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1.
Mov Disord ; 2021 Mar 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33724550

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Results regarding the association between hormonal exposure and risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) are heterogeneous. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the association of reproductive life characteristics with PD among postmenopausal women. METHODS: The PARTAGE case-control included 130 female cases and 255 age-matched female controls. Information on gynecological history was obtained from a standardized questionnaire and PD was validated by neurological examination. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were computed using conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: After adjustment for education level, smoking status, professional exposure to pesticides, and coffee and alcohol drinking, bilateral oophorectomy (OR = 3.55, 95%CI = 1.75-7.20), but neither menopause before age 50 years (OR = 1.24, 95%CI = 0.74-2.09) nor hormone therapy (HT; OR = 1.07, 95%CI = 0.62-1.86), was associated with PD. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that bilateral oophorectomy is associated with increased risk of PD. © 2021 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

2.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 68: 101797, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32882568

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Few studies have assessed the relation between maternal prenatal pesticides use and childhood lymphoma risk, some reporting a positive association with non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). We investigated the association between maternal exposure to pesticides during pregnancy and childhood Hodgkin (HL) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. METHODS: We pooled data from the two French national population-based case-control studies ESCALE (2003-2004) and ESTELLE (2010-2011). Data on domestic and occupational exposures to pesticides during pregnancy were obtained through standardised maternal interviews. Logistic regression models were used to compute odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for HL and NHL, by pesticide category adjusted for potential confounders. Analyses by histological subtypes were also performed. RESULTS: We included 328 H L, 305 non-Hodgkin NHL and 2,415 controls. Around 40% of control mothers reported having used pesticides during index pregnancy, of whom 95% reported insecticides use. Maternal use of herbicides and fungicides occurred mostly in combination with insecticides. Insecticides use was more frequently reported in cases than controls (ORNHL = 1.6 [95%CI 1.3-2.1], p = 0.0001; ORHL = 1.3 [95%CI 1.0-1.7], p = 0.03). This association appeared more marked for Burkitt lymphoma and mixed cellularity classical HL. No obvious association was observed with occupational pesticides exposure during pregnancy. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that maternal domestic use of insecticides during pregnancy might be related to both childhood NHL and HL. Further larger studies are urgently needed.

3.
Cancer Epidemiol ; : 101733, 2020 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32461035

RESUMO

Since the 1960s, paediatric oncologists have gradually become better organised in large study groups and participation in clinical trials is today considered as the standard of care, with most children with cancer in Europe and North America being enrolled on available treatment protocols. Chemotherapy is nowadays the main element of therapy, but irradiation is still required for some patients. With the advent of multimodality therapy and supportive care, five-year cancer survival exceeds 80 % in most European and North American countries today. The substantial improvements in survival led to a constantly growing population of childhood cancer survivors. Concerns regarding the risk of late effects of the intensive cancer treatment at a young age, together with increasing numbers of survivors, have directed attention towards survivorship research. Survivors of childhood cancer are at longstanding risk of various severe somatic and mental health conditions attributable to the cancer and its treatment, as well as adverse social and socioeconomic consequences, and diminished psychological well-being and quality of life. It is, however, important to stress that some survivors have no or very mild adverse health conditions. Nevertheless, joint efforts are warranted for the care and long-term follow-up of childhood cancer patients. With this article, we provide a comprehensive overview of improvements in survival and treatment modalities over time, as well as the related somatic and mental late effects, and social and socioeconomic difficulties that these children might encounter later in life.

4.
Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol ; 34(3): 344-349, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32347577

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Reports have suggested that children born by caesarean initiated before labour onset may be at increased risk of developing acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL). However, with most data being derived from case-control study interviews, information on the underpinning reasons for caesarean section is sparse, and evidence is conflicting. OBJECTIVES: Use clinical records compiled at the time of delivery to investigate the association between childhood ALL and caesarean delivery; examining timing in relation to labour onset, and reasons for the procedure. METHODS: Data are from the UK Childhood Cancer Study, a population-based case-control study conducted in the 1990s, when caesarean section rates were relatively low, in England, Scotland, and Wales. Children with ALL were individually matched to two controls on sex, date of birth, and region of residence. Information on mode of delivery and complications was abstracted from obstetric records. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using logistic regression models adjusted for matching variables and relevant covariates. RESULTS: Around 75% of the 1034 cases and 1914 controls were born through unassisted vaginal delivery. Caesarean delivery was as frequent in cases and controls (OR 1.07, 95% CI 0.84, 1.36). No association was observed between ALL and caesarean delivery either during or before labour, with adjusted ORs of 1.08 (95% CI 0.78, 1.48) and 1.09 (95% CI 0.78, 1.53), respectively. For B-cell ALL, the ORs were 1.14 (95% CI 0.81, 1.59) for caesarean during labour and 1.21 (95% CI 0.85, 1.72) for prelabour. The underpinning reasons for caesarean delivery differed between cases and controls; with preeclampsia, although very rare, being more common amongst cases born by caesarean (OR 8.91, 95% CI 1.48, 53.42). CONCLUSIONS: Our obstetric record-based study found no significant evidence that caesarean delivery increased the risk of childhood ALL, either overall or when carried out before labour.

