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1.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1078, 2021 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597508

RESUMO

Breast cancer (BC) risk for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers varies by genetic and familial factors. About 50 common variants have been shown to modify BC risk for mutation carriers. All but three, were identified in general population studies. Other mutation carrier-specific susceptibility variants may exist but studies of mutation carriers have so far been underpowered. We conduct a novel case-only genome-wide association study comparing genotype frequencies between 60,212 general population BC cases and 13,007 cases with BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutations. We identify robust novel associations for 2 variants with BC for BRCA1 and 3 for BRCA2 mutation carriers, P < 10-8, at 5 loci, which are not associated with risk in the general population. They include rs60882887 at 11p11.2 where MADD, SP11 and EIF1, genes previously implicated in BC biology, are predicted as potential targets. These findings will contribute towards customising BC polygenic risk scores for BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers.

2.
Clin Cancer Res ; 2021 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33608319

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Low-dose tamoxifen halved recurrence after surgery in a phase-III trial in breast non-invasive disease without increasing adverse events. We explored the effect of low dose tamoxifen in clinically relevant subgroups, including menopausal status, estradiol levels, smoking, body mass index and proliferation of baseline lesion. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Incidence of invasive breast cancer or DCIS was the primary endpoint. Hazard ratios and interactions terms were estimated using Cox models. RESULTS: A favorable hazard ratio and 95% CI could be demonstrated for postmenopausal status (HR=0.30, 95% CI, 0.11, 0.82 versus HR=0.73, 95% CI, 0.30, 1.76 in premenopausal women, p-interaction=0.13), women with estradiol less than 15.8 pg/ml, presence of menopausal symptoms at baseline, and never smoking (p-interaction=0.07), although the interaction p-value was >0.05 for all characteristics. Efficacy was similar in all body mass index categories. Tumors with Ki-67 above the median level of 10% had a greater benefit (HR=0.27, 95% CI, 0.09, 0.81) than those with Ki-67 {less than or equal to}10% (HR=1.58, 95% CI, 0.45, 5.60, p-interaction=0.04). CONCLUSIONS: The efficacy of low-dose tamoxifen seems to be greater in postmenopausal women and in women with lower estradiol levels. Benefits appear to be larger also in women with menopausal symptoms, never smokers and tumors with Ki-67>10%. Our results by menopausal status provide important insight into low-dose tamoxifen personalized treatment, although caution is necessary given their exploratory nature. Observation of an improved response in tumors with Ki-67>10% is consistent but the use of the marker in this setting is investigational.

3.
N Engl J Med ; 384(5): 428-439, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471991

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genetic testing for breast cancer susceptibility is widely used, but for many genes, evidence of an association with breast cancer is weak, underlying risk estimates are imprecise, and reliable subtype-specific risk estimates are lacking. METHODS: We used a panel of 34 putative susceptibility genes to perform sequencing on samples from 60,466 women with breast cancer and 53,461 controls. In separate analyses for protein-truncating variants and rare missense variants in these genes, we estimated odds ratios for breast cancer overall and tumor subtypes. We evaluated missense-variant associations according to domain and classification of pathogenicity. RESULTS: Protein-truncating variants in 5 genes (ATM, BRCA1, BRCA2, CHEK2, and PALB2) were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.0001. Protein-truncating variants in 4 other genes (BARD1, RAD51C, RAD51D, and TP53) were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.05 and a Bayesian false-discovery probability of less than 0.05. For protein-truncating variants in 19 of the remaining 25 genes, the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval of the odds ratio for breast cancer overall was less than 2.0. For protein-truncating variants in ATM and CHEK2, odds ratios were higher for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease than for ER-negative disease; for protein-truncating variants in BARD1, BRCA1, BRCA2, PALB2, RAD51C, and RAD51D, odds ratios were higher for ER-negative disease than for ER-positive disease. Rare missense variants (in aggregate) in ATM, CHEK2, and TP53 were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall with a P value of less than 0.001. For BRCA1, BRCA2, and TP53, missense variants (in aggregate) that would be classified as pathogenic according to standard criteria were associated with a risk of breast cancer overall, with the risk being similar to that of protein-truncating variants. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study define the genes that are most clinically useful for inclusion on panels for the prediction of breast cancer risk, as well as provide estimates of the risks associated with protein-truncating variants, to guide genetic counseling. (Funded by European Union Horizon 2020 programs and others.).


