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1.
J Mol Neurosci ; 70(3): 433-448, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31749125

RESUMO

Several studies in the last decade demonstrated that progestogens play an important role in the biology of Schwann cells, the main neuroglial cells of the peripheral nervous system. Since a recent study showed that the S42 rat Schwann cell line expressed membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs), members of the PAQR family, in this study, we examined mPR expression in a more physiological model, primary rat Schwann cells. We demonstrated that primary rat Schwann cells show a different pattern of mPR expression compared to the previously studied model; mPRα (PAQR7) and ß (PAQR8) isoforms were the major mPR members identified, with different sub-cellular localizations. Activation of the nuclear progesterone receptor (PR) with the specific agonist R5020 upregulated mPR expression, while activation of mPRs with the specific agonist Org OD 02-0 changed their sub-cellular localization. An in-depth analysis revealed additional effects of mPR activation, such as AKT activation, reduced expression of the myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG), morphological changes, altered expression of several Schwann cell differentiation markers, and increased Schwann cell migration and proliferation. In conclusion, we identified mPRα and mPRß in primary rat Schwann cells, and our findings suggest a putative role for mPRs in the regulation of Schwann cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation. Therefore, mPRs are a potential pharmacological target for Schwann cell-related disorders and neurodegenerative diseases, especially those in which Schwann cell-mediated axon remyelination is desirable.

2.
Mol Neurobiol ; 56(2): 1461-1474, 2019 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29948947

RESUMO

GABA-B receptors are important for Schwann cell (SC) commitment to a non-myelinating phenotype during development. However, the P0-GABA-B1fl/fl conditional knockout mice, lacking the GABA-B1 receptor specifically in SCs, also presented axon modifications, suggesting SC non-autonomous effects through the neuronal compartment. In this in vitro study, we evaluated whether the specific deletion of the GABA-B1 receptor in SCs may induce autonomous or non-autonomous cross-changes in sensory dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons. To this end, we performed an in vitro biomolecular and transcriptomic analysis of SC and DRG neuron primary cultures from P0-GABA-B1fl/fl mice. We found that cells from conditional P0-GABA-B1fl/fl mice exhibited proliferative, migratory and myelinating alterations. Moreover, we found transcriptomic changes in novel molecules that are involved in peripheral neuron-SC interaction.


Assuntos
Axônios/metabolismo , Bainha de Mielina/metabolismo , Receptores de GABA-B/deficiência , Células de Schwann/citologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Gânglios Espinais/citologia , Camundongos Transgênicos , Neurônios/metabolismo , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo
3.
Neural Regen Res ; 12(7): 1013-1023, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28852375

RESUMO

The development, maturation and regeneration of Schwann cells (SCs), the main glial cells of the peripheral nervous system, require the coordinate and complementary interaction among several factors, signals and intracellular pathways. These regulatory molecules consist of integrins, neuregulins, growth factors, hormones, neurotransmitters, as well as entire intracellular pathways including protein-kinase A, C, Akt, Erk/MAPK, Hippo, mTOR, etc. For instance, Hippo pathway is overall involved in proliferation, apoptosis, regeneration and organ size control, being crucial in cancer proliferation process. In SCs, Hippo is linked to merlin and YAP/TAZ signaling and it seems to respond to mechanic/physical challenges. Recently, among factors regulating SCs, also the signaling intermediates Src tyrosine kinase and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) proved relevant for SC fate, participating in the regulation of adhesion, motility, migration and in vitro myelination. In SCs, the factors Src and FAK are regulated by the neuroactive steroid allopregnanolone, thus corroborating the importance of this steroid in the control of SC maturation. In this review, we illustrate some old and novel signaling pathways modulating SC biology and functions during the different developmental, mature and regenerative states.

4.
J Neurochem ; 141(2): 165-178, 2017 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28072455

RESUMO

Schwann cells' (SCs) development and maturation require coordinate and complementary activation of several signals and intracellular pathways. Among factors controlling these processes, the signalling intermediates Src tyrosine kinase and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) are relevant for SCs', participating in regulation of their adhesion, motility and migration. Recently, the progesterone metabolite allopregnanolone (ALLO) was proved to be synthesized by SCs, whereas it acts autocrinally on SCs motility and proliferation, which are crucial processes for nerve development, maturation and regeneration. Herein, we investigate the hypothesis that the molecular mechanisms behind the ALLO's action on SCs involve the signalling intermediates Src and FAK. We first demonstrated that ALLO 10-6  M regulates SCs morphology, motility and myelination, also increasing the internode distance in the in vitro myelination model of neuron/SCs co-culture. ALLO's actions were mediated by the modulation of Src/FAK pathway, since they were counteracted by PP2 10-5  M, a selective inhibitor of Src kinase. Then, we proved that Src/FAK activation in SCs involves GABA-A dependent mechanisms and actin re-arrangements. In conclusion, our findings are the first to corroborate the importance of the neuroactive steroid ALLO in regulating SCs development and maturation via the Src and phospho-FAK signalling activation. Cover Image for this issue: doi: 10.1111/jnc.13795.


Assuntos
Movimento Celular/fisiologia , Proteína-Tirosina Quinases de Adesão Focal/metabolismo , Fibras Nervosas Mielinizadas/enzimologia , Pregnanolona/farmacologia , Células de Schwann/enzimologia , Quinases da Família src/metabolismo , Animais , Movimento Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Ativação Enzimática/efeitos dos fármacos , Ativação Enzimática/fisiologia , Fibras Nervosas Mielinizadas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ratos , Células de Schwann/efeitos dos fármacos
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