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1.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 103(8): 2949-2957, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29800372

RESUMO

Purpose: In women with postmenopausal osteoporosis, we investigated the effects of 24 months of treatment with alendronate (ALN) following 18 months of treatment with abaloparatide (ABL) or placebo (PBO). Methods: Women who completed ABL or PBO treatment in ACTIVE were eligible to receive up to 24 months of ALN. We evaluated the incidence of vertebral and nonvertebral fractures and changes in bone mineral density (BMD) during the entire 43-month period from ACTIVE baseline to the end of ACTIVExtend and for the 24-month extension only. Results: Five hundred fifty-eight women from ACTIVE's ABL group and 581 from its PBO group (92% of ABL and PBO completers) were enrolled. During the full 43-month treatment period, 0.9% of evaluable women in the ABL/ALN group experienced a new radiographic vertebral fracture vs 5.6% of women in the PBO/ALN group, an 84% relative risk reduction (RRR, P < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier incidence rates for other reported fracture types were significantly lower for ABL/ALN vs PBO/ALN (all P < 0.05). Gains in BMD achieved during ACTIVE were further increased during ACTIVExtend. For ACTIVExtend only, RRR for vertebral fractures was 87% with ABL/ALN vs PBO/ALN (P = 0.001). Adverse events were similar between groups. A supplemental analysis for regulatory authorities found no hip fractures in the ABL/ALN group vs five in the PBO/ALN group. Conclusions: Eighteen months of ABL followed by 24 months of ALN reduced the risk of vertebral, nonvertebral, clinical, and major osteoporotic fractures and increased BMD. Sequential ABL followed by ALN appears to be an effective treatment option for postmenopausal women at risk for osteoporosis-related fractures.

2.
J Bone Miner Res ; 33(8): 1397-1406, 2018 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29694685

RESUMO

Over 12 months, romosozumab increased bone formation and decreased bone resorption, resulting in increased bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal women with low BMD (NCT00896532). Herein, we report the study extension evaluating 24 months of treatment with romosozumab, discontinuation of romosozumab, alendronate followed by romosozumab, and romosozumab followed by denosumab. Postmenopausal women aged 55 to 85 years with a lumbar spine (LS), total hip (TH), or femoral neck T-score ≤-2.0 and ≥-3.5 were enrolled and randomly assigned to placebo, one of five romosozumab regimens (70 mg, 140 mg, 210 mg monthly [QM]; 140 mg Q3M; 210 mg Q3M) for 24 months, or open-label alendronate for 12 months followed by romosozumab 140 mg QM for 12 months. Eligible participants were then rerandomized 1:1 within original treatment groups to placebo or denosumab 60 mg Q6M for an additional 12 months. Percentage change from baseline in BMD and bone turnover markers (BTMs) at months 24 and 36 and safety were evaluated. Of 364 participants initially randomized to romosozumab, placebo, or alendronate, 315 completed 24 months of treatment and 248 completed the extension. Romosozumab markedly increased LS and TH BMD through month 24, with largest gains observed with romosozumab 210 mg QM (LS = 15.1%; TH = 5.4%). Women receiving romosozumab who transitioned to denosumab continued to accrue BMD, whereas BMD returned toward pretreatment levels with placebo. With romosozumab 210 mg QM, bone formation marker P1NP initially increased after treatment initiation and gradually decreased to below baseline by month 12, remaining below baseline through month 24; bone resorption marker ß-CTX rapidly decreased after treatment, remaining below baseline through month 24. Transition to denosumab further decreased both BTMs, whereas after transition to placebo, P1NP returned to baseline and ß-CTX increased above baseline. Adverse events were balanced between treatment groups through month 36. These data suggest that treatment effects of romosozumab are reversible upon discontinuation and further augmented by denosumab. © 2018 The Authors Journal of Bone and Mineral Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