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Variação Genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Adolescente , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Risco , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Adulto Jovem
4.
Nutrients ; 13(2)2021 Jan 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504116

RESUMO

Obesity and diet are associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) risk, and microbiome could mediate this risk factor. To investigate this interaction, we performed a case-control study (34 CRC cases and 32 controls) and analyzed fecal microbiota composition using 16S rRNA metabarcoding and sub-sequential shotgun analyses of genomic bacterial DNA to evaluate the role of microbiome and diet in CRC etiology, taking into account vitamin D and other risk biomarkers. Dietary habits were evaluated using a short questionnaire. Multivariate methods for data integration and mediation analysis models were used to investigate causal relationships. CRC cases were significantly more often deficient in vitamin D than controls (p = 0.04); FokI and CYP24A1 polymorphism frequency were different between cases and controls (p = 0.03 and p = 0.02, respectively). A diet poor in fatty fish and rich in carbohydrates was found to be significantly associated with CRC risk (p = 0.011). The mediation analysis confirmed the significant role of the microbiome in mediating CRC risk-increasing levels of Bifidobacteria/Escherichia genera ratio, an indicator of "healthy" intestinal microbiome, can overcome the effect of diet on CRC risk (p = 0.03). This study suggests that microbiome mediates the diet effect on CRC risk, and that vitamin D, markers of inflammation, and adipokines are other factors to consider in order to achieve a better knowledge of the whole carcinogenic process.

5.
Genet Med ; 2020 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33257847

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To determine impact of risk-reducing hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) on gynecological cancer incidence and death in heterozygotes of pathogenic MMR (path_MMR) variants. METHODS: The Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database was used to investigate the effects of gynecological risk-reducing surgery (RRS) at different ages. RESULTS: Risk-reducing hysterectomy at 25 years of age prevents endometrial cancer before 50 years in 15%, 18%, 13%, and 0% of path_MLH1, path_MSH2, path_MSH6, and path_PMS2 heterozygotes and death in 2%, 2%, 1%, and 0%, respectively. Risk-reducing BSO at 25 years of age prevents ovarian cancer before 50 years in 6%, 11%, 2%, and 0% and death in 1%, 2%, 0%, and 0%, respectively. Risk-reducing hysterectomy at 40 years prevents endometrial cancer by 50 years in 13%, 16%, 11%, and 0% and death in 1%, 2%, 1%, and 0%, respectively. BSO at 40 years prevents ovarian cancer before 50 years in 4%, 8%, 0%, and 0%, and death in 1%, 1%, 0%, and 0%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Little benefit is gained by performing RRS before 40 years of age and premenopausal BSO in path_MSH6 and path_PMS2 heterozygotes has no measurable benefit for mortality. These findings may aid decision making for women with LS who are considering RRS.

6.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(5): 837-848, 2020 11 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022221

RESUMO

Previous research has shown that polygenic risk scores (PRSs) can be used to stratify women according to their risk of developing primary invasive breast cancer. This study aimed to evaluate the association between a recently validated PRS of 313 germline variants (PRS313) and contralateral breast cancer (CBC) risk. We included 56,068 women of European ancestry diagnosed with first invasive breast cancer from 1990 onward with follow-up from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium. Metachronous CBC risk (N = 1,027) according to the distribution of PRS313 was quantified using Cox regression analyses. We assessed PRS313 interaction with age at first diagnosis, family history, morphology, ER status, PR status, and HER2 status, and (neo)adjuvant therapy. In studies of Asian women, with limited follow-up, CBC risk associated with PRS313 was assessed using logistic regression for 340 women with CBC compared with 12,133 women with unilateral breast cancer. Higher PRS313 was associated with increased CBC risk: hazard ratio per standard deviation (SD) = 1.25 (95%CI = 1.18-1.33) for Europeans, and an OR per SD = 1.15 (95%CI = 1.02-1.29) for Asians. The absolute lifetime risks of CBC, accounting for death as competing risk, were 12.4% for European women at the 10th percentile and 20.5% at the 90th percentile of PRS313. We found no evidence of confounding by or interaction with individual characteristics, characteristics of the primary tumor, or treatment. The C-index for the PRS313 alone was 0.563 (95%CI = 0.547-0.586). In conclusion, PRS313 is an independent factor associated with CBC risk and can be incorporated into CBC risk prediction models to help improve stratification and optimize surveillance and treatment strategies.

7.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(10)2020 Oct 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33050628

RESUMO

Family history has contributed greatly to understanding inherited diseases throughout the centuries, in particular familial and hereditary cancer syndromes [...].

