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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374936

RESUMO

Attention on, and interest in, life satisfaction has increased worldwide. However, research on life satisfaction focused toward the urban dwellers' residential community is mainly from western countries, and the limited research from China is solely focused on the geriatric population via a narrowly constrained research perspective. This study, therefore, aimed to investigate urbanites' life satisfaction toward their community, combining the psychological (behavioral community engagement, mental state of flow, and cognitive community identity), physical (PREQIs-perceived residential environment quality indicators: e.g., green area), and social perspectives (social capital). The proposed conceptual model was tested on a regionally representative sample of 508 urban community residents in the city of Chengdu, Sichuan province, China. Data were analyzed via a structure equation modelling approach in AMOS software. Findings suggested that all of the psychological, physical and social factors contributed to a prediction of life satisfaction. Specifically, social capital mediated the path from community engagement and flow to life satisfaction, and community identity mediated the path from flow experience and green area to life satisfaction. Additionally, social capital contributed to predict life satisfaction through its influence on community identity. Findings provide suggestions for urban designers and policymakers to focus on creating an urban community equipped with green area, which helps to promote physical activities that are flow-productive, to enhance residents' identification to their residential community and, therefore, increase life satisfaction.


Assuntos
Satisfação Pessoal , Características de Residência , Capital Social , Adulto , China , Cidades , Planejamento de Cidades , Planejamento Ambiental , Feminino , Humanos , Análise de Classes Latentes , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , População Urbana , Adulto Jovem
2.
Front Psychol ; 11: 1499, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760318

RESUMO

Given the food challenges that society is facing, we draw upon recent developments in the study of how food reputation affects food preferences and food choices, providing here a starting standard point for measuring every aspect of food reputation in different cultural contexts across the world. Specifically, while previous attempts focused either on specific aspects of food or on measures of food features validated in one language only, the present research validates the Food Reputation Map (FRM) in Italian, English and Chinese over 2,250 participants worldwide. Here we successfully measure food reputation across 23 specific indicators, further grouped into six synthetic indicators of food reputation. Critically, results show that: (a) the specific measurement tool of food reputation can vary across cultural contexts, and that (b) people's reputation of food products or categories changes significantly across different cultural contexts. Therefore, in order to understand people's food preferences and consumption, it is important to take into account the repertoire of cultural differences that underlies the contexts of analysis: the three context-specific versions of the FRM presented here effectively deal with this issue and provide reliable context-specific insights on stakeholders' interests, perspectives, attitudes and behaviors related to food perceptions, assessment, and consumption, which can be effectively leveraged to foster food sustainability.

3.
Work ; 63(3): 375-387, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31256107

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The quality of the places where workers take their breaks may affect the completeness of recovery in the time available. Little is known about how characteristics of a company canteen buffer the relationship between job demands and fatigue. OBJECTIVE: We addressed the possibility that the company canteen buffers the relationship between job demands and fatigue to the extent that workers perceive it to hold restorative quality. Further, we considered how the restorative quality of the canteen signals the provision of organizational support, another job resource thought to buffer the demands-fatigue relationship. ETHODS: A questionnaire was completed by 141 male blue collars workers during their lunch break in the factory canteen of an Italian industrial organization. RESULTS: Canteen restorative quality correlated positively with organizational support. In multivariate regression analyses, the demands-fatigue association was weaker among workers who saw greater restorative quality in the canteen. This buffering effect was accounted for by a buffering effect of organizational support. CONCLUSIONS: When settings for rest in the workplace have higher restorative quality, they may better function as job resources in two respects: serving the immediate needs of workers for recovery from job demands, and signaling the interest of the organization in their well-being.


Assuntos
Fadiga/etiologia , Apoio Social , Local de Trabalho/normas , Adulto , Fadiga/psicologia , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Restaurantes/organização & administração , Inquéritos e Questionários , Carga de Trabalho/psicologia , Carga de Trabalho/normas , Local de Trabalho/psicologia
4.
Front Psychol ; 10: 856, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31105618

RESUMO

This study intended to test whether attachment to one's own residential place at neighborhood level could represent a coping response for the elderly (consistently with the "docility hypothesis;" Lawton, 1982), when dealing with the demands of unfamiliar environments, in order to balance their reduction of spatial abilities. Specifically, a sequential path was tested, in which neighborhood attachment was expected to play a buffer role between lowered spatial competence and neighborhood satisfaction. The participants (N = 264), senior citizens (over 65-year-old), responded to a questionnaire including the measures of spatial self-efficacy, spatial anxiety, attitude toward wayfinding, residential attachment and residential satisfaction. Results from the mediation analysis showed that a lower perceived spatial self-efficacy is associated to a higher spatial anxiety, and both promote a more negative attitude toward wayfinding tasks in non-familiar places. This leads to a higher attachment to one's own neighborhood, which in turn predicts a higher residential satisfaction. Thus, the "closure" response of becoming more attached to their residential place may be an adaptive strategy of the elderly for compensating the Person-Environment (P-E) mis-fit (Lawton and Nahemow, 1973) when they feel unable (or less able) to cope with the demands of unfamiliar environments.