5.
Eur J Cancer ; 130: 1-11, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32163883

RESUMO

AIM: Evidence for an association of foetal growth with acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is inconclusive. AML is a rare childhood cancer, relatively more frequent in girls, with distinct features in infancy. In the context of the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium (CLIC), we examined the hypothesis that the association may vary by age, sex and disease subtype using data from 22 studies and a total of 3564 AML cases. METHODS: Pooled estimates by age, sex and overall for harmonised foetal growth markers in association with AML were calculated using the International Fetal and Newborn Growth Consortium for the 21st Century Project for 17 studies contributing individual-level data; meta-analyses were, thereafter, conducted with estimates provided ad hoc by five more studies because of administrative constraints. Subanalyses by AML subtype were also performed. RESULTS: A nearly 50% increased risk was observed among large-for-gestational-age infant boys (odds ratio [OR]: 1.49, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.03-2.14), reduced to 34% in boys aged <2 years (OR: 1.34, 95% CI: 1.05-1.71) and 25% in boys aged 0-14 years (OR: 1.25, 95% CI: 1.06-1.46). The association of large for gestational age became stronger in boys with M0/M1subtype (OR: 1.80, 95% CI: 1.15-2.83). Large birth length for gestational age was also positively associated with AML (OR: 1.38, 95% CI: 1.00-1.92) in boys. By contrast, there were null associations in girls, as well as with respect to associations of decelerated foetal growth markers. CONCLUSIONS: Accelerated foetal growth was associated with AML, especially in infant boys and those with minimally differentiated leukaemia. Further cytogenetic research would shed light into the underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Desenvolvimento Fetal , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Fatores Sexuais
6.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 64: 101644, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31783249

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Central nervous system (CNS) malignancy is the commonest cause of cancer death in children and adolescents (0-19 years) in high-income settings. There is limited data on survival inequalities by race/ethnicity and socioeconomic position (SEP), for young patients, we aim to analyse their influence on survival from childhood CNS tumour. METHODS: 9577 children and adolescents diagnosed with primary malignant CNS tumours during 2000-2015, followed up until Dec 31 st, 2015, and reported to cancer registries (Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results programme) were included in the analysis. Cox regression models estimated the hazard ratios for race/ethnicity, SEP, and individual insurance status, adjusting for sex, age, diagnostic period, and tumour type. Individual-level insurance status data were available from 2007. RESULTS: 62.5 % children and adolescents were non-Hispanic White, 10.6 % were non-Hispanic Black and 26.9 % were Hispanic. Race/ethnicity was strongly associated with survival (p < 0.001), even after adjusting for SEP, with Black (HR = 1.39 [95 %CI 1.23-1.58]) and Hispanic children (HR = 1.40 [95 %CI 1.28-1.54]) having higher hazards of death than White children. This association remained after adjusting for insurance status. There was an apparent positive association between SEP and survival that was largely attenuated after adjustment for insurance status (p = 0.20). Survival was comparable between those privately and Medicaid-insured. CONCLUSIONS: Non-Hispanic Black and Hispanic children had lower survival than their White counterparts. This association, not fully explained by differences in SEP, tumour subtype or health insurance, could be related to racially/ethnically-driven barriers to optimal healthcare, warranting further investigation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/etnologia , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/mortalidade , Adolescente , Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias do Sistema Nervoso Central/economia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Grupos Étnicos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Hispano-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Renda , Seguro Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Masculino , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Sistema de Registros , Programa de SEER , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
J Pediatr ; 217: 98-109.e8, 2020 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31810630