8.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32954205

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Women with breast cancer have a 4%-16% lifetime risk of a second primary cancer. Whether mutations in genes other than BRCA1/2 are enriched in patients with breast and another primary cancer over those with a single breast cancer (S-BC) is unknown. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified pathogenic germline mutations in 17 cancer susceptibility genes in patients with BRCA1/2-negative breast cancer in 2 different cohorts: cohort 1, high-risk breast cancer program (multiple primary breast cancer [MP-BC], n = 551; S-BC, n = 449) and cohort 2, familial breast cancer research study (MP-BC, n = 340; S-BC, n = 1,464). Mutation rates in these 2 cohorts were compared with a control data set (Exome Aggregation Consortium [ExAC]). RESULTS: Overall, pathogenic mutation rates for autosomal, dominantly inherited genes were higher in patients with MP-BC versus S-BC in both cohorts (8.5% v 4.9% [P = .02] and 7.1% v 4.2% [P = .03]). There were differences in individual gene mutation rates between cohorts. In both cohorts, younger age at first breast cancer was associated with higher mutation rates; the age of non-breast cancers was unrelated to mutation rate. TP53 and MSH6 mutations were significantly enriched in patients with MP-BC but not S-BC, whereas ATM and PALB2 mutations were significantly enriched in both groups compared with ExAC. CONCLUSION: Mutation rates are at least 7% in all patients with BRCA1/2 mutation-negative MP-BC, regardless of age at diagnosis of breast cancer, with mutation rates up to 25% in patients with a first breast cancer diagnosed at age < 30 years. Our results suggest that all patients with breast cancer with a second primary cancer, regardless of age of onset, should undergo multigene panel testing.

9.
Genet Med ; 22(10): 1653-1666, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665703

RESUMO

PURPOSE: We assessed the associations between population-based polygenic risk scores (PRS) for breast (BC) or epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) with cancer risks for BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variant carriers. METHODS: Retrospective cohort data on 18,935 BRCA1 and 12,339 BRCA2 female pathogenic variant carriers of European ancestry were available. Three versions of a 313 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) BC PRS were evaluated based on whether they predict overall, estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, or ER-positive BC, and two PRS for overall or high-grade serous EOC. Associations were validated in a prospective cohort. RESULTS: The ER-negative PRS showed the strongest association with BC risk for BRCA1 carriers (hazard ratio [HR] per standard deviation = 1.29 [95% CI 1.25-1.33], P = 3×10-72). For BRCA2, the strongest association was with overall BC PRS (HR = 1.31 [95% CI 1.27-1.36], P = 7×10-50). HR estimates decreased significantly with age and there was evidence for differences in associations by predicted variant effects on protein expression. The HR estimates were smaller than general population estimates. The high-grade serous PRS yielded the strongest associations with EOC risk for BRCA1 (HR = 1.32 [95% CI 1.25-1.40], P = 3×10-22) and BRCA2 (HR = 1.44 [95% CI 1.30-1.60], P = 4×10-12) carriers. The associations in the prospective cohort were similar. CONCLUSION: Population-based PRS are strongly associated with BC and EOC risks for BRCA1/2 carriers and predict substantial absolute risk differences for women at PRS distribution extremes.