5.
Front Psychol ; 9: 1579, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30333765

RESUMO

Restoration involves individuals' physical, psychological, and social resources, which have diminished over the years in the process of meeting the demands of everyday life. Psychological restoration can be provided by specific environments, in particular by natural environments. Studies report a restorative effect of nature on human beings, specifically in terms of the psychological recovery from attention fatigue and restored mental resources that were previously spent in activities that require attention. Two field studies in two Italian primary schools tested the hypothesized positive effect of recess time spent in a natural (vs. built) environment on pupils' cognitive performance and their perceived restorativeness, using standardized tests. In Study 1, children's psychological restoration was assessed by measuring sustained and selective attention, working memory, and impulse control, before and after the morning recess time. Team standardized playtime was conducted in a natural (vs. built) environment, and the perceived restorativeness was measured after each recess time. Results showed a greater increase in sustained and selective attention, concentration, and perceived restorativeness from pretest to posttest after the natural environment condition. In Study 2, the positive effect of free play recess time in a natural (vs. built) environment was assessed during the afternoon school time on sustained and selective attention and perceived restorativeness. Results showed an increase in sustained and selective attention after the natural environment condition (vs. built) and a decrease after the built environment break. Higher scores in perceived restorativeness were registered after the natural (vs. built) environment condition. Team standardized playtime and individual free play recess in a natural environment (vs. built) support pupils' attention restoration during both morning and afternoon school times, as well as their perceived restorativeness of the recess environment. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed in terms of nature's role both for the school ground design or redesign and for the organization of the school's activities.

6.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 12: 294, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30100869

RESUMO

Investment decisions are largely based on the information investors received from the target firm. Thaler introduced the hedonic editing framework, in which suggests that integration/segregation of information influence individual's perceived value. Meanwhile, when evaluating the evidence and information in a sequence, order effect and biases have been found to have an impact in various areas. In this research, the influence of the Organization of Information (Integration vs. Segregation) and the Sequence of Information (Negative-Positive order vs. Positive-Negative order) on individual's investment decision-making both at the behavioral level (decision) and neurometrix level (measured by an individual's emotion and Approach Withdraw tendency) was assessed for the three groups of information: a piece of Big Positive Information and a piece of Small Negative Information, a piece of Big Negative Information and a piece of Small Positive Information, and a piece of Small Negative information. The behavioral results, which are an individual's final investment decision, were consistent for all three scenarios. In general, individuals will invest more/retire less when receiving two pieces of information in a Negative-Positive order. However, the neurometric results (Emotional Index, Approach Withdraw Index and results from LORETA) show differences among information groups. An effect of the Sequence of Information and the Organization of Information was found for the different scenarios. The results suggest that in the scenarios that involve large-scale information, the organization of information (Integration vs. Segregation) influences the emotion and Approach Withdraw tendency. The results of this investigation should provide insight for effective communication of information, especially when large-scale information is involved.

7.
Front Psychol ; 9: 2742, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30745891

RESUMO

Research on restorative environments has showed the healthy outcomes of nature experience, though often by comparing attractive natural to unattractive built environments. Some studies indeed showed the restorative value of artistic/historical settings. In a quasi-experimental study involving 125 participants in Rome, Italy, a natural and a built/historical environment, both scoring high in restorative properties, were evaluated in a natural, built/historical, or neutral setting. In accordance with the Biophilia hypothesis and the Attention Restoration Theory (ART), we hypothesized: a higher restorative potential of nature also when compared to built/historical environments; a moderation effect of on-site experience on perceived restorative potential (PRP) of both environmental typologies; higher levels of restorative properties of the environment for on-site vs. not on-site respondents; and a mediation effect of the restorative properties of the environment in the relationship between time spent on-site and PRP. Results supported the hypotheses. In addition, different psychological processes leading to restoration emerged for the natural and the built/historical environment. Theoretical implications for ART and practical applications for an integrative urban design with natural and historical elements are discussed.