4.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol ; 5(7): 513-523, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28546097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Long-term safety and efficacy of osteoporosis treatment are important because of the chronic nature of the disease. We aimed to assess the long-term safety and efficacy of denosumab, which is widely used for the treatment of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. METHODS: In the multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 FREEDOM trial, postmenopausal women aged 60-90 years with osteoporosis were enrolled in 214 centres in North America, Europe, Latin America, and Australasia and were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive 60 mg subcutaneous denosumab or placebo every 6 months for 3 years. All participants who completed the FREEDOM trial without discontinuing treatment or missing more than one dose of investigational product were eligible to enrol in the open-label, 7-year extension, in which all participants received denosumab. The data represent up to 10 years of denosumab exposure for women who received 3 years of denosumab in FREEDOM and continued in the extension (long-term group), and up to 7 years for women who received 3 years of placebo and transitioned to denosumab in the extension (crossover group). The primary outcome was safety monitoring, comprising assessments of adverse event incidence and serious adverse event incidence, changes in safety laboratory analytes (ie, serum chemistry and haematology), and participant incidence of denosumab antibody formation. Secondary outcomes included new vertebral, hip, and non-vertebral fractures as well as bone mineral density (BMD) at the lumbar spine, total hip, femoral neck, and one-third radius. Analyses were done according to the randomised FREEDOM treatment assignments. All participants who received at least one dose of investigational product in FREEDOM or the extension were included in the combined safety analyses. All participants who enrolled in the extension with observed data were included in the efficacy analyses. The FREEDOM trial (NCT00089791) and its extension (NCT00523341) are both registered with ClinicalTrials.gov. FINDINGS: Between Aug 3, 2004, and June 1, 2005, 7808 women were enrolled in the FREEDOM study. 5928 (76%) women were eligible for enrolment in the extension, and of these, 4550 (77%) were enrolled (2343 long-term, 2207 crossover) between Aug 7, 2007, and June 20, 2008. 2626 women (1343 long-term; 1283 crossover) completed the extension. The yearly exposure-adjusted participant incidence of adverse events for all individuals receiving denosumab decreased from 165·3 to 95·9 per 100 participant-years over the course of 10 years. Serious adverse event rates were generally stable over time, varying between 11·5 and 14·4 per 100 participant-years. One atypical femoral fracture occurred in each group during the extension. Seven cases of osteonecrosis of the jaw were reported in the long-term group and six cases in the crossover group. The yearly incidence of new vertebral fractures (ranging from 0·90% to 1·86%) and non-vertebral fractures (ranging from 0·84% to 2·55%) remained low during the extension, similar to rates observed in the denosumab group during the first three years of the FREEDOM study, and lower than rates projected for a virtual long-term placebo cohort. In the long-term group, BMD increased from FREEDOM baseline by 21·7% at the lumbar spine, 9·2% at total hip, 9·0% at femoral neck, and 2·7% at the one-third radius. In the crossover group, BMD increased from extension baseline by 16·5% at the lumbar spine, 7·4% at total hip, 7·1% at femoral neck, and 2·3% at one-third radius. INTERPRETATION: Denosumab treatment for up to 10 years was associated with low rates of adverse events, low fracture incidence compared with that observed during the original trial, and continued increases in BMD without plateau. FUNDING: Amgen.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Denosumab/uso terapêutico , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Estudos Cross-Over , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Fatores de Tempo
5.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord ; 18(1): 174, 2017 04 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28449657

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Denosumab treatment for up to 8 years in the FREEDOM study and Extension was associated with low fracture incidence. It was not clear whether subjects who discontinued during the study conduct had a higher risk of fracture than those who remained enrolled, thereby underestimating the true fracture risk for the entire trial cohort. Thus, we explored the influence of early withdrawals on nonvertebral fracture incidence during the Extension study. METHODS: To understand the potential effect of depletion of susceptible subjects on fracture incidence, we first evaluated subject characteristics in patients who were enrolled in the Extension vs those who were not. We subsequently employed a Kaplan-Meier multiple imputation (KMMI) approach to consider subjects who discontinued as if they remained enrolled with a 0%, 20%, 50%, and 100% increase in fracture risk compared with participants remaining on study. RESULTS: Extension enrollees were generally similar to nonparticipants in median age (71.9 and 73.1 years, respectively), mean total hip bone mineral density T-score (-1.9 and -2.0, respectively), and probability of fracture risk by Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX®) at FREEDOM baseline (16.9% and 17.7% for major osteoporotic fracture and 6.7% and 7.4% for hip fracture, respectively). When we assumed a doubled fracture risk (100% increase) after discontinuation in KMMI analyses, nonvertebral fracture rate estimates were only marginally higher than the observed rates for both the crossover group (10.32% vs 9.16%, respectively) and the long-term group (7.63% vs 6.63%, respectively). CONCLUSION: The observation of continued denosumab efficacy over 8 years of treatment was robust and does not seem to be explained by depletion of susceptible subjects. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClincalTrials.gov registration number NCT00523341 ; registered August 30, 2007.