10.
JAMA Oncol ; 6(8): 1218-1230, 2020 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614418

RESUMO

Importance: The limited data on cancer phenotypes in men with germline BRCA1 and BRCA2 pathogenic variants (PVs) have hampered the development of evidence-based recommendations for early cancer detection and risk reduction in this population. Objective: To compare the cancer spectrum and frequencies between male BRCA1 and BRCA2 PV carriers. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study of 6902 men, including 3651 BRCA1 and 3251 BRCA2 PV carriers, older than 18 years recruited from cancer genetics clinics from 1966 to 2017 by 53 study groups in 33 countries worldwide collaborating through the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Clinical data and pathologic characteristics were collected. Main Outcomes and Measures: BRCA1/2 status was the outcome in a logistic regression, and cancer diagnoses were the independent predictors. All odds ratios (ORs) were adjusted for age, country of origin, and calendar year of the first interview. Results: Among the 6902 men in the study (median [range] age, 51.6 [18-100] years), 1634 cancers were diagnosed in 1376 men (19.9%), the majority (922 of 1,376 [67%]) being BRCA2 PV carriers. Being affected by any cancer was associated with a higher probability of being a BRCA2, rather than a BRCA1, PV carrier (OR, 3.23; 95% CI, 2.81-3.70; P < .001), as well as developing 2 (OR, 7.97; 95% CI, 5.47-11.60; P < .001) and 3 (OR, 19.60; 95% CI, 4.64-82.89; P < .001) primary tumors. A higher frequency of breast (OR, 5.47; 95% CI, 4.06-7.37; P < .001) and prostate (OR, 1.39; 95% CI, 1.09-1.78; P = .008) cancers was associated with a higher probability of being a BRCA2 PV carrier. Among cancers other than breast and prostate, pancreatic cancer was associated with a higher probability (OR, 3.00; 95% CI, 1.55-5.81; P = .001) and colorectal cancer with a lower probability (OR, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.29-0.78; P = .003) of being a BRCA2 PV carrier. Conclusions and Relevance: Significant differences in the cancer spectrum were observed in male BRCA2, compared with BRCA1, PV carriers. These data may inform future recommendations for surveillance of BRCA1/2-associated cancers and guide future prospective studies for estimating cancer risks in men with BRCA1/2 PVs.

11.
Molecules ; 25(12)2020 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32599946

RESUMO

Silybin is a flavonolignan extracted from Silybum marianum with chemopreventive activity against various cancers, including breast. This study was designed to develop an HPLC-MS/MS method for the determination of silybin in human plasma, urine and breast tissue in early breast cancer patients undergoing Siliphos® supplementation, an oral silybin-phosphatidylcholine complex. The determination of silybin was carried out by liquid-liquid extraction with methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE); total silybin concentration was determined by treating the samples with ß-glucuronidase, while for the determination of free silybin, the hydrolytic step was omitted. Naringenin and naproxen were selected as internal standards. The detection of the analyte was carried out by mass spectrometry and by chromatography. The HPLC-MS/MS method was evaluated in terms of selectivity, linearity, limit of quantification, precision and accuracy, and carryover. The method proved to be selective, linear, precise and accurate for the determination of silybin. To the best of our knowledge, this presents the first analytical method with the capacity to quantify the major bioactive components of milk thistle in three different biological matrices with a lower limit of quantification of 0.5 ng/mL for plasma. Silybin phosphatidylcholine, taken orally, can deliver high blood concentrations of silybin, which selectively accumulates in breast tumor tissue.

12.
J Clin Med ; 9(7)2020 Jul 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32708519

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To survey risk-reducing hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) practice and advice regarding hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in women with Lynch syndrome. METHODS: We conducted a survey in 31 contributing centers from the Prospective Lynch Syndrome Database (PLSD), which incorporates 18 countries worldwide. The survey covered local policies for risk-reducing hysterectomy and BSO in Lynch syndrome, the timing when these measures are offered, the involvement of stakeholders and advice regarding HRT. RESULTS: Risk-reducing hysterectomy and BSO are offered to path_MLH1 and path_MSH2 carriers in 20/21 (95%) contributing centers, to path_MSH6 carriers in 19/21 (91%) and to path_PMS2 carriers in 14/21 (67%). Regarding the involvement of stakeholders, there is global agreement (~90%) that risk-reducing surgery should be offered to women, and that this discussion may involve gynecologists, genetic counselors and/or medical geneticists. Prescription of estrogen-only HRT is offered by 15/21 (71%) centers to women of variable age range (35-55 years). CONCLUSIONS: Most centers offer risk-reducing gynecological surgery to carriers of path_MLH1, path_MSH2 and path_MSH6 variants but less so for path_PMS2 carriers. There is wide variation in how, when and to whom this is offered. The Manchester International Consensus Group developed recommendations to harmonize clinical practice across centers, but there is a clear need for more research.

