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1.
Nature ; 573(7774): 346, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31530924
3.
Endocr Connect ; 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31336362

RESUMO

Breast cancer in men is a rare and still poorly characterized disease. Inherited mutations in BRCA1, BRCA2 and PALB2 genes, as well as common polymorphisms, play a role in male breast cancer genetic predisposition. Male breast cancer is considered a hormone-dependent tumor specifically related to hyperestrogenism. Polymorphisms in genes involved in estrogen biosynthesis and metabolism pathways, such as CYP17A1 and CYP1B1, have been associated with breast cancer risk. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of CYP17A1 and CYP1B1 polymorphisms in male breast cancer risk. A series of 597 male breast cancer cases and 1022 male controls, recruited within the Italian Multicenter Study on male breast cancer, was genotyped for CYP17A1 rs743572, CYP1B1 rs1056836 and rs1800440 polymorphisms by allelic discrimination real-time PCR with TaqMan probes. Associations with male breast cancer risk were estimated using logistic regression. No statistically significant associations between male breast cancer risk and the three analyzed polymorphisms emerged. Similar results were obtained also when BRCA1/2 mutational status was considered. No significant differences in the distribution of the genotypes according to estrogen receptor status emerged. In conclusion, our study, based on a large series of male breast cancer cases, is likely to exclude a relevant role of CYP17A1 and CYP1B1 polymorphisms in male breast cancer predisposition. Overall, these results add new data to the increasing evidence that polymorphisms in these genes may not be associated with breast cancer risk.

4.
Hum Mutat ; 40(11): e1-e23, 2019 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31209999

RESUMO

BRCA1 BRCA2 mutational spectrum in the Middle East, North Africa, and Southern Europe is not well characterized. The unique history and cultural practices characterizing these regions, often involving consanguinity and inbreeding, plausibly led to the accumulation of population-specific founder pathogenic sequence variants (PSVs). To determine recurring BRCA PSVs in these locales, a search in PUBMED, EMBASE, BIC, and CIMBA was carried out combined with outreach to researchers from the relevant countries for unpublished data. We identified 232 PSVs in BRCA1 and 239 in BRCA2 in 25 of 33 countries surveyed. Common PSVs that were detected in four or more countries were c.5266dup (p.Gln1756Profs), c.181T>G (p.Cys61Gly), c.68_69del (p.Glu23Valfs), c.5030_5033del (p.Thr1677Ilefs), c.4327C>T (p.Arg1443Ter), c.5251C>T (p.Arg1751Ter), c.1016dup (p.Val340Glyfs), c.3700_3704del (p.Val1234Glnfs), c.4065_4068del (p.Asn1355Lysfs), c.1504_1508del (p.Leu502Alafs), c.843_846del (p.Ser282Tyrfs), c.798_799del (p.Ser267Lysfs), and c.3607C>T (p.Arg1203Ter) in BRCA1 and c.2808_2811del (p.Ala938Profs), c.5722_5723del (p.Leu1908Argfs), c.9097dup (p.Thr3033Asnfs), c.1310_1313del (p. p.Lys437Ilefs), and c.5946del (p.Ser1982Argfs) for BRCA2. Notably, some mutations (e.g., p.Asn257Lysfs (c.771_775del)) were observed in unrelated populations. Thus, seemingly genotyping recurring BRCA PSVs in specific populations may provide first pass BRCA genotyping platform.

5.
Hum Mutat ; 40(9): 1557-1578, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31131967

RESUMO

The multifactorial likelihood analysis method has demonstrated utility for quantitative assessment of variant pathogenicity for multiple cancer syndrome genes. Independent data types currently incorporated in the model for assessing BRCA1 and BRCA2 variants include clinically calibrated prior probability of pathogenicity based on variant location and bioinformatic prediction of variant effect, co-segregation, family cancer history profile, co-occurrence with a pathogenic variant in the same gene, breast tumor pathology, and case-control information. Research and clinical data for multifactorial likelihood analysis were collated for 1,395 BRCA1/2 predominantly intronic and missense variants, enabling classification based on posterior probability of pathogenicity for 734 variants: 447 variants were classified as (likely) benign, and 94 as (likely) pathogenic; and 248 classifications were new or considerably altered relative to ClinVar submissions. Classifications were compared with information not yet included in the likelihood model, and evidence strengths aligned to those recommended for ACMG/AMP classification codes. Altered mRNA splicing or function relative to known nonpathogenic variant controls were moderately to strongly predictive of variant pathogenicity. Variant absence in population datasets provided supporting evidence for variant pathogenicity. These findings have direct relevance for BRCA1 and BRCA2 variant evaluation, and justify the need for gene-specific calibration of evidence types used for variant classification.

