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1.
J Dermatolog Treat ; : 1-10, 2020 Feb 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043906

RESUMO

Aim: Toenail fungal infections account for half of all nail disease cases, and a highly negative impact on patient quality of life. Our aim was to compare the efficacy and safety of commercially available oral antifungals for onychomycosis.Methods: A systematic review was performed in PubMed and Scopus. Randomized controlled trials evaluating the effect of oral antifungals on mycological cure, discontinuation and adverse events were included. Network meta-analyses were built for each outcome. Results were reported as odds ratios (OR) with 95% credibility intervals (CrI). Ranking probabilities were calculated by surface under the cumulative ranking analysis (SUCRA).Results: We included 40 trials (n = 9568). Albaconazole 400 mg (OR 0.02 [95% CrI 0.01-0.07] versus placebo), followed by posaconazole 200-400 mg and terbinafine 250-350 mg were considered the best therapies (SUCRA probabilities over 75%). For the networks of discontinuation and individual adverse events, few significant differences among treatments were observed, but itraconazole 400 mg was considered the safest drug (SUCRA around 25%). Albaconazole 400 mg, posaconazole 200-400 mg, and terbinafine 250-350 mg were the most effective therapies for onychomycosis, while itraconazole 400 mg was the safest.Conclusion: The profile of albaconazole and posaconazole compared to current first-line therapies should be further investigated in well-designed trials.

2.
J Hosp Med ; 15(1): 52-59, 2020 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30897055

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Transitions of care can contribute to medication errors and other adverse drug events. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of pharmacist-led discharge counseling on hospital readmission and emergency department visits through a systematic review and meta-analysis. EDATA SOURCES: Lectronic searches were performed in PubMed, Scopus, and DOAJ (Directory of Open Access Journals), along with a manual search (July 2017). PROSPERO registration no. CRD42017068444. STUDY SELECTION: Two independent reviewers performed all the steps of the systematic review process (screening of titles and abstracts, full-text appraisal, data extraction, and quality assessment), with contributions from a third researcher. We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting data on pharmacist-led discharge counseling. DATA EXTRACTION: Primary extracted outcomes were emergency department visits and hospital readmission rates. DATA SYNTHESIS: Meta-analyses of intervention versus usual care for hospital readmission and emergency department visit rates were performed using the inverse variance method. Results are reported as risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Prediction intervals (PIs) were also calculated. Sensitivity and subgroup analyses were performed. A total of 21 RCTs were included in the qualitative synthesis and 18 in the meta-analyses (n = 7,244 patients). The original meta-analysis revealed a significant difference in the impact between pharmacist-led discharge counseling and usual care on overall hospital readmission (RR = 0.864 [95% CI 0.763-0.997], P = .020) and emergency department (RR = 0.697 [95% CI 0.535-0.907], P = .007) visits. However, the small number of included studies, the high heterogeneity among trials (I2 between 40% and 60%), and the wide PIs (hospital readmission: PI 0.542-1.186; emergency department visits: PI 0.027-1.367) prevented drawing further conclusions. CONCLUSIONS: Insufficient evidence exists regarding the effect of pharmacist-led discharge counseling on hospital readmission and emergency department visits. Further well-designed clinical trials with defined core outcome sets are needed.

3.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 74: e1091, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31778428