13.
Dig Liver Dis ; 52(12): 1503-1511, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620519

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Tumor testing utility in Lynch syndrome (LS) diagnosis is established. AIMS: Analyze the differences between tumor testing efficiency in rectal (RC) and colon cancer (CC). METHODS: We performed immunohistochemistry (IHC) for MisMatch Repair (MMR) proteins (IHC-MMR) and MicroSatellite Instability analysis (MSI) on 482 unselected primary tumors: 320 CCs and 162 RCs. Samples had proficient-IHC, deficient-IHC or borderline-IHC ("patchy" expression). MSI-H borderline-IHC tumors were considered as likely MMR-deficient. Germline testing was offered to MMR-deficient patients without BRAF mutation or MLH1 promoter hypermetilation (MLH1-Hy). RESULTS: We identified 51/482 (10.6%) MMR-defective tumors. Multivariable analysis demonstrated a significant correlation between tumor testing results with histotype, lymph-node involvement and tumor location. In particular, RC showed a lower MMR-deficiency rate than CC (p<0.0001). Interestingly, MLH1 loss was detected in 0% RCs and 76.1% CCs, with 80% of them showing BRAF mutation/MLH1-Hy. A germline variant was detected in 12 out of 18 patients (mutation detection rate of 66.7%). CONCLUSION: Tumor testing results showed molecular differences between CCs and RCs, in terms of MMR proteins expression, and presence of BRAF mutation/MLH1-Hy. MSH6 variants were the most frequent ones (50%). Although young age at diagnosis was associated with mutation detection (p = 0.045), 33.3% of LS patients were >50 years.

14.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(6)2020 Jun 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32560361

RESUMO

E-cadherin (CDH1 gene) germline mutations are associated with the development of diffuse gastric cancer in the context of the so-called hereditary diffuse gastric syndrome, and with an inherited predisposition of lobular breast carcinoma. In 2019, the international gastric cancer linkage consortium revised the clinical criteria and established guidelines for the genetic screening of CDH1 germline syndromes. Nevertheless, the introduction of multigene panel testing in clinical practice has led to an increased identification of E-cadherin mutations in individuals without a positive family history of gastric or breast cancers. This observation motivated us to review and present a novel multidisciplinary clinical approach (nutritional, surgical, and image screening) for single subjects who present germline CDH1 mutations but do not fulfil the classic clinical criteria, namely those identified as-(1) incidental finding and (2) individuals with lobular breast cancer without family history of gastric cancer (GC).

15.
Nat Genet ; 52(6): 572-581, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32424353

RESUMO

Breast cancer susceptibility variants frequently show heterogeneity in associations by tumor subtype1-3. To identify novel loci, we performed a genome-wide association study including 133,384 breast cancer cases and 113,789 controls, plus 18,908 BRCA1 mutation carriers (9,414 with breast cancer) of European ancestry, using both standard and novel methodologies that account for underlying tumor heterogeneity by estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 status and tumor grade. We identified 32 novel susceptibility loci (P < 5.0 × 10-8), 15 of which showed evidence for associations with at least one tumor feature (false discovery rate < 0.05). Five loci showed associations (P < 0.05) in opposite directions between luminal and non-luminal subtypes. In silico analyses showed that these five loci contained cell-specific enhancers that differed between normal luminal and basal mammary cells. The genetic correlations between five intrinsic-like subtypes ranged from 0.35 to 0.80. The proportion of genome-wide chip heritability explained by all known susceptibility loci was 54.2% for luminal A-like disease and 37.6% for triple-negative disease. The odds ratios of polygenic risk scores, which included 330 variants, for the highest 1% of quantiles compared with middle quantiles were 5.63 and 3.02 for luminal A-like and triple-negative disease, respectively. These findings provide an improved understanding of genetic predisposition to breast cancer subtypes and will inform the development of subtype-specific polygenic risk scores.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Proteína BRCA1/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Mutação , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/genética , Neoplasias de Mama Triplo Negativas/patologia
16.
J Cell Mol Med ; 24(11): 5930-5936, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32301282

RESUMO

E-cadherin protein (CDH1 gene) integrity is fundamental to the process of epithelial polarization and differentiation. Deregulation of the E-cadherin function plays a crucial role in breast cancer metastases, with worse prognosis and shorter overall survival. In this narrative review, we describe the inactivating mechanisms underlying CDH1 gene activity and its possible translation to clinical practice as a prognostic biomarker and as a potential targeted therapy.

17.
Genet Epidemiol ; 44(5): 442-468, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32115800

RESUMO

Previous transcriptome-wide association studies (TWAS) have identified breast cancer risk genes by integrating data from expression quantitative loci and genome-wide association studies (GWAS), but analyses of breast cancer subtype-specific associations have been limited. In this study, we conducted a TWAS using gene expression data from GTEx and summary statistics from the hitherto largest GWAS meta-analysis conducted for breast cancer overall, and by estrogen receptor subtypes (ER+ and ER-). We further compared associations with ER+ and ER- subtypes, using a case-only TWAS approach. We also conducted multigene conditional analyses in regions with multiple TWAS associations. Two genes, STXBP4 and HIST2H2BA, were specifically associated with ER+ but not with ER- breast cancer. We further identified 30 TWAS-significant genes associated with overall breast cancer risk, including four that were not identified in previous studies. Conditional analyses identified single independent breast-cancer gene in three of six regions harboring multiple TWAS-significant genes. Our study provides new information on breast cancer genetics and biology, particularly about genomic differences between ER+ and ER- breast cancer.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Neoplasias da Mama/metabolismo , Estrogênios/metabolismo , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genômica , Humanos , Medição de Risco , Transcriptoma , Proteínas de Transporte Vesicular/genética
18.
Mod Pathol ; 33(6): 1065-1077, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31925342