7.
Cancer Cell ; 35(5): 798-815.e5, 2019 May 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31031016

RESUMO

Tumor cells may adapt to metabolic challenges by alternating between glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). To target this metabolic plasticity, we combined intermittent fasting, a clinically feasible approach to reduce glucose availability, with the OXPHOS inhibitor metformin. In mice exposed to 24-h feeding/fasting cycles, metformin impaired tumor growth only when administered during fasting-induced hypoglycemia. Synergistic anti-neoplastic effects of the metformin/hypoglycemia combination were mediated by glycogen synthase kinase 3ß (GSK3ß) activation downstream of PP2A, leading to a decline in the pro-survival protein MCL-1, and cell death. Mechanistically, specific activation of the PP2A-GSK3ß axis was the sum of metformin-induced inhibition of CIP2A, a PP2A suppressor, and of upregulation of the PP2A regulatory subunit B56δ by low glucose, leading to an active PP2A-B56δ complex with high affinity toward GSK3ß.

8.
J Clin Oncol ; 37(19): 1629-1637, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973790

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Tamoxifen administered for 5 years at 20 mg/d is effective in breast cancer treatment and prevention, but toxicity has limited its broad use. Biomarker trials showed that 5 mg/d is not inferior to 20 mg/d in decreasing breast cancer proliferation. We hypothesized that a lower dose given for a shorter period could be as effective in preventing recurrence from breast intraepithelial neoplasia but have a lower toxicity than the standard dose. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a multicenter randomized trial of tamoxifen, 5 mg/d or placebo administered for 3 years after surgery in women with hormone-sensitive or unknown breast intraepithelial neoplasia, including atypical ductal hyperplasia and lobular or ductal carcinoma in situ. The primary end point was the incidence of invasive breast cancer or ductal carcinoma in situ. RESULTS: Five hundred women 75 years of age or younger were included. After a median follow-up of 5.1 years (interquartile range, 3.9-6.3 years), there were 14 neoplastic events with tamoxifen and 28 with placebo (11.6 v 23.9 per 1,000 person-years; hazard ratio, 0.48; 95% CI, 0.26 to 0.92; P = .02), which resulted in a 5-year number needed to treat of 22 (95% CI, 20 to 27). Tamoxifen decreased contralateral breast events by 75% (three v 12 events; hazard ratio, 0.25; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.88; P = .02). Patient-reported outcomes were not different between arms except for a slight increase in frequency of daily hot flashes with tamoxifen (P = .02). There were 12 serious adverse events with tamoxifen and 16 with placebo, including one deep vein thrombosis and one stage I endometrial cancer with tamoxifen and one pulmonary embolism with placebo. CONCLUSION: Tamoxifen at 5 mg/d for 3 years can halve the recurrence of breast intraepithelial neoplasia with a limited toxicity, which provides a new treatment option in these disorders.

9.
Pharmacogenomics J ; 2019 Apr 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30967597

RESUMO

Polymorphisms of genes involved in estrogen synthesis have been linked to breast cancer risk, prognosis, and treatment response. We investigated the prognostic impact of a deletion spanning the entire UGT2B17 gene (UGT2B17*2) and genetic variants of the aromatase CYP19A1 and estrogen receptor α (ESR1) in 125 postmenopausal women with ER-positive breast cancer enrolled in a randomized pre-surgical trial. The UGT2B17*2 was estimated by copy number variation assays and the CYP19A1 rs10046/rs4646 and ESR1 rs2077647/rs2234693/rs9340799 by TaqMan allelic discrimination assays. Serum exemestane/17-hydroxy exemestane were determined by MS and estrone (E1)/estradiol (E2)/ by GC-MS/MS. The association of genetic polymorphisms with "any event" was assessed by the Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for confounders. The UGT2B17*2 was associated with higher levels of 17-hydroxy exemestane (P = 0.04) and better prognosis (HR = 0.45; 95% CI: 0.20-1.01; P = 0.05) compared with homozygote UGT2B17 wt. The CYP19A1 rs10046 A and rs4646 C alleles were associated with higher estrogen levels: rs10046 AA vs. AG/GG genotypes had median E1 of 35.9 vs. 27.4 pg/mL (P = 0.05) and E2 of 7.57 vs. 3.9 pg/mL (P < 0.004). After a median follow-up of 7 years, women carrying the "low estrogen" alleles rs10046 G and rs4646 A had a better prognosis compared with homozygote wt for both polymorphisms (HR = 0.40; 95% CI: 0.17-0.93; P = 0.03). Our analysis points to an impact of UGT2B17 and CYP19A1 in postmenopausal endocrine responsive breast cancer. Carriers of UGT2B17*2 and CYP19A1 low estrogen variants may have better prognosis, supporting studies addressing the role of these polymorphisms in optimizing endocrine therapy. Trial registration: http://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN86894592 .