8.
Annu Int Conf IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc ; 2017: 4179-4182, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29060818

RESUMO

Investment decisions are based largely on the information that investors are received from the target firm. In this research, we consider both the variable of Organization of Information, either segregate or integrate, and the Order of the information, either in the order of Negative-Positive or in the order of Positive-Negative. Three groups of information are tested in the experiment: a piece of Big Positive information and a piece of Small Negative information (BP/SN); a piece of Big Negative information and a piece of Small Positive (BN/SP); and a piece of Small Positive information and a piece of Small Negative information (SP/SN). The study applied the gathering of the electroencephalographic rhythms variations, as well as the heart rate and galvanic skin response. The neurometric indicators here employed were the Approach-Withdrawal (AW) and the Emotional (EI) indexes. In SP/SN group, the recency effect is found in AWI. However, when receiving information in large scale, either big positive or big negative, emotion plays a role during decision-making. In both case of BP/SN and BN/SP, emotion is effected by organization of information. In the condition of BP/SN, neurometrics AWI result suggests more approach potentials when two pieces of information presented integrated. While in the case of BN/SP, we observe the influence of both order and organization. Individual favours separation of information with the order of Negative-Positive, the recency effect.


Assuntos
Tomada de Decisões , Eletroencefalografia , Emoções , Resposta Galvânica da Pele , Aprendizagem
9.
Front Psychol ; 8: 1065, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28701979

RESUMO

Concerns for environmental issues are important drivers of sustainable and pro-environmental behaviors, and can be differentiated between those with a self-enhancing (egoistic) vs. self-transcendent (biospheric) psychological foundation. Yet to date, the dominant approach for promoting pro-environmental behavior has focused on highlighting the benefits to others or nature, rather than appealing to self-interest. Building on the Inclusion Model for Environmental Concern, we argue that egoistic and biospheric environmental concerns, respectively, conceptualized as self-interest and altruism, are hierarchically structured, such that altruism is inclusive of self-interest. Three studies show that self-interested individuals will behave more pro-environmentally when the behavior results in a personal benefit (but not when there is exclusively an environmental benefit), while altruistic individuals will engage in pro-environmental behaviors when there are environmental benefits, and critically, also when there are personal benefits. The reported findings have implications for programs and policies designed to promote pro-environmental behavior, and for social science research aimed at understanding human responses to a changing environment.

10.
Front Psychol ; 7: 1654, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27872600

RESUMO

This study examined the relationship between flow experience and place identity, based on eudaimonistic identity theory (EIT) which prioritizes self-defining activities as important for an individual's identification of his/her goals, values, beliefs, and interests corresponding to one's own identity development or enhancement. This study focuses on place identity, the identity's features relating to a person's relation with her/his place. The study is also based on flow theory, according to which some salient features of an activity experience are important for happiness and well-being. Questionnaire surveys on Italian and Greek residents focused on their perceived flow and place identity in relation to their own specific local place experiences. The overall findings revealed that flow experience occurring in one's own preferred place is widely reported as resulting from a range of self-defining activities, irrespective of gender or age, and it is positively and significantly associated with one's own place identity. Such findings provide the first quantitative evidence about the link between flow experienced during meaningfully located self-defining activities and identity experienced at the place level, similarly to the corresponding personal and social levels that had been previously already empirically tested. Results are also discussed in terms of their implications for EIT's understanding and enrichment, especially by its generalization from the traditional, personal identity level up to that of place identity. More generally, this study has implications for maintaining or enhancing one's own place identity, and therefore people-place relations, by means of facilitating a person's flow experience within psychologically meaningful places.

11.
Front Psychol ; 7: 67, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26924995

RESUMO

Eudaimonistic identity theory posits a link between activity and identity, where a self-defining activity promotes the strength of a person's identity. An activity engaged in with high enjoyment, full involvement, and high concentration can facilitate the subjective experience of flow. In the present paper, we hypothesized in accordance with the theory of psychological selection that beyond the promotion of individual development and complexity at the personal level, the relationship between flow and identity at the social level is also positive through participation in self-defining activities. Three different samples (i.e., American, Chinese, and Spanish) filled in measures for flow and social identity, with reference to four previously self-reported activities, characterized by four different combinations of skills (low vs. high) and challenges (low vs. high). Findings indicated that flow was positively associated with social identity across each of the above samples, regardless of participants' gender and age. The results have implications for increasing social identity via participation in self-defining group activities that could facilitate flow.