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This is a randomized controlled trial that aims to evaluate the impact of pharmacist-led discharge counseling on reducing pharmacotherapy problems in the 30-day postdischarge period of cardiology patients from a tertiary hospital in Brazil. METHODS: At discharge, two cardiovascular pharmacy residents performed a medication counseling session with the intervention group, and the follow-up was performed by telephone (3 and 15 days after discharge). The number of pharmacotherapy problems was evaluated during a pharmacist-led ambulatory consultation 30 days after discharge. RESULTS: A total of 66 and 67 patients were randomized to the intervention and control groups, respectively, but only 51 patients were analyzed in each group, all with similar baseline characteristics. The intervention group had significantly fewer pharmacotherapy problems compared to the control (p<0.001), and 100% of the patients had at least one problem. We observed five problems significantly more frequently in the control group: "incorrect time of taking" (p=0.003), "use higher dose of medication" (p=0.007), "use lower dose of medication" (p=0.014), "restart discontinued medication" (p=0.011), and "underdosing prescription" (p=0.009). Simvastatin, enalapril, carvedilol, and atorvastatin were the medications more associated with pharmacotherapy problems. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that pharmacist-led discharge counseling should be an indispensable service, as patients exhibited less pharmacotherapy problems in the 30-day postdischarge period, especially related to drug administration and adherence.

4.
Int J Clin Pharm ; 41(3): 785-792, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30963446

RESUMO

Background The Cochrane collaboration risk of bias assessment (RoB) tool is used in several fields to evaluate the methodological quality of studies. Its strengths and challenges are discussed. Objective To assess the sensitivity of the RoB tool in studies of pharmacist interventions. Setting DEPICT database was used to pool randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of complex interventions. Method A Guide for RoB Judgment in Pharmacy Services was created to help in the interpretation and judgment of bias criteria. The evaluation of bias (low, unclear, high risk) was performed by RCT. Sensitivity analyses were performed to assess the influence of different interpretations of eight elements of judgment in the RoB tool. Paired analysis and estimations of the effect size (95% confidence interval) of the criteria modifications compared to the original analyses were calculated. Main outcome measure Changes in the interpretations of judgment in the RoB tool. Results Overall, 8.3, 45.4, and 46.3% of the studies were determined to have low, unclear, and high risk of bias, respectively. High risk of bias was caused by attrition and detection domains. The number of studies classified with high risk of bias significantly increased for five of the eight interpretations, while unclear risk of bias increased for three interpretations (with a negligible effect size in all of them). Lack of blinding, loss of participants, and the use of subjective and self-reported outcomes were the main elements resulting in high risk of bias. Conclusion The RoB tool is useful for evaluating RCTs of pharmacist interventions if adapted criteria for judgment are used. Ignoring these adjustments produces a floor-effect with studies classified with high risk of bias.


Assuntos
Bases de Dados Factuais/normas , Farmacêuticos/normas , Papel Profissional , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/normas , Viés , Humanos , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto/métodos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Medição de Risco
5.
CNS Drugs ; 32(9): 813-826, 2018 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30014314

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A broad range of disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) is available. However, the efficacy and safety of traditional DMTs compared with the recently developed DMTs remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: Therefore, we have synthesised available evidence of clinical outcomes for DMTs in adults with RRMS. METHODS: PubMed, Scopus and a manual search were performed. Bayesian network meta-analyses of randomised clinical trials assessing DMTs as monotherapies were conducted. SUCRA and GRADE were used to rank therapies and to assess quality of general evidence, respectively. RESULTS: Thirty-three studies were included in the meta-analyses. The most effective therapies for the outcome of annualised relapse rate were alemtuzumab (96% probability), natalizumab (96%) and ocrelizumab (85%), compared with all other therapies (hazard ratio versus placebo, 0.31, 0.31 and 0.37, respectively; p < 0.05 for all comparisons) (high-quality evidence). However, no significant differences among these three therapies were found. Discontinuation due to adverse events revealed similarity across all therapies, except for alemtuzumab, which showed less discontinuation when compared with interferon-1a intramuscular (relative risk 0.37; p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: High-quality evidence shows that alemtuzumab, natalizumab and ocrelizumab present the highest efficacy among DMTs, and other meta-analyses are required regarding adverse events frequency, to better understand the safety of therapies. Based on efficacy profile, guidelines should consider a three-category classification (i.e. high, intermediate and low efficacy).


