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1.
J Physiol ; 598(3): 489-502, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828802

RESUMO

KEY POINTS: The World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding until 6 months of age as an important strategy to reduce child morbidity and mortality. Studies have associated early weaning with the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes in adulthood. In our model, we demonstrated that early weaning leads to increased insulin secretion in adolescent males and reduced insulin secretion in adult offspring. Early weaned males exhibit insulin resistance in skeletal muscle. Early weaning did not change insulin signalling in the muscle of female offspring. Taking into account that insulin resistance is one of the primary factors for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, this work demonstrates the importance of breastfeeding in the fight against this disease. ABSTRACT: Early weaning (EW) leads to short- and long-term obesity and diabetes. This phenotype is also observed in experimental models, in which early-weaned males exhibit abnormal insulinaemia in adulthood. However, studies regarding the effect of EW on pancreatic islets are rare. We investigated the mechanisms by which glycaemic homeostasis is altered in EW models through evaluations of insulin secretion and its signalling pathway in offspring. Lactating Wistar rats and their pups were divided into the following groups: non-pharmacological EW (NPEW): mothers were wrapped with an adhesive bandage on the last 3 days of lactation; pharmacological EW (PEW): mothers received bromocriptine to inhibit prolactin (1 mg/kg body mass/day) on the last 3 days of lactation; and control (C): pups underwent standard weaning at PN21. Offspring of both sexes were euthanized at PN45 and PN180. At PN45, EW males showed higher insulin secretion (vs. C). At PN170, PEW males exhibited hyperglycaemia in an oral glucose tolerance test (vs. C and NPEW). At PN180, EW male offspring were heavier; however, both sexes showed higher visceral fat. Insulin secretion was lower in EW offspring of both sexes. Males from both EW groups had lower glucokinase in islets, but unexpectedly, PEW males showed higher GLUT2, than did C. EW males exhibited lower insulin signalling in muscle. EW females exhibited no changes in these parameters compared with C. We demonstrated distinct alterations in the insulin secretion of EW rats at different ages. Despite the sex dimorphism in insulin secretion in adolescence, both sexes showed impaired insulin secretion in adulthood due to EW.

2.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO4876, 2020. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1039734

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective To investigate the effects of sericin extracted from silkworm Bombyx mori cocoon on morphophysiological parameters in mice with obesity induced by high-fat diet. Methods Male C57Bl6 mice aged 9 weeks were allocated to one of two groups - Control and Obese, and fed a standard or high-fat diet for 10 weeks, respectively. Mice were then further subdivided into four groups with seven mice each, as follows: Control, Control-Sericin, Obese, and Obese-Sericin. The standard or high fat diet was given for 4 more weeks; sericin (1,000mg/kg body weight) was given orally to mice in the Control-Sericin and Obese-Sericin Groups during this period. Weight gain, food intake, fecal weight, fecal lipid content, gut motility and glucose tolerance were monitored. At the end of experimental period, plasma was collected for biochemical analysis. Samples of white adipose tissue, liver and jejunum were collected and processed for light microscopy analysis; liver fragments were used for lipid content determination. Results Obese mice experienced significantly greater weight gain and fat accumulation and had higher total cholesterol and glucose levels compared to controls. Retroperitoneal and periepididymal adipocyte hypertrophy, development of hepatic steatosis, increased cholesterol and triglyceride levels and morphometric changes in the jejunal wall were observed. Conclusion Physiological changes induced by obesity were not fully reverted by sericin; however, sericin treatment restored jejunal morphometry and increased lipid excretion in feces in obese mice, suggesting potential anti-obesity effects.