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To summarize the published evidence regarding the association between maternal infection during pregnancy and childhood leukemia. STUDY DESIGN: In this systematic review and meta-analysis (PROSPERO number, CRD42018087289), we searched PubMed and Embase to identify relevant studies. We included human studies that reported associations of at least one measure of maternal infection during pregnancy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) or all childhood leukemias in the offspring. One reviewer extracted the data first using a standardized form, and the second reviewer independently checked the data for accuracy. Two reviewers used the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale to assess the quality of included studies. We conducted random effects meta-analyses to pool the ORs of specific type of infection on ALL and childhood leukemia. RESULTS: This review included 20 studies (ALL, n = 15; childhood leukemia, n = 14) reported in 32 articles. Most (>65%) included studies reported a positive association between infection variables and ALL or childhood leukemia. Among specific types of infection, we found that influenza during pregnancy was associated with higher risk of ALL (pooled OR, 3.64; 95% CI, 1.34-9.90) and childhood leukemia (pooled OR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.01-3.11). Varicella (pooled OR, 10.19; 95% CI, 1.98-52.39) and rubella (pooled OR, 2.79; 95% CI, 1.16-6.71) infections were also associated with higher childhood leukemia risk. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that maternal infection during pregnancy may be associated with a higher risk of childhood leukemia.


Assuntos
Leucemia/etiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/epidemiologia , Criança , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Incidência , Leucemia/epidemiologia , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
8.
Cancer Epidemiol ; 62: 101581, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31416015

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Dietary habits during pregnancy have been inconsistently linked to childhood acute myeloid leukemia (AML), given the putative intrauterine onset of the disease as a result of triggering events during the critical period of fetal hematopoiesis. We investigated the potential association of maternal coffee and tea consumption during pregnancy with childhood AML risk, pooling primary data from eight case-control studies participating in the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium. METHODS: Information on coffee and/or tea consumption was available for 444 cases and 1255 age- and sex-matched controls, on coffee consumption for 318 cases and 971 controls and on tea consumption for 388 cases and 932 controls. Categories for cups of daily coffee/tea consumption were created in order to explore potential dose-response associations. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using logistic regression. RESULTS: Associations were found neither in the analysis on coffee or tea nor in the analysis on coffee only consumption (any versus no). A positive association with increasing coffee intake was observed (>1 cup per day; OR: 1.40, 95% CI: 1.03-1.92, increment of one cup per day; OR: 1.18, 95% CI: 1.01-1.39). No associations were observed with tea consumption. Interaction analyses showed non-significant associations between coffee/tea and smoking. Hyperdiploidy was inversely associated with tea consumption, with other cytogenetic markers having no association with coffee/tea. CONCLUSION: Given the widespread consumption of caffeinated beverages among pregnant women, our finding is of important public health relevance, suggesting adverse effects of maternal coffee consumption during pregnancy in the offspring.


Assuntos
Café/efeitos adversos , Comportamento Alimentar/efeitos dos fármacos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/etiologia , Chá/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem
9.
Cancer ; 124(19): 3856-3867, 2018 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30343495

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The lifetime risk of developing leukemia in the United States is 1.5%. There are challenges in the estimation of population-based survival using registry data because treatments and prognosis vary greatly by subtype. The objective of the current study was to determine leukemia survival estimates in the United States from 1995 to 2009 according to subtype, sex, geographical area, and race. METHODS: Five-year net survival was estimated using data for 370,994 patients from 43 registries in 37 states and in 6 metropolitan areas, covering approximately 81% of the adult (15-99 years) US population. Leukemia was categorized according to principal subtype (chronic lymphocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, and acute lymphocytic leukemia), and subcategorized in accordance with the HAEMACARE protocol. We analyzed age-standardized 5-year net survival by calendar period (1995-1999, 2000-2004, and 2005-2009), leukemia subtype, sex, race, and US state. RESULTS: The age-standardized 5-year net survival estimates increased from 45.0% for patients diagnosed during 1995-1999 to 49.0% for those diagnosed during 2000-2004 and 52.0% for those diagnosed during 2005-2009. For patients diagnosed during 2005-2009, 5-year survival was 18.2% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 17.8%-18.6%) for acute myeloid leukemia, 44.0% (95% CI, 43.2%-44.8%) for acute lymphocytic leukemia, and 77.3% (95% CI, 76.9%-77.7%) for chronic lymphocytic leukemia. For nearly all leukemia subtypes, survival declined in successive age groups above 45 to 54 years. Men were found to have slightly lower survival than women; however, this discrepancy was noted to have fallen in successive calendar periods. Net survival was substantially higher in white than black patients in all calendar periods. There were large differences in survival noted between states and metropolitan areas. CONCLUSIONS: Survival from leukemia in US adults improved during 1995-2009. Some geographical differences in survival may be related to access to care. We found disparities in survival by sex and between black and white patients.


