Masculino , Tunísia
13.
Ann Hematol ; 95(12): 1943-1947, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27591990

RESUMO

Isocitrate dehydrogenase IDH 1 and IDH 2 mutations were reported in several cancer forms, especially in hematological malignancies, but were never been investigated in familial aggregation. The aim of this study is to determine whether germline isocitrate dehydrogenase genes mutations are involved.We targeted IDH1 and IDH2 genes in 104 familial cases belonging to Tunisian and French populations, including several forms of hematological malignancies and cosegregated solid tumors.We report one IDH1 variant: c.315 G>T, p.Gly105Gly in 15 % of cases, which was assigned to the worst outcome in several studies. Three IDH2 variants were found, among them, one intronic substitution c.543+45 G>A (rs142033117) and two new variants not previously described: c.389 A>T, p.Lys130Met and c.414 T>C, p.Thr138Thr. The p.Lys130Met was found in one case diagnosed with Waldenstrom's disease with familial history of cancer. The enrolled in silico analysis, the functional study, and the absence of this variant in control population strengthen the hypothesis of its deleterious effect.From an extended number of candidate genes analyzed in familial hematological malignancies, IDH2 might be considerably involved since we reported a potential damaging effect.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Hematológicas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Hematológicas/genética , Isocitrato Desidrogenase/genética , Mutação/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
14.
Ann Hematol ; 95(7): 1043-50, 2016 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27106701

RESUMO

Familial aggregation of hematological malignancies has been reported highlighting inherited genetic predisposition. In this study, we targeted four candidate genes: JAK2 and RUNX1 genes assuring a prominent function in hematological process and CBL and NPM1 as proto-oncogenes. Their disruption was described in several sporadic hematological malignancies. The aim of this study is to determine whether JAK2, CBL, RUNX1, and NPM1 germline genes mutations are involved in familial hematological malignancies. Using direct sequencing, we analyzed JAK2 (exons 12 and 14); CBL (exons 7, 8 and 9); NPM1 (exon 12) and the entire RUNX1 in 88 independent families belonging to Tunisian and French populations. Twenty-one sporadic acute leukemias were included in this study. We reported a heterozygous intronic c.1641 + 6 T > C JAK2 variant (rs182123615) found in two independent familial cases diagnosed with gastric lymphoma and Hodgkin lymphoma. The in silico analysis suggested a potential impact on splicing, but the functional splicing minigene reporter assay on rs182123615 variant showed no aberrant transcripts. In one sporadic acute myeloblastic leukemia, we reported an insertion 846 in. TGTT in exon 12 of NPM1 gene that may impact the normal reading frame. The rs182123615 JAK2 variant was described in several contexts including myeloproliferative neoplasms and congenital erythrocytosis and was supposed to be pathogenic. Through this current study, we established the assessment of pathogenicity of rs182123615 and we classified it rather as rare polymorphism.


Assuntos
Subunidade alfa 2 de Fator de Ligação ao Core/genética , Análise Mutacional de DNA/métodos , Neoplasias Hematológicas/genética , Janus Quinase 2/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Proto-Oncogênicas c-cbl/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Variação Genética/genética , Neoplasias Hematológicas/diagnóstico , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem
15.
BMC Cancer ; 16: 13, 2016 Jan 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26758370

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Less than 20% of familial breast cancer patients who undergo genetic testing for BRCA1 and BRCA2 carry a pathogenic mutation in one of these two genes. The GENESIS (GENE SISter) study was designed to identify new breast cancer susceptibility genes in women attending cancer genetics clinics and with no BRCA1/2 mutation. METHODS: The study involved the French national network of family cancer clinics. It was based on enrichment in genetic factors of the recruited population through case selection relying on familial criteria, but also on the consideration of environmental factors and endophenotypes like mammary density or tumor characteristics to assess potential genetic heterogeneity. One of the initial aims of GENESIS was to recruit affected sibpairs. Siblings were eligible when index cases and at least one affected sister were diagnosed with infiltrating mammary or ductal adenocarcinoma, with no BRCA1/2 mutation. In addition, unrelated controls and unaffected sisters were recruited. The enrolment of patients, their relatives and their controls, the collection of the clinical, epidemiological, familial and biological data were centralized by a coordinating center. RESULTS: Inclusion of participants started in February 2007 and ended in December 2013. A total of 1721 index cases, 826 affected sisters, 599 unaffected sisters and 1419 controls were included. 98% of participants completed the epidemiological questionnaire, 97% provided a blood sample, and 76% were able to provide mammograms. Index cases were on average 59 years old at inclusion, were born in 1950, and were 49.7 years of age at breast cancer diagnosis. The mean age at diagnosis of affected sisters was slightly higher (51.4 years). The representativeness of the control group was verified. CONCLUSIONS: The size of the study, the availability of biological specimens and the clinical data collection together with the detailed and complete epidemiological questionnaire make this a unique national resource for investigation of the missing heritability of breast cancer, by taking into account environmental and life style factors and stratifying data on endophenotypes to decrease genetic heterogeneity.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Proteínas de Neoplasias/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Testes Genéticos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade
16.
Eur J Hum Genet ; 24(1): 99-105, 2016 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25873010