RESUMO Objetivo Investigar os efeitos da sericina extraída de casulos de Bombyx mori na morfofisiologia de camundongos com obesidade induzida por dieta hiperlipídica. Métodos Camundongos machos C57Bl6, com 9 semanas de idade, foram distribuídos em Grupos Controle e Obeso, que receberam ração padrão para roedores ou dieta hiperlipídica por 10 semanas, respectivamente. Posteriormente, os animais foram redistribuídos em quatro grupos, com sete animais cada: Controle, Controle-Sericina, Obeso e Obeso-Sericina. Os animais permaneceram recebendo ração padrão ou hiperlipídica por 4 semanas, período no qual a sericina foi administrada oralmente na dose de 1.000mg/kg de massa corporal aos Grupos Controle-Sericina e Obeso-Sericina. Parâmetros fisiológicos, como ganho de peso, consumo alimentar, peso das fezes em análise de lipídios fecais, motilidade intestinal e tolerância à glicose foram monitorados. Ao término do experimento, o plasma foi coletado para dosagens bioquímicas e fragmentos de tecido adiposo branco; fígado e jejuno foram processados para análises histológicas, e amostras hepáticas foram usadas para determinação lipídica. Resultados Camundongos obesos apresentaram ganho de peso e acúmulo de gordura significativamente maior que os controles, aumento do colesterol total e glicemia. Houve hipertrofia dos adipócitos retroperitoneais e periepididimais, instalação de esteatose e aumento do colesterol e triglicerídeos hepáticos, bem como alteração morfométrica da parede jejunal. Conclusão O tratamento com sericina não reverteu todas as alterações fisiológicas promovidas pela obesidade, mas restaurou a morfometria jejunal e aumentou a quantidade de lipídios eliminados nas fezes dos camundongos obesos, apresentando-se como potencial tratamento para a obesidade.

3.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 18: eAO4876, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês, Português | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31576909

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of sericin extracted from silkworm Bombyx mori cocoon on morphophysiological parameters in mice with obesity induced by high-fat diet. METHODS: Male C57Bl6 mice aged 9 weeks were allocated to one of two groups - Control and Obese, and fed a standard or high-fat diet for 10 weeks, respectively. Mice were then further subdivided into four groups with seven mice each, as follows: Control, Control-Sericin, Obese, and Obese-Sericin. The standard or high fat diet was given for 4 more weeks; sericin (1,000mg/kg body weight) was given orally to mice in the Control-Sericin and Obese-Sericin Groups during this period. Weight gain, food intake, fecal weight, fecal lipid content, gut motility and glucose tolerance were monitored. At the end of experimental period, plasma was collected for biochemical analysis. Samples of white adipose tissue, liver and jejunum were collected and processed for light microscopy analysis; liver fragments were used for lipid content determination. RESULTS: Obese mice experienced significantly greater weight gain and fat accumulation and had higher total cholesterol and glucose levels compared to controls. Retroperitoneal and periepididymal adipocyte hypertrophy, development of hepatic steatosis, increased cholesterol and triglyceride levels and morphometric changes in the jejunal wall were observed. CONCLUSION: Physiological changes induced by obesity were not fully reverted by sericin; however, sericin treatment restored jejunal morphometry and increased lipid excretion in feces in obese mice, suggesting potential anti-obesity effects.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Obesidade/tratamento farmacológico , Sericinas/uso terapêutico , Tecido Adiposo/patologia , Animais , Fármacos Antiobesidade/farmacologia , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Colesterol/análise , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Alimentos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Trânsito Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Obesos , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Sericinas/farmacologia , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento , Triglicerídeos/análise , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
4.
Environ Pollut ; 258: 113781, 2019 Dec 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31864076

RESUMO

Maternal nicotine exposure during lactation induces liver damage in adult male rats. However, the mechanism in males is unknown and females have not been tested. Here, we determined the liver lipid composition and lipogenic enzymes in male and female offspring at two ages in a model of postnatal nicotine exposure. Osmotic minipumps were implanted in lactating Wistar rat dams at postnatal day (PND) 2 to release 6 mg/kg/day of nicotine (NIC group) or saline (CON group) for 14 days. Offspring received a standard diet from weaning until euthanasia at PND120 (1 pup/litter/sex) or PND180 (2 pups/litter/sex). At PND120, NIC males showed lower plasma triglycerides (TG), steatosis degree 1, higher hepatic cholesterol (CHOL) ester, free fatty acids, monoacylglycerol content as well as acetyl-coa carboxylase-1 (ACC-1) and fatty acid synthase (FAS) protein expression in the liver compared to CON males. At this age, NIC females had preserved hepatocytes architecture, higher plasma CHOL, higher CHOL ester and lower total CHOL content in the liver compared to CON females. At PND180, NIC males showed steatosis degrees 1 and 2, higher TG, lower free fatty acids and total CHOL content in the liver and an increase in ACC-1 hepatic protein expression. NIC females had higher plasma TG and CHOL levels, no change in hepatic morphology, lower CHOL ester and free fatty acids in the liver, which also showed higher total ACC-1 and FAS protein expression. Maternal nicotine exposure induces long-term liver dysfunction, with an alteration in hepatic cytoarchitecture that was aggravated with age in males. Concerning females, despite unchanged hepatic cytoarchitecture, lipid metabolism was compromised, which deserves further attention.