Assuntos
Leucemia/classificação , Leucemia/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Humanos , Leucemia/diagnóstico , Leucemia/epidemiologia , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/diagnóstico , Leucemia Linfocítica Crônica de Células B/mortalidade , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/diagnóstico , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/diagnóstico , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Sistema de Registros/estatística & dados numéricos , Programa de SEER , Análise de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
10.
Pediatr Blood Cancer ; 65(12): e27422, 2018 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30168243

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Survival probability in children, adolescents, and young adults with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) has dramatically improved during recent years. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), targeted drugs developed for patients with CML, were introduced in 2001 in England. We here quantify the trends in the "cure" proportion according to the year of diagnosis. METHODS: We included all children, adolescents, and young patients with CML (0 to 24 years) diagnosed in England during 1980 to 2005. We fitted mixture cure models to estimate the "cure" proportion and the median survival time among the "uncured" patients according to the year of diagnosis, adjusted for age at diagnosis. RESULTS: The "cure" proportion increased dramatically between 1980 and 2005, from under 10% to over 80%, while conversely, the median survival time of "uncured" patients decreased slightly between 1980 and 1999, with the trend from 2000 being uncertain. CONCLUSIONS: The striking improvement of the "cure" fraction in young patients with CML since the early 1980s is concomitant with improvement of treatment, especially the allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplant and, later, the introduction of TKI. The trends over the last years (2000-2005) remain, however, uncertain and would benefit from further studies with more recent data and updated follow-up.


Assuntos
Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/mortalidade , Leucemia Mielogênica Crônica BCR-ABL Positiva/terapia , Oncologia/tendências , Adolescente , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Criança , Inglaterra , Feminino , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/tendências , Humanos , Masculino , Inibidores de Proteínas Quinases/uso terapêutico , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
11.
Cancer Causes Control ; 29(6): 539-550, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29600472

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The early onset of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) suggests that critical exposures occurring during pregnancy may increase risk. We investigated the effects of maternal coffee and tea consumption during pregnancy on ALL risk by pooling data from eight case-control studies participating in the Childhood Leukemia International Consortium. METHOD: Data on maternal coffee intake were available for 2,552 cases and 4,876 controls, and data on tea intake were available for 2,982 cases and 5,367 controls. Coffee and tea intake was categorized into 0, > 0-1, > 1-2, and > 2 cups/day, and covariates were combined and harmonized. Data on genetic variants in NAT2, CYP1A1, and NQO1 were also available in a subset. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression, and linear trends across categories were assessed. RESULTS: No association was seen with 'any' maternal coffee consumption during pregnancy, but there was evidence of a positive exposure-response; the pooled OR for > 2 cups/day versus none was 1.27 (95% CI 1.09-1.43), p trend = 0.005. No associations were observed with tea consumption. No interactions were seen between coffee or tea intake and age, maternal smoking or genotype, and there was little or no evidence that associations with coffee or tea differed among cases with and without chromosomal translocations. CONCLUSIONS: Despite some limitations, our findings suggest that high coffee intake during pregnancy may increase risk of childhood ALL. Thus, current advice to limit caffeine intake during pregnancy to reduce risk of preterm birth may have additional benefits.


Assuntos
Café , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/epidemiologia , Chá , Adolescente , Adulto , Arilamina N-Acetiltransferase/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Citocromo P-450 CYP1A1/genética , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , Fatores de Risco
12.
Lancet ; 391(10125): 1023-1075, 2018 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29395269