Assuntos
Fatores Imunológicos/uso terapêutico , Esclerose Múltipla Recidivante-Remitente/tratamento farmacológico , Meta-Análise em Rede , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos
6.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 73: e325, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29723341

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of pharmacist-provided discharge counseling on mortality rate, hospital readmissions, emergency department visits, and medication adherence at 30 days post discharge. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial was approved by the local ethics committee and included patients aged 18 years or older admitted to the cardiology ward of a Brazilian tertiary hospital. The intervention group received a pharmacist-led medication counseling session at discharge and a telephone follow-up three and 15 days after discharge. The outcomes included the number of deaths, hospital readmissions, emergency department visits, and medication adherence. All outcomes were evaluated during a pharmacist-led ambulatory consultation performed 30 days after discharge. RESULTS: Of 133 patients, 104 were included in the analysis (51 and 53 in the intervention and control groups, respectively). The intervention group had a lower overall readmission rate, number of emergency department visits, and mortality rate, but the differences were not statistically significant (p>0.05). However, the intervention group had a significantly lower readmission rate related to heart disease (0% vs. 11.3%, p=0.027), despite the small sample size. Furthermore, medication counseling contributed significantly to improved medication adherence according to three different tools (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacist-provided discharge medication counseling resulted in better medication adherence scores and a lower incidence of cardiovascular-associated hospital readmissions, thus representing a useful service for cardiology patients.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento Diretivo , Alta do Paciente/normas , Farmacêuticos/psicologia , Idoso , Brasil , Serviço Hospitalar de Cardiologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Cardiopatias/mortalidade , Humanos , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação/psicologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Readmissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Farmacêuticos/normas , Papel Profissional/psicologia , Centros de Atenção Terciária/estatística & dados numéricos
7.
J Eval Clin Pract ; 24(3): 570-579, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29691955

RESUMO

RATIONALE, AIMS, AND OBJECTIVES: Discharge medication counselling has produced improved quality of care and health outcomes, especially by reducing medication errors and readmission rates, and improving medication adherence. However, no studies have assembled an evidence-based discharge counselling process for clinical pharmacists. Thus, the present study aims to map the components of the pharmacist-led discharge medication counselling process. METHODS: We performed a scoping review by searching electronic databases (Pubmed, Scopus, and DOAJ) and conducting a manual search to identify studies published up to July 2017. Studies that addressed pharmacist-led discharge medication counselling, regardless of the population, clinical conditions, and outcomes evaluated, were included. RESULTS: A total of 1563 studies were retrieved, with 75 matching the inclusion criteria. Thirty-two different components were identified, and the most prevalent were the indication of the medications and adverse drug reactions, which were reported in more than 50% of the studies. The components were reported similarly by studies from the USA and the rest of the world, and over the years. However, 2 differences were identified: the use of a dosage schedule, which was more frequent in studies published in 2011 or before and in studies outside the USA; and the teach-back technique, which was used more frequently in the USA. Poor quality reporting was also observed, especially regarding the duration of the counselling, the number of patients, and the medical condition. CONCLUSION: Mapping the components of the pharmacist-led discharge counselling studies through a scoping review allowed us to reveal how this service is performed around the world. Wide variability in this process and poor reporting were identified. Future studies are needed to define the core outcome set of this clinical pharmacy service to allow the generation of robust evidence and reproducibility in clinical practice.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento , Reconciliação de Medicamentos , Serviço de Farmácia Hospitalar , Humanos , Farmacêuticos , Papel Profissional
8.
Clinics ; 73: e325, 2018. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-890741