11.
Br J Cancer ; 120(6): 647-657, 2019 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30787463

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We examined the associations between germline variants and breast cancer mortality using a large meta-analysis of women of European ancestry. METHODS: Meta-analyses included summary estimates based on Cox models of twelve datasets using ~10.4 million variants for 96,661 women with breast cancer and 7697 events (breast cancer-specific deaths). Oestrogen receptor (ER)-specific analyses were based on 64,171 ER-positive (4116) and 16,172 ER-negative (2125) patients. We evaluated the probability of a signal to be a true positive using the Bayesian false discovery probability (BFDP). RESULTS: We did not find any variant associated with breast cancer-specific mortality at P < 5 × 10-8. For ER-positive disease, the most significantly associated variant was chr7:rs4717568 (BFDP = 7%, P = 1.28 × 10-7, hazard ratio [HR] = 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.84-0.92); the closest gene is AUTS2. For ER-negative disease, the most significant variant was chr7:rs67918676 (BFDP = 11%, P = 1.38 × 10-7, HR = 1.27, 95% CI = 1.16-1.39); located within a long intergenic non-coding RNA gene (AC004009.3), close to the HOXA gene cluster. CONCLUSIONS: We uncovered germline variants on chromosome 7 at BFDP < 15% close to genes for which there is biological evidence related to breast cancer outcome. However, the paucity of variants associated with mortality at genome-wide significance underpins the challenge in providing genetic-based individualised prognostic information for breast cancer patients.

12.
Int J Cancer ; 145(2): 390-400, 2019 07 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30613976

RESUMO

Breast cancer (BC) in men is rare and genetic predisposition is likely to play a relevant role in its etiology. Inherited mutations in BRCA1/2 account for about 13% of all cases and additional genes that may contribute to the missing heritability need to be investigated. In our study, a well-characterized series of 523 male BC (MBC) patients from the Italian multicenter study on MBC, enriched for non-BRCA1/2 MBC cases, was screened by a multigene custom panel of 50 cancer-associated genes. The main clinical-pathologic characteristics of MBC in pathogenic variant carriers and non-carriers were also compared. BRCA1/2 pathogenic variants were detected in twenty patients, thus, a total of 503 non-BRCA1/2 MBC patients were examined in our study. Twenty-seven of the non-BRCA1/2 MBC patients were carriers of germline pathogenic variants in other genes, including two APC p.Ile1307Lys variant carriers and one MUTYH biallelic variant carrier. PALB2 was the most frequently altered gene (1.2%) and PALB2 pathogenic variants were significantly associated with high risk of MBC. Non-BRCA1/2 pathogenic variant carriers were more likely to have personal (p = 0.0005) and family (p = 0.007) history of cancer. Results of our study support a central role of PALB2 in MBC susceptibility and show a low impact of CHEK2 on MBC predisposition in the Italian population. Overall, our data indicate that a multigene testing approach may benefit from appropriately selected patients with implications for clinical management and counseling of MBC patients and their family members.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama Masculina/genética , Quinase do Ponto de Checagem 2/genética , Proteína do Grupo de Complementação N da Anemia de Fanconi/genética , Mutação , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , Proteína da Polipose Adenomatosa do Colo/genética , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , DNA Glicosilases/genética , Estudos de Associação Genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
13.
Mol Oncol ; 13(3): 528-534, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30667152