5.
J Dev Orig Health Dis ; : 1-8, 2019 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31309914

RESUMO

One of the most consumed pesticides in the world is glyphosate, the active ingredient in the herbicide ROUNDUP®. Studies demonstrate that glyphosate can act as an endocrine disruptor and that exposure to this substance at critical periods in the developmental period may program the fetus to induce reproductive damage in adulthood. Our hypothesis is that maternal exposure to glyphosate during pregnancy and lactation in mice will affect the development of male reproductive organs, impairing male fertility during adult life. Female mice consumed 0.5% glyphosate-ROUNDUP® in their drinking water [glyphosate-based herbicide (GBH) group] or filtered water [control (CTRL) group] from the fourth day of pregnancy until the end of the lactation period. Male F1 offspring were designated, according to their mother's treatment, as CTRL-F1 and GBH-F1. Female mice that drank glyphosate displayed reduced body weight (BW) gain during gestation, but no alterations in litter size. Although GBH male F1 offspring did not exhibit modifications in BW, they demonstrated delayed testicular descent. Furthermore, at PND150, GBH-F1 mice presented a lower number of spermatozoa in the cauda epididymis and reduced epithelial height of the seminiferous epithelium. Notably, intratesticular testosterone concentrations were enhanced in GBH-F1 mice; we show that it is an effect associated with increased plasma and pituitary concentrations of luteinizing hormone. Therefore, data indicate that maternal exposure to glyphosate-ROUNDUP® during pregnancy and lactation may lead to decreased spermatogenesis and disruptions in hypothalamus-pituitary-testicular axis regulation in F1 offspring.

6.
Eur J Nutr ; 2019 Apr 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30982179

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Obesity is predominant in women of reproductive age. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is the most common bariatric procedure that is performed in obese women for weight loss and metabolic improvement. However, some studies suggest that this procedure negatively affects offspring. Herein, using Western diet (WD)-obese female rats, we investigated the effects of maternal RYGB on postnatal body development, glucose tolerance, insulin secretion and action in their adult male F1 offspring. METHODS: Female Wistar rats consumed a Western diet (WD) for 18 weeks, before being submitted to RYGB (WD-RYGB) or SHAM (WD-SHAM) operations. After 5 weeks, WD-RYGB and WD-SHAM females were mated with control male breeders, and the F1 offspring were identified as: WD-RYGB-F1 and WD-SHAM-F1. RESULTS: The male F1 offspring of WD-RYGB dams exhibited decreased BW, but enhanced total nasoanal length gain. At 120 days of age, WD-RYGB-F1 rats displayed normal fasting glycemia and glucose tolerance but demonstrated reduced insulinemia and higher glucose disappearance after insulin stimulus. In addition, these rodents presented insulin resistance in the gastrocnemius muscle and retroperitoneal fat, as judged by lower Akt phosphorylation after insulin administration, but an increase in this protein in the liver. Finally, the islets from WD-RYGB-F1 rats secreted less insulin in response to glucose and displayed increased ß-cell area and mass. CONCLUSIONS: RYGB in WD dams negatively affected their F1 offspring, leading to catch-up growth, insulin resistance in skeletal muscle and white fat, and ß-cell dysfunction. Therefore, our data are the first to demonstrate that the RYGB in female rats may aggravate the metabolic imprinting induced by maternal WD consumption, in their male F1 descendants. However, since we only used male F1 rats, further studies are necessary to demonstrate if such effect may also occur in female F1 offspring from dams that underwent RYGB operation.