RESUMO

To determine if the at-risk single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) alleles for colorectal cancer (CRC) could contribute to clinical situations suggestive of an increased genetic risk for CRC, we performed a prospective national case-control study based on highly selected patients (CRC in two first-degree relatives, one before 61 years of age; or CRC diagnosed before 51 years of age; or multiple primary CRCs, the first before 61 years of age; exclusion of Lynch syndrome and polyposes) and controls without personal or familial history of CRC. SNPs were genotyped using SNaPshot, and statistical analyses were performed using Pearson's χ(2) test, Cochran-Armitage test of trend and logistic regression. We included 1029 patients and 350 controls. We confirmed the association of CRC risk with four SNPs, with odds ratio (OR) higher than previously reported: rs16892766 on 8q23.3 (OR: 1.88, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.30-2.72; P=0.0007); rs4779584 on 15q13.3 (OR: 1.42, CI: 1.11-1.83; P=0.0061) and rs4939827 and rs58920878/Novel 1 on 18q21.1 (OR: 1.49, CI: 1.13-1.98; P=0.007 and OR: 1.49, CI: 1.14-1.95; P=0.0035). We found a significant (P<0.0001) cumulative effect of the at-risk alleles or genotypes with OR at 1.62 (CI: 1.10-2.37), 2.09 (CI: 1.43-3.07), 2.87 (CI: 1.76-4.70) and 3.88 (CI: 1.72-8.76) for 1, 2, 3 and at least 4 at-risk alleles, respectively, and OR at 1.71 (CI: 1.18-2.46), 2.29 (CI: 1.55-3.38) and 6.21 (CI: 2.67-14.42) for 1, 2 and 3 at-risk genotypes, respectively. Combination of SNPs may therefore explain a fraction of clinical situations suggestive of an increased risk for CRC.


Assuntos
Cromossomos Humanos Par 15 , Cromossomos Humanos Par 18 , Cromossomos Humanos Par 8 , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Colorretais/patologia , Feminino , Frequência do Gene , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Técnicas de Genotipagem , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco
17.
Breast Cancer Res Treat ; 154(3): 463-71, 2015 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26564480

RESUMO

Several population-based and family-based studies have demonstrated that germline mutations of the PALB2 gene (Partner and Localizer of BRCA2) are associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. Distinct mutation frequencies and spectrums have been described depending on the population studied. Here we describe the first complete PALB2 coding sequence screening in the French population. We screened the complete coding sequence and intron-exon boundaries of PALB2, using the EMMA technique, to assess the contribution of pathogenic mutations in a set of 835 familial breast cancer cases and 662 unrelated controls from the French national study GENESIS and the Paul Strauss Cancer Centre, all previously tested negative for BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic mutations. Our analysis revealed the presence of four novel deleterious mutations: c.1186insT, c.1857delT and c.2850delC in three cases, c.3418dupT in one control. In addition, we identified two in-frame insertion/deletion, 19 missense substitutions (two of them predicted as pathogenic), 9 synonymous variants, 28 variants located in introns and 2 in UTRs, as well as frequent variants. Truncating PALB2 mutations were found in 0.36% of familial breast cancer cases, a frequency lower than the one detected in comparable studies in other populations (0.73-3.40%). This suggests a small but significant contribution of PALB2 mutations to the breast cancer susceptibility in the French population.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Proteínas Supressoras de Tumor/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Éxons , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi , Feminino , França , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genética Populacional , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mutação , Neoplasias Ovarianas/genética
18.
J Clin Oncol ; 33(21): 2345-52, 2015 Jul 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26014290