Assuntos
Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Denosumab/uso terapêutico , Fraturas do Quadril/tratamento farmacológico , Fraturas por Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Pacientes Desistentes do Tratamento , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Feminino , Fraturas do Quadril/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas do Quadril/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fraturas por Osteoporose/diagnóstico por imagem , Fraturas por Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
J Bone Miner Res ; 32(7): 1481-1485, 2017 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28277603

RESUMO

Denosumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody against receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) that decreases osteoclast formation, function and survival, and is approved for the treatment of postmenopausal women with osteoporosis at increased or high risk for fracture, among other indications. During the pivotal 3-year fracture trial FREEDOM, denosumab 60 mg subcutaneously every 6 months significantly reduced new vertebral (68%), hip (40%), and nonvertebral (20%) fractures; increased bone mineral density (BMD); and reduced bone turnover markers compared with placebo in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. Questions have arisen regarding imbalances of certain low-frequency adverse events (AEs) observed in FREEDOM, as well as the top 5 most frequent adverse reactions listed in the United States prescribing information (USPI; back pain, pain in extremity, musculoskeletal pain, hypercholesterolemia, and cystitis). We examined the incidences of these AEs in women who originally received placebo during FREEDOM and then received denosumab for up to 3 years during the FREEDOM Extension (Crossover Group). This provided a unique opportunity for comparison with the original 3-year denosumab FREEDOM observations. We also examined the incidences of these AEs over 6 years of denosumab treatment (Long-term Group; ie, comparing a second 3 years of treatment with findings in the first 3 years). There was no indication of increasing trends regarding the imbalances of either low-frequency AEs or common AEs observed in FREEDOM. © 2017 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.


Assuntos
Denosumab/administração & dosagem , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Denosumab/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/epidemiologia , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/metabolismo , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/patologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
7.
Ther Adv Endocrinol Metab ; 6(4): 155-62, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26301065

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Bisphosphonates are the most effective therapeutic agents in patients with Paget's disease of bone. As a result of their inhibition of osteoclastic activity, hypocalcemia of variable frequency and severity following intravenous bisphosphonate therapy has been reported. The present study assessed the effect of physician and patient education on adequate supplementation of calcium and vitamin D to reduce the potential risk of developing hypocalcemia following infusion of 5 mg zoledronic acid. METHODS: This was an open-label, multicenter, controlled registry trial in which patients with Paget's disease were treated with a single intravenous infusion of zoledronic acid. Physicians were provided with educational materials focusing on optimization of calcium and vitamin D supplementation following zoledronic infusion that they used to educate their patients. The primary safety variable was the percentage of patients with serum calcium level <2.07mmol/l 9-11 days after zoledronic acid infusion. RESULTS: A total of 75 patients were evaluable in the post dose hypocalcemia safety analysis. Of these, only 1 patient had treatment-emergent hypocalcemia, with a serum calcium level of 1.92 mmol/l 4 days following therapy. Hypocalcemia-related symptoms were not reported in this patient and the serum calcium returned to normal range at 2.17 mmol/l within 1 week on oral calcium supplementation. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that, with optimization of calcium and vitamin D supplementation by physician and patient education, hypocalcemia is an infrequent occurrence following zoledronic acid infusion.