7.
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol ; 190: 54-63, 2019 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30923014

RESUMO

Oral contraception is the most commonly used interventional method in the world. However, several women employ the continuous use of these hormones to avoid pre- and menstruation discomforts. Some studies indicate that oral contraceptives are associated with disturbances in glycemia and the effects of the use of a continuous regime are poorly elucidated. Herein, we evaluated the effects of the continuous administration of a combined oral contraceptive (COC) composed by ethinyl estradiol (EE) and drospirenone (DRSP) on glucose homeostasis in female mice. Adult Swiss mice received 0.6 µg EE and 60 µg DRSP (COC group) or vehicle [control (CTL)] daily by gavage for 35 days. COC treatment had no effect on body weight or adiposity, but increased uterus weight and induced hepatomegaly. Importantly, COC females displayed normal glycemia and glucose tolerance, but hyperinsulinemia and lower plasma C-peptide/insulin ratio, indicating reduced insulin clearance. Furthermore, COC mice displayed reduced protein content of the ß subunit of the insulin receptor (IRß) in the liver. Additionally, pancreatic islets isolated from COC mice secreted more insulin in response to increasing glucose concentrations. This effect was associated with the activity of steroid hormones, since INS-1E cells incubated with EE plus DRSP also secreted more insulin. Therefore, we provide the first evidence that the continuous administration of EE and DRSP lead to hyperinsulinemia, due to enhancement of insulin secretion and the reduction of insulin degradation, which possibly lead to the down-regulation of hepatic IRß. These findings suggest that the continuous administration of COC could cause insulin resistance with the prolongation of treatment.


Assuntos
Androstenos/efeitos adversos , Anticoncepcionais Orais Combinados/efeitos adversos , Etinilestradiol/efeitos adversos , Hiperinsulinismo/induzido quimicamente , Células Secretoras de Insulina/efeitos dos fármacos , Insulina/metabolismo , Animais , Feminino , Glucose/metabolismo , Hiperinsulinismo/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Camundongos
8.
Amino Acids ; 51(4): 727-738, 2019 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30830312

RESUMO

Obesity in fathers leads to DNA damage and epigenetic changes in sperm that may carry potential risk factors for metabolic diseases to the next generation. Taurine (TAU) supplementation has demonstrated benefits against testicular dysfunction and pancreatic islet impairments induced by obesity, but it is not known if these protective actions prevent the propagation of metabolic disruptions to the next generation; as such, we hypothesized that paternal obesity may increase the probability of endocrine pancreatic dysfunction in offspring, and that this could be prevented by TAU supplementation in male progenitors. To test this, male C57Bl/6 mice were fed on a control diet (CTL) or a high-fat diet (HFD) without or with 5% TAU in their drinking water (CTAU and HTAU) for 4 months. Subsequently, all groups of mice were mated with CTL females, and the F1 offspring were identified as: CTL-F1, CTAU-F1, HFD-F1, and HTAU-F1. HFD-fed mice were normoglycemic, but glucose intolerant and their islets hypersecreted insulin. However, at 90 days of age, HFD-F1 offspring displayed normal glucose homeostasis and adiposity, but reduced glucose-induced insulin release. HFD-F1 islets also exhibited ß- and α-cell hypotrophy, and lower δ-cell number per islet. Paternal TAU supplementation prevented the decrease in glucose-induced insulin secretion and normalized ß-cell size and δ-cell number, and increased α-cell size/islet in HTAU-F1 mice. In conclusion, HFD consumption by male founders decreases ß-cell secretion and islet-cell distribution in their offspring. TAU attenuates the deleterious effects of paternal obesity on insulin secretion and islet-cell morphology in F1 offspring.


Assuntos
Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Suplementos Nutricionais , Sistema Endócrino/efeitos dos fármacos , Intolerância à Glucose/tratamento farmacológico , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Pancreatopatias/tratamento farmacológico , Taurina/administração & dosagem , Animais , Sistema Endócrino/fisiopatologia , Intolerância à Glucose/etiologia , Intolerância à Glucose/patologia , Homeostase , Secreção de Insulina , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/fisiopatologia , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Obesidade/fisiopatologia , Pancreatopatias/etiologia , Pancreatopatias/patologia
9.
Endocrine ; 60(3): 407-414, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29556948