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to update the description of Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), a remarkable cancer predisposition characterized by extensive clinical heterogeneity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From 1,730 French patients suggestive of LFS, we identified 415 mutation carriers in 214 families harboring 133 distinct TP53 alterations and updated their clinical presentation. RESULTS: The 322 affected carriers developed 552 tumors, and 43% had developed multiple malignancies. The mean age of first tumor onset was 24.9 years, 41% having developed a tumor by age 18. In childhood, the LFS tumor spectrum was characterized by osteosarcomas, adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC), CNS tumors, and soft tissue sarcomas (STS) observed in 30%, 27%, 26%, and 23% of the patients, respectively. In adults, the tumor distribution was characterized by the predominance of breast carcinomas observed in 79% of the females, and STS observed in 27% of the patients. The TP53 mutation detection rate in children presenting with ACC or choroid plexus carcinomas, and in females with breast cancer before age 31 years, without additional features indicative of LFS, was 45%, 42% and 6%, respectively. The mean age of tumor onset was statistically different (P < .05) between carriers harboring dominant-negative missense mutations (21.3 years) and those with all types of loss of function mutations (28.5 years) or genomic rearrangements (35.8 years). Affected children, except those with ACC, harbored mostly dominant-negative missense mutations. CONCLUSION: The clinical gradient of the germline TP53 mutations, which should be validated by other studies, suggests that it might be appropriate to stratify the clinical management of LFS according to the class of the mutation.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Li-Fraumeni/genética , Proteína Supressora de Tumor p53/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Feminino , França/epidemiologia , Testes Genéticos , Genótipo , Mutação em Linhagem Germinativa , Humanos , Síndrome de Li-Fraumeni/epidemiologia , Masculino , Fenótipo , Análise de Sequência de DNA
19.
Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev ; 24(4): 698-707, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25613119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mutations in BRCA1/2 confer a high risk of breast cancer, but literature values of this risk vary. A genotype-phenotype correlation has been found in both genes, and the effect of reproductive factors differs according to mutation location. Therefore, we hypothesize that such a variation may exist for other factors related to estrogen exposure. METHODS: We used a weighted Cox regression model to assess variation in breast cancer risk with these factors using location of mutation in homogeneous breast cancer risk region of BRCA1/2 in the GENEPSO study. RESULTS: We found that late age at menarche reduced breast cancer risk by 31% and that among BRCA1 carriers, a long or a short menstrual cycle increased risk (by 65% and 73%, respectively). Among premenopausal women, overweight was associated with a 45% decrease in risk whereas underweight was associated with an increased risk (HR, 2.40). A natural menopause, mainly after age 50, was associated with a high breast cancer risk (HR, 2.46), and a significant interaction between menopause status and the location of mutations was found leading up to 10% variation in absolute risk according to the age at menopause. CONCLUSIONS: As observed in the general population, a late menarche, a long or a short menstrual cycle, over- or underweight, and being postmenopausal were associated with breast cancer risk in BRCA1/2 carriers. The association with the menopause was observed only when the mutation was located in the "high-risk" zones. IMPACT: Taking into account modifier factors, location of mutation might be important for the clinical management of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers.


Assuntos
Proteína BRCA1/genética , Proteína BRCA2/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/epidemiologia , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estrogênios/efeitos adversos , Mutação/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Menarca , Menopausa , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , História Reprodutiva , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
20.
J Clin Oncol ; 33(4): 326-31, 2015 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25534380

RESUMO

PURPOSE: For carriers of germline mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes, the most relevant statistic for cancer prevention is colorectal cancer (Lynch syndrome) risk, particularly in the short term. METHODS: We conducted a meta-analysis of all independent published Lynch syndrome studies reporting age- and sex-dependent colorectal cancer risks. We estimated 5-year colorectal cancer risk over different age groups, separately for male and female mutation carriers, and number needed to screen to prevent one death. RESULTS: We pooled estimates from analyses of 1,114 Lynch syndrome families (508 with MLH1 mutations and 606 with MSH2 mutations). On average, one in 71 male and one in 102 female MLH1 or MSH2 mutation carriers in their 20s will be diagnosed with colorectal cancer in the next 5 years. These colorectal cancer risks increase with age, peaking in the 50s (one in seven males and one in 12 females), and then decrease with age (one in 13 males and one in 19 females in their 70s). Annual colonoscopy in 16 males or 25 females in their 50s would prevent one death from colorectal cancer over 5 years while resulting in almost no serious complications. In comparison, annual colonoscopy in 155 males or 217 females in their 20s would prevent one death while resulting in approximately one serious complication. CONCLUSION: For MLH1 or MSH2 mutation carriers, current guidelines recommend colonoscopy every 1 to 2 years starting in their 20s. Our findings support this regimen from age 30 years; however, it might not be justifiable for carriers who are in their 20s.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Colorretais Hereditárias sem Polipose/genética , Neoplasias Colorretais/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Mutação , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Colonoscopia , Neoplasias Colorretais/diagnóstico , Saúde da Família , Feminino , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteína 1 Homóloga a MutL , Proteína 2 Homóloga a MutS/genética , Proteínas Nucleares/genética , Medição de Risco/métodos , Medição de Risco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , Fatores de Tempo
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