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: In 2015, the second cycle of the CONCORD programme established global surveillance of cancer survival as a metric of the effectiveness of health systems and to inform global policy on cancer control. CONCORD-3 updates the worldwide surveillance of cancer survival to 2014. METHODS: CONCORD-3 includes individual records for 37·5 million patients diagnosed with cancer during the 15-year period 2000-14. Data were provided by 322 population-based cancer registries in 71 countries and territories, 47 of which provided data with 100% population coverage. The study includes 18 cancers or groups of cancers: oesophagus, stomach, colon, rectum, liver, pancreas, lung, breast (women), cervix, ovary, prostate, and melanoma of the skin in adults, and brain tumours, leukaemias, and lymphomas in both adults and children. Standardised quality control procedures were applied; errors were rectified by the registry concerned. We estimated 5-year net survival. Estimates were age-standardised with the International Cancer Survival Standard weights. FINDINGS: For most cancers, 5-year net survival remains among the highest in the world in the USA and Canada, in Australia and New Zealand, and in Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden. For many cancers, Denmark is closing the survival gap with the other Nordic countries. Survival trends are generally increasing, even for some of the more lethal cancers: in some countries, survival has increased by up to 5% for cancers of the liver, pancreas, and lung. For women diagnosed during 2010-14, 5-year survival for breast cancer is now 89·5% in Australia and 90·2% in the USA, but international differences remain very wide, with levels as low as 66·1% in India. For gastrointestinal cancers, the highest levels of 5-year survival are seen in southeast Asia: in South Korea for cancers of the stomach (68·9%), colon (71·8%), and rectum (71·1%); in Japan for oesophageal cancer (36·0%); and in Taiwan for liver cancer (27·9%). By contrast, in the same world region, survival is generally lower than elsewhere for melanoma of the skin (59·9% in South Korea, 52·1% in Taiwan, and 49·6% in China), and for both lymphoid malignancies (52·5%, 50·5%, and 38·3%) and myeloid malignancies (45·9%, 33·4%, and 24·8%). For children diagnosed during 2010-14, 5-year survival for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia ranged from 49·8% in Ecuador to 95·2% in Finland. 5-year survival from brain tumours in children is higher than for adults but the global range is very wide (from 28·9% in Brazil to nearly 80% in Sweden and Denmark). INTERPRETATION: The CONCORD programme enables timely comparisons of the overall effectiveness of health systems in providing care for 18 cancers that collectively represent 75% of all cancers diagnosed worldwide every year. It contributes to the evidence base for global policy on cancer control. Since 2017, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development has used findings from the CONCORD programme as the official benchmark of cancer survival, among their indicators of the quality of health care in 48 countries worldwide. Governments must recognise population-based cancer registries as key policy tools that can be used to evaluate both the impact of cancer prevention strategies and the effectiveness of health systems for all patients diagnosed with cancer. FUNDING: American Cancer Society; Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; Swiss Re; Swiss Cancer Research foundation; Swiss Cancer League; Institut National du Cancer; La Ligue Contre le Cancer; Rossy Family Foundation; US National Cancer Institute; and the Susan G Komen Foundation.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/mortalidade , Humanos , Neoplasias/patologia , Vigilância da População , Sistema de Registros , Taxa de Sobrevida
13.
Cancer Sci ; 109(2): 422-434, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29178401

RESUMO

The present study aimed to compare cancer incidence and trends in survival for children diagnosed in Japan and England, using population-based cancer registry data. The analysis was based on 5192 children with cancer (age 0-14 years) from 6 prefectural cancer registries in Japan and 21 295 children diagnosed in England during 1993-2010. Differences in incidence rates between the 2 countries were measured with Poisson regression models. Overall survival was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Incidence rates for Hodgkin lymphoma, renal tumors and Ewing sarcomas in England were more than twice as high as those in Japan. Incidence of germ cell tumors, hepatic tumors, neuroblastoma and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) was higher in Japan than in England. Incidence of all cancers combined decreased in Japan throughout the period 1993 to 2010, which was mainly explained by a decrease in registration of neuroblastoma in infants. For many cancers, 5-year survival improved in both countries. The improvement in survival in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) was particularly dramatic in both countries. However, 5-year survival remained less than 80% in 2005-2008 in both countries for AML, brain tumors, soft tissue sarcomas, malignant bone tumors and neuroblastoma (age 1-14 years). There were significant differences in incidence of several cancers between countries, suggesting variation in genetic susceptibility and possibly environmental factors. The decrease in incidence for all cancers combined in Japan was related to the cessation of the national screening program for neuroblastoma. The large improvement in survival in CML coincided with the introduction of effective therapy (imatinib).


Assuntos
Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Neoplasias Ósseas/epidemiologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Inglaterra/epidemiologia , Doença de Hodgkin/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Japão/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Renais/epidemiologia , Sarcoma de Ewing/epidemiologia , Análise de Sobrevida
14.
Cancer ; 123 Suppl 24: 4982-4993, 2017 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29205302