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Duodeno-jejunal bypass (DJB) operation improves glucose homeostasis in morbid obesity, independently of weight loss or reductions in adiposity, through mechanisms not yet fully elucidated. Herein, we evaluated the effects of DJB upon glucose homeostasis, endocrine pancreatic morphology, and ß-cell responsiveness to potentiating agents of cholinergic and cAMP pathways, in western diet (WD) obese rats, at 2 months after operation. METHODS: From 8 to 18 weeks of age male Wistar rats fed on a WD. After this period, a sham (WD Sham group) or DJB (WD DJB) operations were performed. At 2 months after operation glucose homeostasis was verified. RESULTS: Body weight was similar between WD DJB and WD Sham rats, but WD DJB rats showed a decrease in Lee index, retroperitoneal and perigonadal fat pads. Also, WD DJB rats displayed reduced fasting glycemia and insulinemia, and increased insulin-induced Akt activation in the gastrocnemius. Islets from WD DJB rats secreted less amounts of insulin, in response to activators of the cholinergic (carbachol and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) and cAMP (forskolin and 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xantine) pathways. Islets of WD DJB rats had higher sintaxin-1 protein content than WD Sham, but without modification in muscarinic-3 receptor, protein kinase (PK)-Cα, and (PK)-Aα protein amounts. In addition, islets of WD DJB animals showed reduction in islets and ß-cell masses. CONCLUSION: DJB surgery improves fasting glycemia and insulin action in skeletal muscle. Better endocrine pancreatic morphofunction was associated, at least in part, with the regulation of the cholinergic and cAMP pathways, and improvements in syntaxin-1 islet protein content induced by DJB.


Assuntos
Derivação Gástrica/métodos , Células Secretoras de Insulina/metabolismo , Obesidade/cirurgia , Animais , Glicemia/metabolismo , Peso Corporal/fisiologia , Dieta Ocidental , Teste de Tolerância a Glucose , Resistência à Insulina , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Masculino , Obesidade/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
10.
Life Sci ; 188: 68-75, 2017 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28866102

RESUMO

AIMS: Hypothalamic obesity is a severe condition without any effective therapy. Bariatric operations appear as an alternative treatment, but the effects of this procedure are controversial. We, herein, investigated the effects of duodeno-jejunal bypass (DJB) surgery upon the lipid profile and expression of genes and proteins, involved in the regulation of hepatic lipid metabolism, in hypothalamic obese (HyO) rats. METHODS: During the first 5days of life, male newborn Wistar rats received subcutaneous injections of monosodium glutamate [4g/kg body weight, HyO group] or saline (control, CTL group). At 90days of life, HyO rats were randomly submitted to DJB (HyO DJB) or Sham-operations (HyO Sham group). Six months after DJB, adiposity, hepatic steatosis and lipid metabolism were verified. KEY FINDINGS: HyO Sham rats were obese, hyperinsulinemic, insulin resistant and dyslipidemic. These rats had higher liver contents of trygliceride (TG) and presented disorganization of the hepatocyte structures, in association with higher hepatic contents of acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), fatty acid synthase (FASN), and stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 mRNAs and protein. DJB surgery normalized insulinemia, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia in HyO rats. TG content in the liver and the hepatic microscopic structures were also normalized in HyO DJB rats, while the expressions of ACC and FASN proteins were decreased in the liver of these rodents. SIGNIFICANCE: The DJB-induced amelioration in hepatic steatosis manifested as a late effect in HyO rats, and was partly associated with a downregulation in hepatic de novo lipogenesis processes, indicating that DJB protects against liver steatosis in hypothalamic obesity.


Assuntos
Fígado Gorduroso/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/cirurgia , Derivação Gástrica , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/cirurgia , Acetil-CoA Carboxilase/metabolismo , Animais , Ácido Graxo Sintases/metabolismo , Fígado Gorduroso/patologia , Masculino , Obesidade/induzido quimicamente , Obesidade/patologia , Ratos , Glutamato de Sódio , Estearoil-CoA Dessaturase/metabolismo , Triglicerídeos/metabolismo
11.
Neural Plast ; 2017: 9652978, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28951790