RESUMO

The case for cancer prevention in Europe is the same as for all other parts of the world. The number of cancers is increasing, driven by demographic change and evolution in the exposure to risk factors, while the cost of treating patients is likewise spiralling. Estimations suggest that around 40% of cancers in Europe could be prevented if current understanding of risk and protective factors was translated into effective primary prevention, with further reductions in cancer incidence and mortality by screening, other approaches to early detection, and potentially medical prevention. However, the infrastructure for cancer prevention tends to be fragmented between and within different countries in Europe. This lack of a coordinated approach recently led to the foundation of Cancer Prevention Europe (Forman et al., 2018), a collaborative network with the main aims of strengthening cancer prevention in Europe by increasing awareness of the needs, the associated required resources and reducing inequalities in access to cancer prevention across Europe. This article showcases the need for strengthening cancer prevention and introduces the objectives of Cancer Prevention Europe and its foreseen future role in reducing the European cancer burden.

14.
Mol Oncol ; 13(3): 579-590, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30690875

RESUMO

The constant increase of cancer incidence and the huge costs of new treatments make cancer prevention a crucial goal in order to maintain sustainable public health systems across the world. Carcinogenesis is a multistep process, which allows time for active intervention with natural or synthetic agents to stop or reverse the pathological process. Cancer prevention medicine can be considered to be treatment of premalignant cells or preneoplastic conditions. Clearly such interventions require well-defined risk classification so that personalized strategies and specific treatments can be applied to cohorts with a documented increased cancer risk, and not to the general population as a whole. Further development of these strategies in an efficient and timely manner requires investment in the discovery and validation of surrogate cancer biomarkers with both prognostic and predictive value to detect and monitor the efficacy of interventions in clinical trials and beyond. In the field of cancer prevention medicine, breast and colon cancer demonstrates the strongest clinical evidence that pharmacological intervention can lower cancer risk. Here, we offer an overview of the major clinical achievements for these cancers and the critical issues to improve implementation and clinical uptake of efficacious therapies, as well as further developments needed in the field of preventive medicine.

15.
Am J Hum Genet ; 104(1): 21-34, 2019 01 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30554720

RESUMO

Stratification of women according to their risk of breast cancer based on polygenic risk scores (PRSs) could improve screening and prevention strategies. Our aim was to develop PRSs, optimized for prediction of estrogen receptor (ER)-specific disease, from the largest available genome-wide association dataset and to empirically validate the PRSs in prospective studies. The development dataset comprised 94,075 case subjects and 75,017 control subjects of European ancestry from 69 studies, divided into training and validation sets. Samples were genotyped using genome-wide arrays, and single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected by stepwise regression or lasso penalized regression. The best performing PRSs were validated in an independent test set comprising 11,428 case subjects and 18,323 control subjects from 10 prospective studies and 190,040 women from UK Biobank (3,215 incident breast cancers). For the best PRSs (313 SNPs), the odds ratio for overall disease per 1 standard deviation in ten prospective studies was 1.61 (95%CI: 1.57-1.65) with area under receiver-operator curve (AUC) = 0.630 (95%CI: 0.628-0.651). The lifetime risk of overall breast cancer in the top centile of the PRSs was 32.6%. Compared with women in the middle quintile, those in the highest 1% of risk had 4.37- and 2.78-fold risks, and those in the lowest 1% of risk had 0.16- and 0.27-fold risks, of developing ER-positive and ER-negative disease, respectively. Goodness-of-fit tests indicated that this PRS was well calibrated and predicts disease risk accurately in the tails of the distribution. This PRS is a powerful and reliable predictor of breast cancer risk that may improve breast cancer prevention programs.


Assuntos
Neoplasias da Mama/classificação , Neoplasias da Mama/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Neoplasias da Mama/diagnóstico , Neoplasias da Mama/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Humanos , Anamnese , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptores Estrogênicos/metabolismo , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco
16.
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol ; 132: 161-168, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30447922

RESUMO

Cancer of the esophagus and of gastroesophageal junction can be cured, even if with lacking cure rate. Different approaches have been developed, mostly when carcinoma has loco-regional pattern. Multimodality therapy showed a survival rate superior than 10% if compared to a single approach. This is a systematic review, carried to assess the following matters: Which therapeutic opportunities are available? Who could benefit of them? Which adverse reactions could possibly verify? How can physicians definitely choose the proper strategy? Which is the role of surgery? We mean to give either General Practitioner or specialists clear and efficient updates about current treatment of this tumour, starting from physical examination. Four eminent guidelines were consulted for our study: Cancer Care Ontario's Program in Evidence-Based Care, NCCN, Belgian Health Care Knowledge Centre and Esmo.