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Robust comparisons of population-based cancer survival estimates require tight adherence to the study protocol, standardized quality control, appropriate life tables of background mortality, and centralized analysis. The CONCORD program established worldwide surveillance of population-based cancer survival in 2015, analyzing individual data on 26 million patients (including 10 million US patients) diagnosed between 1995 and 2009 with 1 of 10 common malignancies. METHODS: In this Cancer supplement, we analyzed data from 37 state cancer registries that participated in the second cycle of the CONCORD program (CONCORD-2), covering approximately 80% of the US population. Data quality checks were performed in 3 consecutive phases: protocol adherence, exclusions, and editorial checks. One-, 3-, and 5-year age-standardized net survival was estimated using the Pohar Perme estimator and state- and race-specific life tables of all-cause mortality for each year. The cohort approach was adopted for patients diagnosed between 2001 and 2003, and the complete approach for patients diagnosed between 2004 and 2009. RESULTS: Articles in this supplement report population coverage, data quality indicators, and age-standardized 5-year net survival by state, race, and stage at diagnosis. Examples of tables, bar charts, and funnel plots are provided in this article. CONCLUSIONS: Population-based cancer survival is a key measure of the overall effectiveness of services in providing equitable health care. The high quality of US cancer registry data, 80% population coverage, and use of an unbiased net survival estimator ensure that the survival trends reported in this supplement are robustly comparable by race and state. The results can be used by policymakers to identify and address inequities in cancer survival in each state and for the United States nationally. Cancer 2017;123:4982-93. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.


Assuntos
Confiabilidade dos Dados , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Controle de Qualidade , Estatística como Assunto , Humanos , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
15.
Cancer ; 123 Suppl 24: 5178-5189, 2017 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29205314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is the most common childhood malignancy. This report describes the survival of children with ALL in the United States using the most comprehensive and up-to-date cancer registry data. METHODS: Data from 37 state cancer registries that cover approximately 80% of the US population were used. Age-standardized survival up to 5 years was estimated for children aged 0-14 years who were diagnosed with ALL during 2 periods (2001-2003 and 2004-2009). RESULTS: In total, 17,500 children with ALL were included. The pooled age-standardized net survival estimates for all US registries combined were 95% at 1 year, 90% at 3 years, and 86% at 5 years for children diagnosed during 2001-2003, and 96%, 91%, and 88%, respectively, for those diagnosed during 2004-2009. Black children who were diagnosed during 2001-2003 had lower 5-year survival (84%) than white children (87%) and had less improvement in survival by 2004-2009. For those diagnosed during 2004-2009, the 1-year and 5-year survival estimates were 96% and 89%, respectively, for white children and 96% and 84%, respectively, for black children. During 2004-2009, survival was highest among children aged 1 to 4 years (95%) and lowest among children aged <1 year (60%). CONCLUSIONS: The current results indicate that overall net survival from childhood ALL in the United States is high, but disparities by race still exist, especially beyond the first year after diagnosis. Clinical and public health strategies are needed to improve health care access, clinical trial enrollment, treatment, and survivorship care for children with ALL. Cancer 2017;123:5178-89. Published 2017. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.


Assuntos
Afro-Americanos/estatística & dados numéricos , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/estatística & dados numéricos , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/mortalidade , Sistema de Registros , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Estadiamento de Neoplasias , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/etnologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
17.
Lancet Haematol ; 4(5): e202-e217, 2017 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28411119

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Global inequalities in access to health care are reflected in differences in cancer survival. The CONCORD programme was designed to assess worldwide differences and trends in population-based cancer survival. In this population-based study, we aimed to estimate survival inequalities globally for several subtypes of childhood leukaemia. METHODS: Cancer registries participating in CONCORD were asked to submit tumour registrations for all children aged 0-14 years who were diagnosed with leukaemia between Jan 1, 1995, and Dec 31, 2009, and followed up until Dec 31, 2009. Haematological malignancies were defined by morphology codes in the International Classification of Diseases for Oncology, third revision. We excluded data from registries from which the data were judged to be less reliable, or included only lymphomas, and data from countries in which data for fewer than ten children were available for analysis. We also excluded records because of a missing date of birth, diagnosis, or last known vital status. We estimated 5-year net survival (ie, the probability of surviving at least 5 years after diagnosis, after controlling for deaths from other causes [background mortality]) for children by calendar period of diagnosis (1995-99, 2000-04, and 2005-09), sex, and age at diagnosis (<1, 1-4, 5-9, and 10-14 years, inclusive) using appropriate life tables. We estimated age-standardised net survival for international comparison of survival trends for precursor-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and acute myeloid leukaemia (AML). FINDINGS: We analysed data from 89 828 children from 198 registries in 53 countries. During 1995-99, 5-year age-standardised net survival for all lymphoid leukaemias combined ranged from 10·6% (95% CI 3·1-18·2) in the Chinese registries to 86·8% (81·6-92·0) in Austria. International differences in 5-year survival for childhood leukaemia were still large as recently as 2005-09, when age-standardised survival for lymphoid leukaemias ranged from 52·4% (95% CI 42·8-61·9) in Cali, Colombia, to 91·6% (89·5-93·6) in the German registries, and for AML ranged from 33·3% (18·9-47·7) in Bulgaria to 78·2% (72·0-84·3) in German registries. Survival from precursor-cell ALL was very close to that of all lymphoid leukaemias combined, with similar variation. In most countries, survival from AML improved more than survival from ALL between 2000-04 and 2005-09. Survival for each type of leukaemia varied markedly with age: survival was highest for children aged 1-4 and 5-9 years, and lowest for infants (younger than 1 year). There was no systematic difference in survival between boys and girls. INTERPRETATION: Global inequalities in survival from childhood leukaemia have narrowed with time but remain very wide for both ALL and AML. These results provide useful information for health policy makers on the effectiveness of health-care systems and for cancer policy makers to reduce inequalities in childhood cancer survival. FUNDING: Canadian Partnership Against Cancer, Cancer Focus Northern Ireland, Cancer Institute New South Wales, Cancer Research UK, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Swiss Re, Swiss Cancer Research foundation, Swiss Cancer League, and the University of Kentucky.