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of subdiaphragmatic vagotomy on insulin sensitivity, secretion, and degradation in metabolic programmed mice, induced by a low-protein diet early in life, followed by exposure to a high-fat diet in adulthood. Weaned 30-day-old C57Bl/6 mice were submitted to a low-protein diet (6% protein). After 4 weeks, the mice were distributed into three groups: LP group, which continued receiving a low-protein diet; LP + HF group, which started to receive a high-fat diet; and LP + HFvag group, which underwent vagotomy and also was kept at a high-fat diet. Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in isolated islets, ipGTT, ipITT, in vivo insulin clearance, and liver expression of the insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE) was accessed. Vagotomy improved glucose tolerance and reduced insulin secretion but did not alter adiposity and insulin sensitivity in the LP + HFvag, compared with the LP + HF group. Improvement in glucose tolerance was accompanied by increased insulinemia, probably due to a diminished insulin clearance, as judged by the lower C-peptide : insulin ratio, during the ipGTT. Finally, vagotomy also reduced liver IDE expression in this group. In conclusion, when submitted to vagotomy, the metabolic programmed mice showed improved glucose tolerance, associated with an increase of plasma insulin concentration as a result of insulin clearance reduction, a phenomenon probably due to diminished liver IDE expression.


Assuntos
Resistência à Insulina/fisiologia , Insulina/metabolismo , Obesidade/cirurgia , Vagotomia/métodos , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Dieta com Restrição de Proteínas , Glucose/metabolismo , Insulisina/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Obesidade/metabolismo
12.
Acta Cir Bras ; 32(1): 1-13, 2017 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28225912

RESUMO

Purpose: : To evaluate the effects of duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB) on the diaphragm muscle of obese rats fed on a western diet (WD) . Methods: : Eighteen male Wistar rats were fed a standard rodent chow diet (CTL group) or WD ad libitum. After 10 weeks, WD rats were submitted to sham (WD SHAM) or duodenal-jejunal bypass (WD DJB). The structure, ultrastructure, collagen content and the morphometry of the neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) were analyzed two months after surgery. Results: : WD SHAM rats displayed an increase in body weight, the Lee index and retroperitoneal and peri-epididymal fat pads compared to the CTL group. DJB did not alter these parameters. The muscle fiber structure and NMJs were similar in the WD SHAM and CTL groups. However, the WD SHAM group showed alterations in the fiber ultrastructure, such as loosely arranged myofibrils and Z line disorganization. In addition, WD SHAM animals presented a considerable amount of lipid droplets and a reduction in the percentage of collagen compared to the CTL group. DJB did not affect the structure or ultrastructure of the muscle fibers or the NMJs in the diaphragm of the WD DJB animals. Conclusion: : Duodenal-jejunal bypass did not improve the alterations observed in the diaphragm of western diet obese-rats.


Assuntos
Diafragma/ultraestrutura , Dieta Ocidental , Duodeno/cirurgia , Jejuno/cirurgia , Junção Neuromuscular/ultraestrutura , Obesidade/cirurgia , Anastomose Cirúrgica , Animais , Masculino , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/ultraestrutura , Obesidade/metabolismo , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
13.
Acta cir. bras ; 32(1): 1-13, Jan. 2017. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-837674

RESUMO

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the effects of duodenal-jejunal bypass (DJB) on the diaphragm muscle of obese rats fed on a western diet (WD) . Methods: Eighteen male Wistar rats were fed a standard rodent chow diet (CTL group) or WD ad libitum. After 10 weeks, WD rats were submitted to sham (WD SHAM) or duodenal-jejunal bypass (WD DJB). The structure, ultrastructure, collagen content and the morphometry of the neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) were analyzed two months after surgery. Results: WD SHAM rats displayed an increase in body weight, the Lee index and retroperitoneal and peri-epididymal fat pads compared to the CTL group. DJB did not alter these parameters. The muscle fiber structure and NMJs were similar in the WD SHAM and CTL groups. However, the WD SHAM group showed alterations in the fiber ultrastructure, such as loosely arranged myofibrils and Z line disorganization. In addition, WD SHAM animals presented a considerable amount of lipid droplets and a reduction in the percentage of collagen compared to the CTL group. DJB did not affect the structure or ultrastructure of the muscle fibers or the NMJs in the diaphragm of the WD DJB animals. Conclusion: Duodenal-jejunal bypass did not improve the alterations observed in the diaphragm of western diet obese-rats.