RESUMO

The natural history of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is highly variable and difficult to predict. Biomarkers are needed to stratify patients with DCIS for adjuvant therapy. We investigated the prognostic and predictive relevance of cell cycle progression (CCP) score in women with DCIS. We measured the expression of 23 genes involved in CCP with quantitative RT-PCR on RNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor samples, and assessed the correlation of a predefined score with histopathologic features and recurrence. The signature was analyzed in a cohort of 909 consecutive DCIS with full histopathological features treated in a single institution. The main outcome measure was ipsilateral breast event (IBE) as first event observed, be it in situ or invasive. Median follow-up time was 8.7 years (IQR 6.5-10.5 years). There were 150 ipsilateral IBEs, 84 (56%) of which were invasive. In the first 5 years of follow-up, the score provided statistically different findings (p = 0.009), with IBE rates of 14.7% (95% CI, 10.4-19.7) for the highest quartile of CCP score (Q4) and 8.7% (95% CI, 6.7-11.0) for the lowest quartiles (Q1-3). The prognostic value for IBEs approached significance also in women treated with mastectomy (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] Q4 vs. Q1-3 = 2.60; 95% CI: 0.96-7.08; P = 0.06). Radiotherapy provided a greater benefit in women with higher CCP score. In addition, Q4 predicted a different risk after tamoxifen depending on menopausal status, with a beneficial trend on IBEs in postmenopausal women (HR 0.30; 95% CI, 0.07-1.39), and an opposite trend in premenopausal women (HR 1.68; 95% CI, 0.38-7.44) (P-interaction = 0.03). The results of this study provide for the first time the evidence that CCP score is a prognostic marker, which, after additional validation, could have an important role in personalizing the management of DCIS.

19.
Cancers (Basel) ; 12(2)2020 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31991861

RESUMO

Germline protein truncating variants (PTVs) in the FANCM gene have been associated with a 2-4-fold increased breast cancer risk in case-control studies conducted in different European populations. However, the distribution and the frequency of FANCM PTVs in Europe have never been investigated. In the present study, we collected the data of 114 European female breast cancer cases with FANCM PTVs ascertained in 20 centers from 13 European countries. We identified 27 different FANCM PTVs. The p.Gln1701* PTV is the most common PTV in Northern Europe with a maximum frequency in Finland and a lower relative frequency in Southern Europe. On the contrary, p.Arg1931* seems to be the most common PTV in Southern Europe. We also showed that p.Arg658*, the third most common PTV, is more frequent in Central Europe, and p.Gln498Thrfs*7 is probably a founder variant from Lithuania. Of the 23 rare or unique FANCM PTVs, 15 have not been previously reported. We provide here the initial spectrum of FANCM PTVs in European breast cancer cases.

20.
Nat Genet ; 52(1): 56-73, 2020 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31911677

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies have identified breast cancer risk variants in over 150 genomic regions, but the mechanisms underlying risk remain largely unknown. These regions were explored by combining association analysis with in silico genomic feature annotations. We defined 205 independent risk-associated signals with the set of credible causal variants in each one. In parallel, we used a Bayesian approach (PAINTOR) that combines genetic association, linkage disequilibrium and enriched genomic features to determine variants with high posterior probabilities of being causal. Potentially causal variants were significantly over-represented in active gene regulatory regions and transcription factor binding sites. We applied our INQUSIT pipeline for prioritizing genes as targets of those potentially causal variants, using gene expression (expression quantitative trait loci), chromatin interaction and functional annotations. Known cancer drivers, transcription factors and genes in the developmental, apoptosis, immune system and DNA integrity checkpoint gene ontology pathways were over-represented among the highest-confidence target genes.


Assuntos
Biomarcadores Tumorais/genética , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Teorema de Bayes , Feminino , Humanos , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Sequências Reguladoras de Ácido Nucleico , Fatores de Risco
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