Assuntos
Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Neoplasias/mortalidade , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/mortalidade , Análise de Sobrevida , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Disparidades em Assistência à Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Neoplasias Hematológicas/mortalidade , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/mortalidade , Masculino , Sistema de Registros , Projetos de Pesquisa
18.
BMC Cancer ; 17(1): 159, 2017 02 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28241815

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We set out to estimate net survival trends for 10 common cancers in 279 cancer registry populations in 67 countries around the world, as part of the CONCORD-2 study. Net survival can be interpreted as the proportion of cancer patients who survive up to a given time, after eliminating the impact of mortality from other causes (background mortality). Background mortality varies widely between populations and over time. It was therefore necessary to construct robust life tables that accurately reflected the background mortality in each of the registry populations. METHODS: Life tables of all-cause mortality rates by single year of age and sex were constructed by calendar year for each population and, when possible, by racial or ethnic sub-groups. We used three different approaches, based on the type of mortality data available from each registry. With death and population counts, we adopted a flexible multivariable modelling approach. With unsmoothed mortality rates, we used the Ewbank relational method. Where no data were available from the registry or a national statistical office, we used the abridged UN Population Division life tables and interpolated these using the Elandt-Johnson method. We also investigated the impact of using state- and race-specific life tables versus national race-specific life tables on estimates of net survival from four adult cancers in the United States (US). RESULTS: We constructed 6,514 life tables covering 327 populations. Wide variations in life expectancy at birth and mortality by age were observed, even within countries. During 1995-99, life expectancy was lowest in Nigeria and highest in Japan, ranging from 47 to 84 years among females and 46 to 78 years among males. During 2005-09, life expectancy was lowest in Lesotho and again highest in Japan, ranging from 45 to 86 years among females and 45 to 80 years among males. For the US, estimates of net survival differed by up to 4% if background mortality was fully controlled with state- and race-specific life tables, rather than with national race-specific life tables. CONCLUSIONS: Background mortality varies worldwide. This emphasises the importance of using population-specific life tables for geographic and international comparisons of net survival.


Assuntos
Neoplasias/mortalidade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Japão/epidemiologia , Lesoto/epidemiologia , Expectativa de Vida , Tábuas de Vida , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Mortalidade/tendências , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Vigilância da População , Sistema de Registros
19.
PLoS One ; 10(3): e0121348, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25806972