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of pharmacist-provided discharge counseling on mortality rate, hospital readmissions, emergency department visits, and medication adherence at 30 days post discharge. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial was approved by the local ethics committee and included patients aged 18 years or older admitted to the cardiology ward of a Brazilian tertiary hospital. The intervention group received a pharmacist-led medication counseling session at discharge and a telephone follow-up three and 15 days after discharge. The outcomes included the number of deaths, hospital readmissions, emergency department visits, and medication adherence. All outcomes were evaluated during a pharmacist-led ambulatory consultation performed 30 days after discharge. RESULTS: Of 133 patients, 104 were included in the analysis (51 and 53 in the intervention and control groups, respectively). The intervention group had a lower overall readmission rate, number of emergency department visits, and mortality rate, but the differences were not statistically significant (p>0.05). However, the intervention group had a significantly lower readmission rate related to heart disease (0% vs. 11.3%, p=0.027), despite the small sample size. Furthermore, medication counseling contributed significantly to improved medication adherence according to three different tools (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Pharmacist-provided discharge medication counseling resulted in better medication adherence scores and a lower incidence of cardiovascular-associated hospital readmissions, thus representing a useful service for cardiology patients.

9.
Pharm. pract. (Granada, Internet) ; 15(4): 0-0, oct.-dic. 2017. ilus, tab
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-169521

RESUMO

Objective: The purpose of this overview (systematic review of systematic reviews) is to evaluate the impact of clinical decision support systems (CDSS) applied to medication use in the care process. Methods: A search for systematic reviews that address CDSS was performed on Medline following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and Cochrane recommendations. Terms related to CDSS and systematic reviews were used in combination with Boolean operators and search field tags to build the electronic search strategy. There was no limitation of date or language for inclusion. We included revisions that investigated, as a main or secondary objective, changes in process outcomes. The Revised Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (R-AMSTAR) score was used to evaluate the quality of the studies. Results: The search retrieved 954 articles. Five articles were added through manual search, totaling an initial sample of 959 articles. After screening and reading in full, 44 systematic reviews met the inclusion criteria. In the medication-use processes where CDSS was used, the most common stages were prescribing (n=38 (86.36%) and administering (n=12 (27.27%)). Most of the systematic reviews demonstrated improvement in the health care process (30/44 - 68.2%). The main positive results were related to improvement of the quality of prescription by the physicians (14/30 - 46.6%) and reduction of errors in prescribing (5/30 - 16.6%). However, the quality of the studies was poor, according to the score used. Conclusion: CDSSs represent a promising technology to optimize the medication-use process, especially related to improvement in the quality of prescriptions and reduction of prescribing errors, although higher quality studies are needed to establish the predictors of success in these systems (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Humanos , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos/métodos , Conduta do Tratamento Medicamentoso/organização & administração , Sistemas de Apoio a Decisões Clínicas , Serviços de Informação sobre Medicamentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Erros de Medicação/estatística & dados numéricos
10.
Pharm Pract (Granada) ; 15(4): 1036, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29317919

RESUMO

Objective: The purpose of this overview (systematic review of systematic reviews) is to evaluate the impact of clinical decision support systems (CDSS) applied to medication use in the care process. Methods: A search for systematic reviews that address CDSS was performed on Medline following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and Cochrane recommendations. Terms related to CDSS and systematic reviews were used in combination with Boolean operators and search field tags to build the electronic search strategy. There was no limitation of date or language for inclusion. We included revisions that investigated, as a main or secondary objective, changes in process outcomes. The Revised Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (R-AMSTAR) score was used to evaluate the quality of the studies. Results: The search retrieved 954 articles. Five articles were added through manual search, totaling an initial sample of 959 articles. After screening and reading in full, 44 systematic reviews met the inclusion criteria. In the medication-use processes where CDSS was used, the most common stages were prescribing (n=38 (86.36%) and administering (n=12 (27.27%)). Most of the systematic reviews demonstrated improvement in the health care process (30/44 - 68.2%). The main positive results were related to improvement of the quality of prescription by the physicians (14/30 - 46.6%) and reduction of errors in prescribing (5/30 - 16.6%). However, the quality of the studies was poor, according to the score used. Conclusion: CDSSs represent a promising technology to optimize the medication-use process, especially related to improvement in the quality of prescriptions and reduction of prescribing errors, although higher quality studies are needed to establish the predictors of success in these systems.

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