17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30352838

RESUMO

Menopausal symptoms are the main reason for withdrawal in tamoxifen prevention trials. Here, we present Menopause Quality of Life (MenQoL) assessment within a randomized 2 × 2 phase II clinical trial of low-dose tamoxifen and the synthetic retinoid fenretinide. A total of 235 premenopausal women at higher risk for breast cancer were randomized to either tamoxifen 5 mg daily, fenretinide 200 mg daily, their combination, or placebo. Climacteric symptoms were investigated using the MenQoL questionnaire which was self-administered at each visit for 2 years of treatment and for 1 year of follow-up. CYP2D6 was genotyped in subjects taking tamoxifen to study the association with menopausal symptoms. The MenQoL effect size analysis showed no statistically significant difference among the four treatment arms for all four domains (vasomotor, physical, psychosocial, and sexual). Vasomotor symptoms only slightly increased under tamoxifen, with a score at year two of 1.45, 1.21, 0.58, and 1.17 in the combined, tamoxifen, fenretinide, and placebo arms, respectively. Compared with the slow metabolizers, a higher percentage of subjects with CYP2D6 extensive metabolizer genotype complained of a ≥3 score in the vasomotor, psychosocial, and sexual domain in the tamoxifen arms (P value = 0.01, 0.007, and 0.007, respectively). QoL in premenopausal or perimenopausal women was not significantly worsened by low-dose tamoxifen or fenretinide. Our findings suggest that a low dose of tamoxifen may increase its acceptability for breast cancer prevention. Cancer Prev Res; 11(12); 1-8. ©2018 AACR.

18.
Hum Mutat ; 39(12): 2025-2039, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30204945

RESUMO

The widespread use of next generation sequencing for clinical testing is detecting an escalating number of variants in noncoding regions of the genome. The clinical significance of the majority of these variants is currently unknown, which presents a significant clinical challenge. We have screened over 6,000 early-onset and/or familial breast cancer (BC) cases collected by the ENIGMA consortium for sequence variants in the 5' noncoding regions of BC susceptibility genes BRCA1 and BRCA2, and identified 141 rare variants with global minor allele frequency < 0.01, 76 of which have not been reported previously. Bioinformatic analysis identified a set of 21 variants most likely to impact transcriptional regulation, and luciferase reporter assays detected altered promoter activity for four of these variants. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that three of these altered the binding of proteins to the respective BRCA1 or BRCA2 promoter regions, including NFYA binding to BRCA1:c.-287C>T and PAX5 binding to BRCA2:c.-296C>T. Clinical classification of variants affecting promoter activity, using existing prediction models, found no evidence to suggest that these variants confer a high risk of disease. Further studies are required to determine if such variation may be associated with a moderate or low risk of BC.

19.
Anticancer Res ; 38(8): 4393-4402, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30061203

RESUMO

The association between obesity/overweight and carcinogenesis is a recognized highly complex and still partially unknown process. Nevertheless, these conditions are frequently related with several pathological states such as chronic inflammation, presence of dyslipidemia and insulin-resistance (metabolic disorders) which are now accepted features contributing to the increased hormonal-dependent cancer risk. Breast cancer incidence and outcome is strictly related to metabolic disorders. Thus, managing these emerging risk factors, should be a new and optimal strategy in breast cancer prevention and therapy. Unfortunately, the agents able to interfere with metabolic disorders, produce often light or serious side-effects and consequently their compliance and efficacy are weak. Some nutraceutical compounds seem to be an ideal option with the same activity and effectiveness to ordinary agents but with minor side effects. Berberine, an extraordinary medicinal herb, has been proven to have many clinical pharmacological effects, including lowering of blood glucose, increasing insulin sensitivity, and correcting lipid metabolism disorders. It has a comparable therapeutic effect to common drugs. It acts contemporarily on hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance without their related side effects and could be a real alternative in healthy high risk or affected breast cancer patients with metabolic disorders. This commentary examines the pathophysiology of metabolic disorders and its relationship to breast cancer. Moreover, it evaluates the possible role of berberine in the clinical practice.


Assuntos
Berberina/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias da Mama/etiologia , Doenças Metabólicas/complicações , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Obesidade/complicações , Fatores de Risco
20.
Oncol Lett ; 16(3): 3408, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30147754

RESUMO

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3892/ol.2017.7711.].

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