RESUMO

Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified that frequent polymorphisms in ARID5B and IKZF1, two genes involved in lymphoid differentiation, increase the risk of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). These findings markedly modified the current field of research on the etiology of ALL. In this new context, the present exploratory study investigated the possible interactions between these at-risk alleles and the non-genetic suspected ALL risk factors that were of sufficient prevalence in the French ESCALE study: maternal use of home insecticides during pregnancy, preconception paternal smoking, and some proxies for early immune modulation, i.e. breastfeeding, history of common infections before age one year, and birth order. The analyses were based on 434 ALL cases and 442 controls of European origin, drawn from the nationwide population-based case-control study ESCALE. Information on non-genetic factors was obtained by standardized telephone interview. Interactions between rs10740055 in ARID5B or rs4132601 in IKZF1 and each of the suspected non-genetic factors were tested, with the SNPs coded as counts of minor alleles (trend variable). Statistical interactions were observed between rs4132601 and maternal insecticide use (p = 0.012), breastfeeding p = 0.017) and repeated early common infections (p = 0.0070), with allelic odds ratios (OR) which were only increased among the children not exposed to insecticides (OR = 1.8, 95%CI: 1.3, 2.4), those who had been breastfed (OR = 1.8, 95%CI: 1.3, 2.5) and those who had had repeated early common infections (OR = 2.4, 95%CI: 1.5, 3.8). The allelic ORs were close to one among children exposed to insecticides, who had not been breastfed and who had had no or few common infections. Repeated early common infections interacted with rs10740055 (p = 0.018) in the case-only design. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether these observations of a modification of the effect of the at-risk alleles by non-genetic factors are chance findings or reflect true underlying mechanisms.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença/genética , Fator de Transcrição Ikaros/genética , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/etiologia , Leucemia-Linfoma Linfoblástico de Células Precursoras/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Adolescente , Alelos , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
20.
Lancet ; 385(9972): 977-1010, 2015 Mar 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25467588

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Worldwide data for cancer survival are scarce. We aimed to initiate worldwide surveillance of cancer survival by central analysis of population-based registry data, as a metric of the effectiveness of health systems, and to inform global policy on cancer control. METHODS: Individual tumour records were submitted by 279 population-based cancer registries in 67 countries for 25·7 million adults (age 15-99 years) and 75,000 children (age 0-14 years) diagnosed with cancer during 1995-2009 and followed up to Dec 31, 2009, or later. We looked at cancers of the stomach, colon, rectum, liver, lung, breast (women), cervix, ovary, and prostate in adults, and adult and childhood leukaemia. Standardised quality control procedures were applied; errors were corrected by the registry concerned. We estimated 5-year net survival, adjusted for background mortality in every country or region by age (single year), sex, and calendar year, and by race or ethnic origin in some countries. Estimates were age-standardised with the International Cancer Survival Standard weights. FINDINGS: 5-year survival from colon, rectal, and breast cancers has increased steadily in most developed countries. For patients diagnosed during 2005-09, survival for colon and rectal cancer reached 60% or more in 22 countries around the world; for breast cancer, 5-year survival rose to 85% or higher in 17 countries worldwide. Liver and lung cancer remain lethal in all nations: for both cancers, 5-year survival is below 20% everywhere in Europe, in the range 15-19% in North America, and as low as 7-9% in Mongolia and Thailand. Striking rises in 5-year survival from prostate cancer have occurred in many countries: survival rose by 10-20% between 1995-99 and 2005-09 in 22 countries in South America, Asia, and Europe, but survival still varies widely around the world, from less than 60% in Bulgaria and Thailand to 95% or more in Brazil, Puerto Rico, and the USA. For cervical cancer, national estimates of 5-year survival range from less than 50% to more than 70%; regional variations are much wider, and improvements between 1995-99 and 2005-09 have generally been slight. For women diagnosed with ovarian cancer in 2005-09, 5-year survival was 40% or higher only in Ecuador, the USA, and 17 countries in Asia and Europe. 5-year survival for stomach cancer in 2005-09 was high (54-58%) in Japan and South Korea, compared with less than 40% in other countries. By contrast, 5-year survival from adult leukaemia in Japan and South Korea (18-23%) is lower than in most other countries. 5-year survival from childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia is less than 60% in several countries, but as high as 90% in Canada and four European countries, which suggests major deficiencies in the management of a largely curable disease. INTERPRETATION: International comparison of survival trends reveals very wide differences that are likely to be attributable to differences in access to early diagnosis and optimum treatment. Continuous worldwide surveillance of cancer survival should become an indispensable source of information for cancer patients and researchers and a stimulus for politicians to improve health policy and health-care systems. FUNDING: Canadian Partnership Against Cancer (Toronto, Canada), Cancer Focus Northern Ireland (Belfast, UK), Cancer Institute New South Wales (Sydney, Australia), Cancer Research UK (London, UK), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (Atlanta, GA, USA), Swiss Re (London, UK), Swiss Cancer Research foundation (Bern, Switzerland), Swiss Cancer League (Bern, Switzerland), and University of Kentucky (Lexington, KY, USA).


Assuntos
Neoplasias/mortalidade , Adolescente , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Saúde Global , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Sistema de Registros , Distribuição por Sexo , Análise de Sobrevida , Adulto Jovem
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