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Diafragma/ultraestrutura , Duodeno/cirurgia , Dieta Ocidental , Jejuno/cirurgia , Junção Neuromuscular/ultraestrutura , Obesidade/cirurgia , Anastomose Cirúrgica , Distribuição Aleatória , Ratos Wistar , Fibras Musculares Esqueléticas/ultraestrutura , Obesidade/metabolismo
14.
Eur J Nutr ; 56(2): 705-713, 2017 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26621632

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Obesity is usually associated with low-grade inflammation, which impairs insulin action. The amino acid, taurine (TAU), regulates glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism and presents anti-inflammatory actions. Here, we evaluated whether inflammatory markers are altered in the serum and retroperitoneal adipose tissue of monosodium glutamate (MSG) obese rats, supplemented or not with TAU. METHODS: Male Wistar rats received subcutaneous injections of MSG (4 mg/kg body weight/day, MSG group) or hypertonic saline (CTL) during the first 5 days of life. From 21 to 120 days of age, half of each of the MSG and CTL groups received 2.5 % TAU in their drinking water (CTAU and MTAU). RESULTS: At 120 days of age, MSG rats were obese and hyperinsulinemic. TAU supplementation reduced fat deposition without affecting insulinemia in MTAU rats. MSG rats presented increased pIκ-Bα/Iκ-Bα protein expression in the retroperitoneal adipose tissue. TAU supplementation decreased the ratio of pIκ-Bα/Iκ-Bα protein, possibly contributing to the increased Iκ-Bα content in MTAU adipose tissue. Furthermore, MSG obesity or supplementation did not alter TNF-α, IL-1ß or IL-6 content in adipose tissue. In contrast, MSG rats presented lower serum TNF-α, IL-4 and IL-10 concentrations, and these alterations were prevented by TAU treatment. CONCLUSION: MSG obesity in rats was not associated with alterations in pro-inflammatory markers in retroperitoneal fat stores; however, reductions in the serum concentrations of anti-inflammatory cytokines and of TNF-α were observed. TAU treatment decreased adiposity, and this effect was associated with the normalization of circulating TNF-α and IL-4 concentrations in MTAU rats.


Assuntos
Fármacos Antiobesidade/uso terapêutico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/metabolismo , Inibidor de NF-kappaB alfa/metabolismo , Obesidade/dietoterapia , Taurina/uso terapêutico , Adiposidade , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios não Esteroides/uso terapêutico , Biomarcadores/sangue , Biomarcadores/metabolismo , Hiperinsulinismo/dietoterapia , Hiperinsulinismo/etiologia , Hiperinsulinismo/imunologia , Hiperinsulinismo/metabolismo , Proteínas I-kappa B/agonistas , Proteínas I-kappa B/genética , Proteínas I-kappa B/metabolismo , Injeções Subcutâneas , Interleucina-4/antagonistas & inibidores , Interleucina-4/sangue , Interleucina-4/metabolismo , Gordura Intra-Abdominal/imunologia , Masculino , Inibidor de NF-kappaB alfa/agonistas , Inibidor de NF-kappaB alfa/genética , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/imunologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Fosforilação , Processamento de Proteína Pós-Traducional , Ratos Wistar , Glutamato de Sódio/administração & dosagem , Glutamato de Sódio/efeitos adversos , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/antagonistas & inibidores , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/sangue , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo
15.
Rev. bras. ciênc. saúde ; 21(2): 127-132, 2017. tab, ilus
Artigo em Português | LILACS | ID: biblio-969988

RESUMO

Objetivo: O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o comportamento do tecido gengival de ratos após a indução experimental de obesidade e doença periodontal. Material e Métodos: Vinte e quatro ratos machos (n=24) foram divididos inicialmente em 2 grupos, que foram submetidos a injeções intradérmicas na região cervical de 4g/kg/dia de solução glutamato monossódico (MSG) (grupo OBS) e 1,25g/kg/dia de solução salina (grupo CTL), nos primeiros 5 dias de vida. Aos 70 dias foi induzida a doença periodontal com a colocação de ligadura nos dentes posteriores dos ratos, após esse procedimento 4 grupos, com 6 ratos cada, foram originados: grupo controle sem ligadura (CTL); grupo controle com ligadura (LIG); obeso sem ligadura (OBS), obeso com ligadura (OBSLIG). Aos 100 dias os ratos foram sacrificados, e a hemimandíbula direita de cada rato foi retirada para a análise morfométrica do tecido gengival. