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1.
Rev. ciênc. farm. básica apl ; 43: 1-13, 20220101.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1348157

RESUMO

One of the most common thyroid dysfunctions is Hashimoto's disease (HD), characterized by the production of specific antibodies against thyroid gland antigens (Anti-Tg and Anti-TPO). Recent studies have suggested that vitamin D supplementation, associated with levothyroxine, may contribute to the control of this autoimmune disease. However, secondary studies on this topic, such as systematic reviews and meta-analyses, are still scarce. Thus, the present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of vitamin D in patients with HD through a systematic review with meta-analysis. Randomized clinical trials were selected on the Pubmed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases. Studies comparing groups of HD patients supplemented with vitamin D and non-supplemented HD patients were included. The following outcomes were considered: TSH, T3, T4, Anti-Tg, Anti-TPO, and adverse drug reactions. The risk of bias was performed according to the Cochrane recommendations (RoB v. 2.0), and the quality of evidence was evaluated by the GRADE system. A total of 766 studies were identified in the databases, of which 7 met the eligibility criteria. None of the studies indicated the occurrence of adverse reactions with vitamin D supplementation in any administered dosage. Supplemented patients had a significant reduction in serum TSH levels compared to the control group (mean difference = -0.180 (95% CI [-0.316 to -0.045]), p = 0.009), suggesting that thyroid function was more controlled in the intervention group. However, for the other outcomes, no statistically significant differences were observed between the groups. Additionally, most of included articles (n=5/7) had some concerns or high risk of bias, and the quality of evidence revealed a moderate confidence for almost all outcomes; so the results must be interpreted with caution. Thus, more consistent, and robust clinical trials need to be carried out to confirm the efficacy of vitamin D supplementation in patients with HD.

2.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 18(3): 2403-2409, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33358399

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A suboptimal meta-analysis with misleading conclusions, frequently published in the healthcare journals, can compromise decision making in clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the reporting quality, methodological quality, and risk of bias of meta-analyses of pharmacy services. METHODS: Systematic searches to identify all the meta-analyses reporting the effect of pharmacy services were performed in PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. The reporting quality, the methodological quality, and the risk of bias of the included meta-analyses were evaluated using PRISMA checklist, R-AMSTAR, and ROBIS, respectively. RESULTS: A total of 109 meta-analyses were eligible for the study. The heterogeneity, the quality of evidence, and the quality analyses were poorly reported on authors' conclusions (14.3%, 14.7%, and 17.4%, respectively). The median scores of PRISMA and R-AMSTAR tolls were 24 (IQR 21.75-25), and 30 (IQR 27-32.5), respectively. Additionally, most of the studies were considered as high risk of bias (n = 83, 76.1%). No association between the date of publication and guideline compliance exists. PRISMA score was higher in studies published in high impact factor journals (rho = 0.313; p = 0.002), in articles that reported the quality of evidence obtained (p = 0.018), and in those that stated the need for future studies in their conclusions (p = 0.011). R-AMSTAR score was higher in studies published in high impact factor journals (rho = 0.338; p = 0.001), in those which reported the quality of evidence (p = 0.002), and in articles that described the quality analyses in their conclusions (p = 0.046). An association between the risk of bias and the recognition of the need for further studies in their conclusions (p = 0.041) was also found. CONCLUSION: The rapid increase of the meta-analyses of pharmacy services was not associated with higher quality. Mechanistic meta-analyses with poor conclusions are commonly published. Quality of the analyses, strength of evidence, heterogeneity, and absence of confrontation with current guidelines are rarely considered when synthetizing evidence and making recommendations.


Assuntos
Assistência Farmacêutica , Viés , Lista de Checagem , Humanos , Metanálise como Assunto , Relatório de Pesquisa
3.
J Dermatolog Treat ; 33(1): 121-130, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043906

RESUMO

AIM: Toenail fungal infections account for half of all nail disease cases, and a highly negative impact on patient quality of life. Our aim was to compare the efficacy and safety of commercially available oral antifungals for onychomycosis. METHODS: A systematic review was performed in PubMed and Scopus. Randomized controlled trials evaluating the effect of oral antifungals on mycological cure, discontinuation and adverse events were included. Network meta-analyses were built for each outcome. Results were reported as odds ratios (OR) with 95% credibility intervals (CrI). Ranking probabilities were calculated by surface under the cumulative ranking analysis (SUCRA). RESULTS: We included 40 trials (n = 9568). Albaconazole 400 mg (OR 0.02 [95% CrI 0.01-0.07] versus placebo), followed by posaconazole 200-400 mg and terbinafine 250-350 mg were considered the best therapies (SUCRA probabilities over 75%). For the networks of discontinuation and individual adverse events, few significant differences among treatments were observed, but itraconazole 400 mg was considered the safest drug (SUCRA around 25%). Albaconazole 400 mg, posaconazole 200-400 mg, and terbinafine 250-350 mg were the most effective therapies for onychomycosis, while itraconazole 400 mg was the safest. CONCLUSION: The profile of albaconazole and posaconazole compared to current first-line therapies should be further investigated in well-designed trials.


Assuntos
Dermatoses do Pé , Onicomicose , Antifúngicos/uso terapêutico , Dermatoses do Pé/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Itraconazol/uso terapêutico , Unhas , Metanálise em Rede , Onicomicose/tratamento farmacológico , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento
4.
Res Social Adm Pharm ; 18(2): 2259-2268, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34144899

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Meta-analyses of clinical pharmacy services are frequently criticized for restricted data transparency and reproducibility. OBJECTIVES: To describe the methodological characteristics of meta-analyses of pharmacist-led medication reviews, to identify the elements that limit their replicability and robustness, and to propose recommendations for an appropriate conduction and reporting. METHODS: A meta-research study was conducted. Systematic searches of the PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases were performed to identify meta-analyses of pharmacist services. Meta-analyses assessing the effect of pharmacist-led medication reviews were selected for data extraction, analysis and replication. Two replication exercises were performed for the two most common outcomes: (i) considering the data provided by authors to construct the meta-analysis and (ii) considering the raw data available in the primary studies included. Prediction intervals (PI), fragility index (FI), and number needed to treat (NNT) were also calculated for each replicated meta-analysis. RESULTS: Nine studies reporting meta-analyses about pharmacist-led medication review were found comprising 30 different outcomes. Eleven meta-analyses, including six for hospital admission and five for mortality, were replicated. In five meta-analyses, the pooled effect sizes of the replicated meta-analyses differed from the original ones. Only four meta-analyses mentioned the statistical method used. Other meta-analytic parameters (e.g., q-value, tau2) were omitted in all studies. In nine meta-analyses, the data from primary studies had been incorrectly extracted for at least one variable. The PI demonstrated that the uncertainty intervals of the effect sizes were always underestimated by the authors. NNTs showed wide intervals, ranging from benefit to harm, in almost all meta-analyses. Nine recommendations to facilitate the replication of a meta-analysis were proposed: providing all original data needed to build the analysis; informing about the imputed data or data obtained from different sources; performing sensitivity analyses for imputed or unpublished data; inform about all the statistical methods used; providing all statistical results; and reporting the PI, FI and NNT. CONCLUSION: Errors in data extraction and poor reporting of meta-analytic parameters are common in the pharmacy literature. We proposed nine recommendations to enhance data reproducibility and interpretability. Journal editors and peer reviewers should ensure that authors strictly comply with minimum standards for conduction and reporting of meta-analyses.


Assuntos
Assistência Farmacêutica , Humanos , Farmacêuticos , Padrões de Referência , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes
5.
J Clin Pharm Ther ; 46(6): 1549-1556, 2021 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34137053

RESUMO

WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Hyperprolactinemia is a neuroendocrine disease that is responsible for a quarter of cases of secondary amenorrhea, which can lead to infertility in women. Dopaminergic agonists (bromocriptine, cabergoline, quinagolide) can be used in the treatment. However, there is a lack of secondary studies that compare their efficacy and safety, especially through a network meta-analysis. Thus, to contribute to the decision-making, a systematic review and network meta-analyses (NMA) were performed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of dopaminergic agonists in the treatment of hyperprolactinemia. METHODS: Randomized clinical trials (RCT) were retrieved through PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus databases. The efficacy and safety of the drugs were compared, considering the following outcomes: prolactin (PRL) levels, number of patients with galactorrhoea, menstrual irregularities and adverse drug reactions. NMA was built for each outcome. Results were reported as odds ratios (OR) with 95% credibility intervals. Ranking probabilities were calculated by surface under the cumulative ranking analysis (SUCRA) and Stochastic multicriteria acceptability analysis (SMAA). RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Seventeen RCTs were included in the systematic review and fifteen in the meta-analyses. The drugs had similar efficacy, considering the PRL levels. The SUCRA analysis showed that quinagolide (0.075 and 0.05 mg/day) was superior for reducing irregular menstruation, whereas bromocriptine was the best (97%) for galactorrhoea. Cabergoline proved to be the safest drug, except for abdominal pain at a dose of 1 mg/week. The SMAA demonstrated similar results to SUCRA. WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: This is the first network meta-analysis that evaluated the efficacy and safety of dopaminergic agonists in the treatment of hyperprolactinemia. The results of this review revealed that these drugs have similar efficacy, but cabergoline has a better safety profile.


Assuntos
Agonistas de Dopamina/uso terapêutico , Hiperprolactinemia/tratamento farmacológico , Hiperprolactinemia/epidemiologia , Agonistas de Dopamina/administração & dosagem , Agonistas de Dopamina/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Galactorreia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Distúrbios Menstruais/epidemiologia , Metanálise em Rede , Prolactina/sangue , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
6.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 181: 697-704, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33766602

RESUMO

Starch nanoparticles (SNPs) have been applied to different areas of material sciences, especially in pharmaceuticals due to their characteristics such as small particle size, high surface ratio-volume, and biological compatibility. However, in pharmaceutical sciences, there are no records of a scoping review that had extensively mapped all available information about SNPs. A scoping review was performed here by searching electronic databases (Pubmed and Science Direct) to identify studies published previous to June 2020. From 699 total records, 37 matched the criteria for inclusion. The findings showed that SNPs have been used, not only for the development of different active pharmaceutical ingredient delivery systems, but also as an enzyme inhibitor, adsorption, and DNA precipitation agent. In conclusion, by combining different starch sources and methods SNPs show a remarkable diversity in pharmaceutical applications. Future studies should explore SNPs safety and provide information about variables that may affect important properties for this kind of application.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas/química , Preparações Farmacêuticas/química , Amido/farmacologia , Portadores de Fármacos/química , Publicações
7.
World J Urol ; 39(3): 953-962, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32388784

RESUMO

PURPOSE: To quantitatively assess the benefit-risk ratio on the efficacy and safety of all phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors (PDE5i) in men with erectile dysfunction. METHODS: A systematic review with network meta-analysis, surface under the cumulative ranking analysis and stochastic multicriteria acceptability analyses were performed. Searches were conducted in Pubmed, Scopus, Web of Science without limits for time-frame or language. Randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy or safety of any PDE5i compared to a placebo or to other PDE5i in males with erectile disfunction were included. RESULTS: Overall, 184 articles representing 179 randomized controlled trials (50,620 patients) were included. All PDE5i were significantly more efficient than placebo. Sildenafil 25 mg was statistically superior to all interventions in enhancing IIEF (with a 98% probability of being the most effective treatment), followed by sildenafil 50 mg (80% of probability). Taladafil 10 mg and 20 mg also presented good profiles (73% and 76%, respectively). Avanafil and lodenafil were less effective interventions. Mirodenafil 150 mg was the treatment that caused more adverse events, especially flushing and headaches. Sildenafil 100 mg was more related to visual disorders, while vardenafil and udenafil were more prone to cause nasal congestion. CONCLUSION: Sildenafil at low doses and tadalafil should be the first therapeutic options. Avanafil, lodenafil and mirodenafil use are hardly justified given the lack of expressive efficacy or high rates of adverse events.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Apoio para a Decisão , Disfunção Erétil/tratamento farmacológico , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 5/administração & dosagem , Administração Oral , Humanos , Masculino , Metanálise em Rede , Inibidores da Fosfodiesterase 5/efeitos adversos , Resultado do Tratamento
8.
JBI Evid Synth ; 18(8): 1781-1787, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898371

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The objective of the review is to explore randomized controlled trials on disease-modifying therapies for relapsing multiple sclerosis to identify and quantify the different outcome measures, instruments and definitions of efficacy, safety outcomes, health-related quality of life instruments and population subgroups. INTRODUCTION: A wide range of therapies are available for relapsing multiple sclerosis, as well as a wide range of outcome measures and definitions, which can be explained by the absence of a core outcome set for this disease. Establishing a core outcome set is fundamental for guiding future studies as they improve the consistency and relevance of new findings and enable the results of trials to be compared and combined. These features are especially important for relapsing multiple sclerosis due to the limited number of head-to-head studies on this disease. Although many systematic reviews and meta-analyses have focused on the efficacy and safety of disease-modifying therapies in relapsing multiple sclerosis, none have had the specific objective of mapping outcome measures. INCLUSION CRITERIA: This review will consider randomized controlled trials that explore populational subgroups, efficacy, safety outcomes, health-related quality of life instruments and their definitions in the context of disease-modifying therapies for adults with relapsing multiple sclerosis. METHODS: Electronic searches will be performed in PubMed, Scopus, the Cochrane Library, ClinicalTrials.gov, and JBI Evidence Synthesis with no time limit. Two researchers will independently select registries (screening and eligibility steps) and extract data on study characteristics, outcome measures, definitions and population subgroups. Data will be presented in graphical or tabular form, accompanied by a narrative summary.


Assuntos
Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente , Esclerose Múltipla , Humanos , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/tratamento farmacológico , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Qualidade de Vida , Recidiva , Literatura de Revisão como Assunto
9.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 42(5): 1252-1260, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32430882

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Suboptimal meta-analyses with misleading conclusions are frequently published in the health areas, and they can compromise decision making in clinical practice. AIM OF THE REVIEW: This systematic review aimed to map the characteristics of published meta-analyses of pharmacy services and their association with the study conclusions. METHOD: We searched electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science) to identify published meta-analyses of pharmacy services up to January 2019. Components of meta-analyses were extracted (i.e. studies' metadata; methods used in the systematic review; description of the statistical model used for the meta-analysis; main results; conflict of interest and funding source). The methodological quality was evaluated using the R-AMSTAR tool. RESULTS: A total of 85 meta-analyses were included, with 2016 as the median publication year. Overall, the methodological quality of meta-analyses of pharmacy services was considered suboptimal. Only one-third of authors registered a protocol; complete search strategy and raw data were provided by 55.3% and 9.4% of studies, respectively. Evidence strength (GRADE) was evaluated in only 19.2% of studies. PRISMA and Cochrane recommendations were stated to be followed in 60% and 27.4% of articles, respectively. Around half of studies performed sensitivity analysis, however, the prediction interval was presented by only one meta-analysis. Studies that favoured the pharmacists' interventions poorly discussed the methodological quality and heterogeneity of primary trials. CONCLUSION: Poor conduction and reporting were observed in meta-analyses of pharmacy services, especially in those that favoured the pharmacist's interventions. Reproducibility and transparency should be rigorously ensured by journal editors and peer-reviewers.


Assuntos
Metanálise como Assunto , Assistência Farmacêutica/organização & administração , Farmacêuticos/organização & administração , Humanos , Modelos Estatísticos , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas
10.
J Hosp Med ; 15(1): 52-59, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30897055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transitions of care can contribute to medication errors and other adverse drug events. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of pharmacist-led discharge counseling on hospital readmission and emergency department visits through a systematic review and meta-analysis. EDATA SOURCES: Lectronic searches were performed in PubMed, Scopus, and DOAJ (Directory of Open Access Journals), along with a manual search (July 2017). PROSPERO registration no. CRD42017068444. STUDY SELECTION: Two independent reviewers performed all the steps of the systematic review process (screening of titles and abstracts, full-text appraisal, data extraction, and quality assessment), with contributions from a third researcher. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting data on pharmacist-led discharge counseling. DATA EXTRACTION: Primary extracted outcomes were emergency department visits and hospital readmission rates. DATA SYNTHESIS: Meta-analyses of intervention versus usual care for hospital readmission and emergency department visit rates were performed using the inverse variance method. Results are reported as risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Prediction intervals (PIs) were also calculated. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were performed. A total of 21 RCTs were included in the qualitative synthesis and 18 in the meta-analyses (n = 7,244 patients). The original meta-analysis revealed a significant difference in the impact between pharmacist-led discharge counseling and usual care on overall hospital readmission (RR = 0.864 [95% CI 0.763-0.997], P = .020) and emergency department (RR = 0.697 [95% CI 0.535-0.907], P = .007) visits. However, the small number of included studies, the high heterogeneity among trials (I2 between 40% and 60%), and the wide PIs (hospital readmission: PI 0.542-1.186; emergency department visits: PI 0.027-1.367) prevented drawing further conclusions. CONCLUSIONS: Insufficient evidence exists regarding the effect of pharmacist-led discharge counseling on hospital readmission and emergency department visits. Further well-designed clinical trials with defined core outcome sets are needed.


Assuntos
Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Alta do Paciente , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Transferência de Pacientes , Farmacêuticos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Erros de Medicação/prevenção & controle
11.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 74: e1091, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778428

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This is a randomized controlled trial that aims to evaluate the impact of pharmacist-led discharge counseling on reducing pharmacotherapy problems in the 30-day postdischarge period of cardiology patients from a tertiary hospital in Brazil. METHODS: At discharge, two cardiovascular pharmacy residents performed a medication counseling session with the intervention group, and the follow-up was performed by telephone (3 and 15 days after discharge). The number of pharmacotherapy problems was evaluated during a pharmacist-led ambulatory consultation 30 days after discharge. RESULTS: A total of 66 and 67 patients were randomized to the intervention and control groups, respectively, but only 51 patients were analyzed in each group, all with similar baseline characteristics. The intervention group had significantly fewer pharmacotherapy problems compared to the control (p<0.001), and 100% of the patients had at least one problem. We observed five problems significantly more frequently in the control group: "incorrect time of taking" (p=0.003), "use higher dose of medication" (p=0.007), "use lower dose of medication" (p=0.014), "restart discontinued medication" (p=0.011), and "underdosing prescription" (p=0.009). Simvastatin, enalapril, carvedilol, and atorvastatin were the medications more associated with pharmacotherapy problems. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that pharmacist-led discharge counseling should be an indispensable service, as patients exhibited less pharmacotherapy problems in the 30-day postdischarge period, especially related to drug administration and adherence.


Assuntos
Continuidade da Assistência ao Paciente , Aconselhamento Diretivo/métodos , Prescrições de Medicamentos , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/prevenção & controle , Alta do Paciente , Farmacêuticos , Papel Profissional , Adulto , Idoso , Brasil , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Centros de Atenção Terciária
12.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 41(3): 785-792, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963446

RESUMO

Background The Cochrane collaboration risk of bias assessment (RoB) tool is used in several fields to evaluate the methodological quality of studies. Its strengths and challenges are discussed. Objective To assess the sensitivity of the RoB tool in studies of pharmacist interventions. Setting DEPICT database was used to pool randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of complex interventions. Method A Guide for RoB Judgment in Pharmacy Services was created to help in the interpretation and judgment of bias criteria. The evaluation of bias (low, unclear, high risk) was performed by RCT. Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the influence of different interpretations of eight elements of judgment in the RoB tool. Paired analysis and estimations of the effect size (95% confidence interval) of the criteria modifications compared to the original analyses were calculated. Main outcome measure Changes in the interpretations of judgment in the RoB tool. Results Overall, 8.3, 45.4, and 46.3% of the studies were determined to have low, unclear, and high risk of bias, respectively. High risk of bias was caused by attrition and detection domains. The number of studies classified with high risk of bias significantly increased for five of the eight interpretations, while unclear risk of bias increased for three interpretations (with a negligible effect size in all of them). Lack of blinding, loss of participants, and the use of subjective and self-reported outcomes were the main elements resulting in high risk of bias. Conclusion The RoB tool is useful for evaluating RCTs of pharmacist interventions if adapted criteria for judgment are used. Ignoring these adjustments produces a floor-effect with studies classified with high risk of bias.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais/normas , Farmacêuticos/normas , Papel Profissional , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/normas , Viés , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco
13.
CNS Drugs ; 32(9): 813-826, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30014314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A broad range of disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) is available. However, the efficacy and safety of traditional DMTs compared with the recently developed DMTs remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: Therefore, we have synthesised available evidence of clinical outcomes for DMTs in adults with RRMS. METHODS: PubMed, Scopus and a manual search were performed. Bayesian network meta-analyses of randomised clinical trials assessing DMTs as monotherapies were conducted. SUCRA and GRADE were used to rank therapies and to assess quality of general evidence, respectively. RESULTS: Thirty-three studies were included in the meta-analyses. The most effective therapies for the outcome of annualised relapse rate were alemtuzumab (96% probability), natalizumab (96%) and ocrelizumab (85%), compared with all other therapies (hazard ratio versus placebo, 0.31, 0.31 and 0.37, respectively; p < 0.05 for all comparisons) (high-quality evidence). However, no significant differences among these three therapies were found. Discontinuation due to adverse events revealed similarity across all therapies, except for alemtuzumab, which showed less discontinuation when compared with interferon-1a intramuscular (relative risk 0.37; p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: High-quality evidence shows that alemtuzumab, natalizumab and ocrelizumab present the highest efficacy among DMTs, and other meta-analyses are required regarding adverse events frequency, to better understand the safety of therapies. Based on efficacy profile, guidelines should consider a three-category classification (i.e. high, intermediate and low efficacy).


Assuntos
Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/tratamento farmacológico , Metanálise em Rede , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos
14.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 73: e325, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29723341

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of pharmacist-provided discharge counseling on mortality rate, hospital readmissions, emergency department visits, and medication adherence at 30 days post discharge. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial was approved by the local ethics committee and included patients aged 18 years or older admitted to the cardiology ward of a Brazilian tertiary hospital. The intervention group received a pharmacist-led medication counseling session at discharge and a telephone follow-up three and 15 days after discharge. The outcomes included the number of deaths, hospital readmissions, emergency department visits, and medication adherence. All outcomes were evaluated during a pharmacist-led ambulatory consultation performed 30 days after discharge. RESULTS: Of 133 patients, 104 were included in the analysis (51 and 53 in the intervention and control groups, respectively). The intervention group had a lower overall readmission rate, number of emergency department visits, and mortality rate, but the differences were not statistically significant (p>0.05). However, the intervention group had a significantly lower readmission rate related to heart disease (0% vs. 11.3%, p=0.027), despite the small sample size. Furthermore, medication counseling contributed significantly to improved medication adherence according to three different tools (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacist-provided discharge medication counseling resulted in better medication adherence scores and a lower incidence of cardiovascular-associated hospital readmissions, thus representing a useful service for cardiology patients.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento Diretivo , Alta do Paciente/normas , Farmacêuticos/psicologia , Idoso , Brasil , Serviço Hospitalar de Cardiologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Cardiopatias/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmacêuticos/normas , Papel Profissional/psicologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos
15.
J Eval Clin Pract ; 24(3): 570-579, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29691955

RESUMO

RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: Discharge medication counselling has produced improved quality of care and health outcomes, especially by reducing medication errors and readmission rates, and improving medication adherence. However, no studies have assembled an evidence-based discharge counselling process for clinical pharmacists. Thus, the present study aims to map the components of the pharmacist-led discharge medication counselling process. METHODS: We performed a scoping review by searching electronic databases (Pubmed, Scopus, and DOAJ) and conducting a manual search to identify studies published up to July 2017. Studies that addressed pharmacist-led discharge medication counselling, regardless of the population, clinical conditions, and outcomes evaluated, were included. RESULTS: A total of 1563 studies were retrieved, with 75 matching the inclusion criteria. Thirty-two different components were identified, and the most prevalent were the indication of the medications and adverse drug reactions, which were reported in more than 50% of the studies. The components were reported similarly by studies from the USA and the rest of the world, and over the years. However, 2 differences were identified: the use of a dosage schedule, which was more frequent in studies published in 2011 or before and in studies outside the USA; and the teach-back technique, which was used more frequently in the USA. Poor quality reporting was also observed, especially regarding the duration of the counselling, the number of patients, and the medical condition. CONCLUSION: Mapping the components of the pharmacist-led discharge counselling studies through a scoping review allowed us to reveal how this service is performed around the world. Wide variability in this process and poor reporting were identified. Future studies are needed to define the core outcome set of this clinical pharmacy service to allow the generation of robust evidence and reproducibility in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento , Reconciliação de Medicamentos , Serviço de Farmácia Hospitalar , Humanos , Farmacêuticos , Papel Profissional
16.
Clinics ; 73: e325, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-890741

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of pharmacist-provided discharge counseling on mortality rate, hospital readmissions, emergency department visits, and medication adherence at 30 days post discharge. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial was approved by the local ethics committee and included patients aged 18 years or older admitted to the cardiology ward of a Brazilian tertiary hospital. The intervention group received a pharmacist-led medication counseling session at discharge and a telephone follow-up three and 15 days after discharge. The outcomes included the number of deaths, hospital readmissions, emergency department visits, and medication adherence. All outcomes were evaluated during a pharmacist-led ambulatory consultation performed 30 days after discharge. RESULTS: Of 133 patients, 104 were included in the analysis (51 and 53 in the intervention and control groups, respectively). The intervention group had a lower overall readmission rate, number of emergency department visits, and mortality rate, but the differences were not statistically significant (p>0.05). However, the intervention group had a significantly lower readmission rate related to heart disease (0% vs. 11.3%, p=0.027), despite the small sample size. Furthermore, medication counseling contributed significantly to improved medication adherence according to three different tools (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacist-provided discharge medication counseling resulted in better medication adherence scores and a lower incidence of cardiovascular-associated hospital readmissions, thus representing a useful service for cardiology patients.


Assuntos
Humanos , Masculino , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Idoso , Alta do Paciente/normas , Farmacêuticos/psicologia , Aconselhamento Diretivo , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmacêuticos/normas , Brasil , Serviço Hospitalar de Cardiologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Papel Profissional/psicologia , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos , Cardiopatias/mortalidade
17.
Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet) ; 15(4): 0-0, oct.-dic. 2017. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-169521

RESUMO

Objective: The purpose of this overview (systematic review of systematic reviews) is to evaluate the impact of clinical decision support systems (CDSS) applied to medication use in the care process. Methods: A search for systematic reviews that address CDSS was performed on Medline following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and Cochrane recommendations. Terms related to CDSS and systematic reviews were used in combination with Boolean operators and search field tags to build the electronic search strategy. There was no limitation of date or language for inclusion. We included revisions that investigated, as a main or secondary objective, changes in process outcomes. The Revised Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (R-AMSTAR) score was used to evaluate the quality of the studies. Results: The search retrieved 954 articles. Five articles were added through manual search, totaling an initial sample of 959 articles. After screening and reading in full, 44 systematic reviews met the inclusion criteria. In the medication-use processes where CDSS was used, the most common stages were prescribing (n=38 (86.36%) and administering (n=12 (27.27%)). Most of the systematic reviews demonstrated improvement in the health care process (30/44 - 68.2%). The main positive results were related to improvement of the quality of prescription by the physicians (14/30 - 46.6%) and reduction of errors in prescribing (5/30 - 16.6%). However, the quality of the studies was poor, according to the score used. Conclusion: CDSSs represent a promising technology to optimize the medication-use process, especially related to improvement in the quality of prescriptions and reduction of prescribing errors, although higher quality studies are needed to establish the predictors of success in these systems (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso/organização & administração , Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Serviços de Informação sobre Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Erros de Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos
18.
Pharm Pract (Granada) ; 15(4): 1036, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29317919

RESUMO

Objective: The purpose of this overview (systematic review of systematic reviews) is to evaluate the impact of clinical decision support systems (CDSS) applied to medication use in the care process. Methods: A search for systematic reviews that address CDSS was performed on Medline following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and Cochrane recommendations. Terms related to CDSS and systematic reviews were used in combination with Boolean operators and search field tags to build the electronic search strategy. There was no limitation of date or language for inclusion. We included revisions that investigated, as a main or secondary objective, changes in process outcomes. The Revised Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (R-AMSTAR) score was used to evaluate the quality of the studies. Results: The search retrieved 954 articles. Five articles were added through manual search, totaling an initial sample of 959 articles. After screening and reading in full, 44 systematic reviews met the inclusion criteria. In the medication-use processes where CDSS was used, the most common stages were prescribing (n=38 (86.36%) and administering (n=12 (27.27%)). Most of the systematic reviews demonstrated improvement in the health care process (30/44 - 68.2%). The main positive results were related to improvement of the quality of prescription by the physicians (14/30 - 46.6%) and reduction of errors in prescribing (5/30 - 16.6%). However, the quality of the studies was poor, according to the score used. Conclusion: CDSSs represent a promising technology to optimize the medication-use process, especially related to improvement in the quality of prescriptions and reduction of prescribing errors, although higher quality studies are needed to establish the predictors of success in these systems.

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