12.
Psych J ; 4(3): 123-37, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26354153

RESUMO

This paper concerns people's assessment of their neighborhood of residence in a Chinese urban context. The aim of the study was to verify the factorial structure and the reliability of two instruments originally developed and validated in Italy (the full versions of the Perceived Residential Environment Quality Indicators [PREQIs] and of the Neighborhood Attachment Scale [NAS]) in a different cultural and linguistic context. The instruments consist of 11 scales measuring the PREQIs and one scale measuring neighborhood attachment (NA). The PREQIs scales include items covering four macroevaluative domains of residential environment quality: architectural and urban planning aspects (three scales: Architectural and Town-planning Space, Organization of Accessibility and Roads, Green Areas), sociorelational aspects (one scale: People and Social Relations), functional aspects (four scales: Welfare Services, Recreational Services, Commercial Services, and Transport Services), and contextual aspects (three scales: Pace of Life, Environmental Health, Upkeep and Care). The PREQIs and NAS were included in a self-report questionnaire, which had been translated and back-translated from English to Chinese, and was then administered to 340 residents in six districts (differing along various features) of a highly urbanized context in China, the city of Chongqing. Results confirmed the factorial structure of the scales and demonstrated good internal consistency of the indicators, thus reaffirming the results of previous studies carried out in Western urban contexts. The indicators tapping the neighborhood's contextual aspects (i.e., pace of life, environmental health, and upkeep) emerged as most correlated to NA.


Assuntos
Saúde Ambiental , Saúde Mental , Características de Residência , China , Planejamento de Cidades , Feminino , Humanos , Idioma , Masculino , Recreação/psicologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Inquéritos e Questionários , População Urbana
13.
Cogn Process ; 16 Suppl 1: 165-9, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26267118

RESUMO

Architectural and environmental psychology literature has shown the importance of urban design in provoking stress feelings or enhancing well-being and quality of life. The aim of this contribution is to show the main results of a set of cross-cultural survey studies concerning the perceived quality of urban features at the neighbourhood level. A questionnaire was used including the extended or the short version of the 11 scales measuring Perceived Residential Environment Quality Indicators (PREQIs), which cover architectural, social, functional, and contextual aspects. Both versions of PREQIs showed a similar factorial structure and a good (or at least acceptable) reliability across different geographical contexts, even though some differences emerged in those countries that are more distant from the Western linguistic and cultural milieu. The development of tools like PREQIs should increase a "user-centred" vision on urban issues.


Assuntos
Comparação Transcultural , Meio Ambiente , Características de Residência , Feminino , França , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Análise de Componente Principal , Meio Social , Inquéritos e Questionários
14.
Health Place ; 21: 122-32, 2013 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23454733

RESUMO

This study analyses the processes through which the physical environment of health care settings impacts on patients' well-being. Specifically, we investigate the mediating role of perceptions of the physical and social environments, and if this process is moderated by patients' status, that is, if the objective physical environment impacts inpatients' and outpatients' satisfaction by different social-psychological processes. Patients (N=206) evaluated the physical and social environments of the care unit where they were receiving treatment, and its objective physical conditions were independently evaluated by two architects. Results showed that the objective environmental quality affects satisfaction through perceptions of environmental quality, and that patients' status moderates this relationship. For inpatients, it is the perception of quality of the social environment that mediates the relationship between objective environmental quality and satisfaction, whereas for outpatients it is the perception of quality of the physical environment. This moderated mediation is discussed in terms of differences on patients' experiences of health care environments.


Assuntos
Arquitetura Hospitalar/normas , Pacientes Internados/psicologia , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/psicologia , Satisfação do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Meio Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Arquitetura Hospitalar/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pacientes Internados/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pacientes Ambulatoriais/estatística & dados numéricos , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/normas , Qualidade da Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto Jovem
15.
Span J Psychol ; 14(2): 755-64, 2011 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22059321

RESUMO

A laboratory study was carried out to establish the relative importance of verbal and gestural behavior, as well as their interaction, for perceived social influence in more or less competitive small groups. Forty women (psychology students) participated in leaderless small group discussions of different sizes (four-member and eight-member): at the end, each member rated the perceived influence in decision-making of every other member. Verbal dominance coding is based on traditional quantitative conversational dominance (number of talk turns). Gestural coding (conversational, ideational, object-adaptor, self-adaptor gestures) is based on classical gesture classifications. Beside a substantial effect of verbal dominance, the main result is that frequency of object-adaptors and conversational (only in large groups) and ideational (in both small and large groups) gestures increases perceived influence scores particularly when the verbal dominance of the speaker is low.