9.
Eur J Cancer ; 51(13): 1812-21, 2015 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26093811

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This analysis was performed to further characterise treatment-emergent hypocalcaemia in patients with bone metastases receiving denosumab. METHODS: Laboratory abnormalities and adverse events of hypocalcaemia in patients with metastatic bone disease were analysed using data from three identically designed phase 3 trials of subcutaneous denosumab 120 mg (n = 2841) versus intravenous zoledronic acid 4 mg (n = 2836). RESULTS: The overall incidence of laboratory events of hypocalcaemia grade ⩾ 2 was higher with denosumab (12.4%) than with zoledronic acid (5.3%). Hypocalcaemia events were primarily grade 2 in severity and usually occurred within the first 6 months of treatment. Patients who reported taking calcium and/or vitamin D supplements had a lower incidence of hypocalcaemia. Prostate cancer or small-cell lung cancer, reduced creatinine clearance and higher baseline bone turnover markers of urinary N-telopeptide of type I collagen (uNTx; > 50 versus ⩽ 50 nmol/mmol) and bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP; > 20.77 µg/L [median] versus ⩽ 20.77 µg/L) values were important risk factors for developing hypocalcaemia. The risk associated with increased baseline BSAP levels was greater among patients who had > 2 bone metastases at baseline versus those with ⩽ 2 bone metastases at baseline. CONCLUSION: Hypocalcaemia was more frequent with denosumab versus zoledronic acid, consistent with denosumab's greater antiresorptive effect. Low serum calcium levels and potential vitamin D deficiency should be corrected before initiating treatment with a potent osteoclast inhibitor, and corrected serum calcium levels should be monitored during treatment. Adequate calcium and vitamin D intake appears to substantially reduce the risk of hypocalcaemia.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/efeitos adversos , Neoplasias Ósseas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Ósseas/secundário , Cálcio/sangue , Denosumab/efeitos adversos , Hipocalcemia/induzido quimicamente , Biomarcadores/sangue , Ensaios Clínicos Fase III como Assunto , Difosfonatos/efeitos adversos , Humanos , Hipocalcemia/sangue , Hipocalcemia/diagnóstico , Hipocalcemia/epidemiologia , Hipocalcemia/prevenção & controle , Imidazóis/efeitos adversos , Incidência , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Deficiência de Vitamina D/complicações , Deficiência de Vitamina D/diagnóstico , Ácido Zoledrônico
13.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 100(4): 1335-42, 2015 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25607608

RESUMO

CONTEXT: One in 4 men in the United States aged >50 years will have an osteoporosis-related fracture. Fewer data are available on osteoporosis treatment in men than in women. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate denosumab therapy in men with low bone mineral density (BMD). DESIGN: This was a phase 3 study with 2 treatment periods: a previously reported 12-month double-blind, placebo-controlled phase and a 12-month open-label phase. SETTING: This was a multicenter study conducted in North America and Europe. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 228 men entered the open-label phase and 219 completed the study. INTERVENTION: Men from the original denosumab (long-term) and placebo (crossover) groups received 60 mg of denosumab sc every 6 months. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: BMD, serum collagen type I C-telopeptide, and safety were measured. RESULTS: During the open-label phase, continued BMD increases occurred with long-term denosumab treatment (2.2% lumbar spine, 0.9% total hip, 1.3% femoral neck, 1.3% trochanter, and 0.2% 1/3 radius), resulting in cumulative 24-month gains from baseline of 8.0%, 3.4%, 3.4%, 4.6%, and 0.7%, respectively (all P < .01). The crossover group showed BMD gains after 12 months of denosumab treatment similar to those of the long-term denosumab group during the first treatment year. Significant reductions in serum collagen type I C-teleopeptide were observed after denosumab administration. Adverse event rates were similar between groups, and no new safety signals were identified. CONCLUSIONS: In men with low BMD, denosumab treatment for a second year continued to increase BMD, maintained reductions in bone resorption, and was well tolerated. BMD increased in men initiating denosumab during the second year. These effects were similar to those previously seen in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis and in men with prostate cancer receiving androgen deprivation therapy.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/efeitos adversos , Denosumab , Colo do Fêmur/diagnóstico por imagem , Colo do Fêmur/efeitos dos fármacos , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Vértebras Lombares/diagnóstico por imagem , Vértebras Lombares/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose/diagnóstico por imagem , Osteoporose/epidemiologia , Radiografia , Rádio (Anatomia)/diagnóstico por imagem , Rádio (Anatomia)/efeitos dos fármacos , Resultado do Tratamento
14.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 99(12): 4408-22, 2014 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25406796

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this guideline was to formulate practice guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of Paget's disease of the bone. PARTICIPANTS: The guideline was developed by an Endocrine Society-appointed Task Force of experts, a methodologist, and a medical writer. EVIDENCE: This evidence-based guideline was developed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system to describe both the strength of recommendations and the quality of evidence. CONSENSUS PROCESS: One group meeting, several conference calls, and e-mail communications enabled consensus. Committees and members of The Endocrine Society and the European Society of Endocrinology reviewed and commented on preliminary drafts of these guidelines. Two systematic reviews were conducted to summarize supporting evidence. CONCLUSIONS: We recommend that plain radiographs be obtained of the pertinent regions of the skeleton in patients with suspected Paget's disease. If the diagnosis is confirmed, we suggest that a radionucleotide bone scan be done to determine the extent of the disease. After diagnosis of Paget's disease, we recommend measurement of serum total alkaline phosphatase or, when warranted, a more specific marker of bone formation or bone resorption to assess the response to treatment or evolution of the disease in untreated patients. We suggest treatment with a bisphosphonate for most patients with active Paget's disease who are at risk for future complications. We suggest a single 5-mg dose of iv zoledronate as the treatment of choice in patients who have no contraindication. In patients with monostotic disease who have a normal serum total alkaline phosphatase, we suggest that a specific marker of bone formation and bone resorption be measured, although these may still be normal. Serial radionuclide bone scans may determine the response to treatment if the markers are normal. We suggest that bisphosphonate treatment may be effective in preventing or slowing the progress of hearing loss and osteoarthritis in joints adjacent to Paget's disease and may reverse paraplegia associated with spinal Paget's disease. We suggest treatment with a bisphosphonate before surgery on pagetic bone.


Assuntos
Osteíte Deformante/terapia , Biomarcadores/análise , Consenso , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos , Osteíte Deformante/complicações , Osteíte Deformante/diagnóstico , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
15.
N Engl J Med ; 370(5): 412-20, 2014 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24382002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sclerostin is an osteocyte-derived inhibitor of osteoblast activity. The monoclonal antibody romosozumab binds to sclerostin and increases bone formation. METHODS: In a phase 2, multicenter, international, randomized, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, eight-group study, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of romosozumab over a 12-month period in 419 postmenopausal women, 55 to 85 years of age, who had low bone mineral density (a T score of -2.0 or less at the lumbar spine, total hip, or femoral neck and -3.5 or more at each of the three sites). Participants were randomly assigned to receive subcutaneous romosozumab monthly (at a dose of 70 mg, 140 mg, or 210 mg) or every 3 months (140 mg or 210 mg), subcutaneous placebo, or an open-label active comparator--oral alendronate (70 mg weekly) or subcutaneous teriparatide (20 µg daily). The primary end point was the percentage change from baseline in bone mineral density at the lumbar spine at 12 months. Secondary end points included percentage changes in bone mineral density at other sites and in markers of bone turnover. RESULTS: All dose levels of romosozumab were associated with significant increases in bone mineral density at the lumbar spine, including an increase of 11.3% with the 210-mg monthly dose, as compared with a decrease of 0.1% with placebo and increases of 4.1% with alendronate and 7.1% with teriparatide. Romosozumab was also associated with large increases in bone mineral density at the total hip and femoral neck, as well as transitory increases in bone-formation markers and sustained decreases in a bone-resorption marker. Except for mild, generally nonrecurring injection-site reactions with romosozumab, adverse events were similar among groups. CONCLUSIONS: In postmenopausal women with low bone mass, romosozumab was associated with increased bone mineral density and bone formation and with decreased bone resorption. (Funded by Amgen and UCB Pharma; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00896532.).


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais/administração & dosagem , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/administração & dosagem , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Remodelação Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alendronato/farmacologia , Alendronato/uso terapêutico , Anticorpos Monoclonais/efeitos adversos , Anticorpos Monoclonais/farmacologia , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/efeitos adversos , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/farmacologia , Cálcio/sangue , Esquema de Medicação , Feminino , Humanos , Injeções Subcutâneas , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Vértebras Lombares/efeitos dos fármacos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Teriparatida/farmacologia , Teriparatida/uso terapêutico
17.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 98(12): 4691-701, 2013 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24057294

RESUMO

CONTEXT: Meta-analyses of clinical studies have suggested an increased incidence of peripheral fractures in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes mellitus taking pioglitazone. The mechanism behind this apparent increase is unknown. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to examine the effects of pioglitazone on bone mineral density (BMD) and turnover. DESIGN AND SETTING: Twenty-five sites (in the United States) enrolled participants in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. PARTICIPANTS: Postmenopausal women (n = 156) with impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance participated in the study. INTERVENTIONS: The intervention consisted of pioglitazone 30 mg/d (n = 78) or placebo (n = 78), increased to 45 mg/d after 1 month, for 12 months of treatment total, followed by 6 months of washout/follow-up. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Percentage changes from baseline to month 12 and from month 12 to month18 in BMD in total proximal femur (primary end point), total body, femoral neck, lumbar spine, and radius were measured. RESULTS: Least squares mean changes from baseline to month 12 in total proximal femur BMD were -0.69% for pioglitazone and -0.14% for placebo (P = .170). No statistically significant between-group differences were observed for any BMD or bone remodeling marker end point. We observed improved glycemic control and insulin sensitivity with pioglitazone treatment. In addition, pioglitazone appeared to increase body fat, which may affect bone density measurements, especially in the lumbar spine. One pioglitazone-treated and three placebo-treated women experienced confirmed fractures. Over 18 months, one pioglitazone-treated (1.3%) and eight placebo-treated women (10.3%) developed overt type 2 diabetes mellitus. The pattern and incidence of adverse events with pioglitazone were consistent with clinical experience with thiazolidinediones. CONCLUSIONS: Maximal-dose pioglitazone had no effects on BMD or bone turnover, while improving glycemic control as expected, in postmenopausal women with impaired fasting glucose or impaired glucose tolerance.


Assuntos
Remodelação Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Reabsorção Óssea/induzido quimicamente , Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Intolerância à Glucose/tratamento farmacológico , Hipoglicemiantes/efeitos adversos , Estado Pré-Diabético/tratamento farmacológico , Tiazolidinedionas/efeitos adversos , Adiposidade/efeitos dos fármacos , Idoso , Biomarcadores/sangue , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Seguimentos , Intolerância à Glucose/sangue , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/prevenção & controle , Hipoglicemiantes/administração & dosagem , Hipoglicemiantes/uso terapêutico , Resistência à Insulina , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pioglitazona , Pós-Menopausa , Estado Pré-Diabético/sangue , Tiazolidinedionas/administração & dosagem , Tiazolidinedionas/uso terapêutico
18.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 98(11): 4483-92, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23979955

RESUMO

CONTEXT: The Fracture Reduction Evaluation of Denosumab in Osteoporosis Every 6 Months (FREEDOM) extension is evaluating the long-term efficacy and safety of denosumab for up to 10 years. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to report results from the first 3 years of the extension, representing up to 6 years of denosumab exposure. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This was a multicenter, international, open-label study of 4550 women. INTERVENTION: Women from the FREEDOM denosumab group received 3 more years of denosumab for a total of 6 years (long-term) and women from the FREEDOM placebo group received 3 years of denosumab (crossover). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Bone turnover markers (BTMs), bone mineral density (BMD), fracture, and safety data are reported. RESULTS: Reductions in BTMs were maintained (long-term) or achieved rapidly (crossover) after denosumab administration. In the long-term group, BMD further increased for cumulative 6-year gains of 15.2% (lumbar spine) and 7.5% (total hip). During the first 3 years of denosumab treatment, the crossover group had significant gains in lumbar spine (9.4%) and total hip (4.8%) BMD, similar to the long-term group during the 3-year FREEDOM trial. In the long-term group, fracture incidences remained low and below the rates projected for a virtual placebo cohort. In the crossover group, 3-year incidences of new vertebral and nonvertebral fractures were similar to those of the FREEDOM denosumab group. Incidence rates of adverse events did not increase over time. Six participants had events of osteonecrosis of the jaw confirmed by adjudication. One participant had a fracture adjudicated as consistent with atypical femoral fracture. CONCLUSION: Denosumab treatment for 6 years remained well tolerated, maintained reduced bone turnover, and continued to increase BMD. Fracture incidence remained low.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/administração & dosagem , Fraturas Ósseas/prevenção & controle , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/tratamento farmacológico , Ligante RANK/antagonistas & inibidores , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/efeitos adversos , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Estudos Cross-Over , Denosumab , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Osteoporose Pós-Menopausa/epidemiologia , Placebos , Fatores de Risco , Tempo
19.
Obstet Gynecol ; 121(6): 1291-9, 2013 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23812464

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy and safety of denosumab to ibandronate in postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density (BMD) previously treated with a bisphosphonate. METHODS: In a randomized, open-label study, postmenopausal women received 60 mg denosumab subcutaneously every 6 months (n=417) or 150 mg ibandronate orally every month (n=416) for 12 months. End points included percentage change from baseline in total hip, femoral neck, and lumbar spine BMD at month 12 and percentage change from baseline in serum C-telopeptide at months 1 and 6 in a substudy. RESULTS: At month 12, significantly greater BMD gains from baseline were observed with denosumab compared with ibandronate at the total hip (2.3% compared with 1.1%), femoral neck (1.7% compared with 0.7%), and lumbar spine (4.1% compared with 2.0%; treatment difference P<.001 at all sites). At month 1, median change in serum C-telopeptide from baseline was -81.1% with denosumab and -35.0% with ibandronate (P<.001); the treatment difference remained significant at month 6 (P<.001). Adverse events occurred in 245 (59.6%) denosumab-treated women and 230 (56.1%) ibandronate-treated women (P=.635). The incidence of serious adverse events was 9.5% for denosumab-treated women and 5.4% for ibandronate-treated women (P=.046). No clustering of events in any organ system accounted for the preponderance of these reports. The incidence rates of serious adverse events involving infection and malignancy were similar between treatment groups. CONCLUSION: In postmenopausal women previously treated with a bisphosphonate and low BMD, denosumab treatment resulted in greater BMD increases than ibandronate at all measured sites. No new safety risks with denosumab treatment were identified.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/uso terapêutico , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/uso terapêutico , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Difosfonatos/uso terapêutico , Fraturas Ósseas/prevenção & controle , Osteoporose/tratamento farmacológico , Idoso , Anticorpos Monoclonais Humanizados/farmacologia , Conservadores da Densidade Óssea/farmacologia , Denosumab , Difosfonatos/farmacologia , Feminino , Humanos , Ácido Ibandrônico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ligante RANK/antagonistas & inibidores
20.
Obstet Gynecol ; 121(3): 593-600, 2013 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23635623

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) reversibly reduces bone mineral density. To estimate the extent to which DMPA might increase fracture risk, we undertook a retrospective cohort study of fractures in DMPA users and users of non-DMPA contraceptives, using the General Practice Research Database. METHODS: Eligible women were aged younger than 50 years at the qualifying first contraceptive prescription. The DMPA users were classified by DMPA exposure (cumulative and time of last dose) based on prescription records. All incident fractures were included; fracture incidence and risk factors before starting contraceptive use (DMPA or other) also were estimated. RESULTS: We identified 11,822 fractures in 312,395 women during 1,722,356 person-years of follow-up. Before contraceptive use started, DMPA users had higher fracture risk than nonusers (incidence rate ratio 1.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-1.53). After DMPA started, crude fracture incidence was 9.1 per 1,000 person-years for DMPA users and 7.3 for nonusers (crude incidence rate ratio 1.23, 95% CI 1.16-1.30). Fracture risk in DMPA users did not increase after starting DMPA (incidence rate ratio after or before 1.08, 95% CI 0.92-1.26). There was little confounding by age or other factors that could be measured. Fracture incidence was 9.4 per 1,000 person-years in low-exposure DMPA users, and 7.8 per 1,000 in high-exposure DMPA users. The DMPA users had higher fracture risk than nonusers at the start of contraceptive use, with no discernible induction period. CONCLUSION: Although DMPA users experienced more fractures than nonusers, this association may be the result of confounding by a pre-existing higher risk for fractures in women who chose DMPA for contraception.


Assuntos
Anticoncepcionais Femininos/efeitos adversos , Fraturas Ósseas/induzido quimicamente , Acetato de Medroxiprogesterona/efeitos adversos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anticoncepcionais Femininos/administração & dosagem , Preparações de Ação Retardada , Feminino , Fraturas Ósseas/epidemiologia , Humanos , Incidência , Acetato de Medroxiprogesterona/administração & dosagem , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Reino Unido/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
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