Assuntos
Gestos , Processos Grupais , Comunicação Persuasiva , Comportamento Verbal , Tomada de Decisões , Feminino , Humanos , Liderança , Masculino , Percepção Social , Adulto Jovem
16.
Span. j. psychol ; 14(2): 755-764, nov. 2011. tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-91217

RESUMO

A laboratory study was carried out to establish the relative importance of verbal and gestural behavior, as well as their interaction, for perceived social influence in more or less competitive small groups. Forty women (psychology students) participated in leaderless small group discussions of different sizes (fourmember and eight-member): at the end, each member rated the perceived influence in decision-making of every other member. Verbal dominance coding is based on traditional quantitative conversational dominance (number of talk turns). Gestural coding (conversational, ideational, object-adaptor, self-adaptor gestures) is based on classical gesture classifications. Beside a substantial effect of verbal dominance, the main result is that frequency of object-adaptors and conversational (only in large groups) and ideational (in both small and large groups) gestures increases perceived influence scores particularly when the verbal dominance of the speaker is low (AU)


Se ha realizado un estudio de laboratorio para establecer la importancia de la conducta gestual y verbal, así como su interacción, en la influencia social percibida en grupos pequeños más o menos competitivos. Cuarenta mujeres (estudiantes de psicología) participaron en discusiones de grupo sin líder de diferentes tamaños (cuatro miembros y ocho miembros): al final, cada miembro valoró la influencia percibida en la toma de decisiones de cada uno de los otros miembros. El código de dominancia verbal está basado en la dominancia cuantitativa conversacional (número de turnos de habla). El código gestual (conversacional, ideacional, adaptador-objeto, gestos auto-adaptadores) está basado en clasificaciones gestuales clásicas. Además de un efecto sustancial de la dominancia verbal, el resultado principal es que la frecuencia de adaptadores-objeto y gestos conversacionales (sólo en grupos grandes) e ideacionales (tanto en grupos pequeños como grandes) incrementa los valores de influencia percibida, particularmente cuando la dominancia verbal del hablante es baja (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Feminino , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Gestos , Comunicação não Verbal/psicologia , Expressão Facial , Estudantes/psicologia , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/psicologia , Estudantes de Ciências da Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Predomínio Social , Transtornos do Desenvolvimento da Linguagem/psicologia , Leitura Labial
17.
HERD ; 4(4): 114-29, 2011.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21960196

RESUMO

AIM: This paper explores some of the premises of evidence-based design (EBD) and suggests that greater attention to and differentiation of the various purposes of research are needed, along with the development of an ecological theory that reflects the complexity of the health systems studied and more varied ways to communicate with and engage practitioners. BACKGROUND: Problems with the American healthcare system are well known. For the past 20 years, an intervention that has gained increasing attention has been the physical design of healthcare facilities-hospitals in particular. EBD has been advocated as one means of using research to examine the relationship between design and healthcare to improve patient safety and the quality of care. CONCLUSIONS: The concept of integrated healthscape strategies is proposed to focus not only on research "evidence" and the methods used to collect and analyze it, but also on the different purposes research serves, the role of theory, and the use of EBD research in practice.


Assuntos
Prática Clínica Baseada em Evidências , Arquitetura de Instituições de Saúde , Ambiente de Instituições de Saúde , Decoração de Interiores e Mobiliário , Modelos Teóricos , Inovação Organizacional , Estados Unidos
18.
Ann N Y Acad Sci ; 1023: 175-86, 2004 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15253906

RESUMO

The article presents the main tenets of the UNESCO Programme on Man and Biosphere (MAB), launched by the United Nations at the beginning of the 1970s. The program aimed at supporting applied research and scientific knowledge for managing natural resources in a rational and sustainable way. The implication of the full ecological perspective, typical of the MAB, for promoting multidisciplinary and integrated approaches in the study of environmental issues is briefly outlined. In particular, we point out the role of the MAB, through the biosphere reserve concept, in supporting the collaboration between natural-biological and social-behavioral sciences when dealing with biodiversity conservation problems and with urban ecosystems. Then, the specific UNESCO-MAB Project on the city of Rome, launched at the end of the 1980s, is briefly presented, together with the recent project of the Department of the Environment of the Rome Municipality to propose Rome's urban and periurban green areas as a new UNESCO-MAB Biosphere Reserve. The results of the main research activities conducted therein are summarized. In particular, the specific research lines of the environmental psychology research group, involved in the MAB-Rome Project for approximately two decades, are presented. These research lines dealt with various aspects of residents' environmental perceptions and behaviors in the city of Rome. The practical implications of these results are also briefly discussed.


Assuntos
Atitude , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/métodos , Ecossistema , Nações Unidas , Comunicação Interdisciplinar , Pesquisa , Roma , Saúde da População Urbana
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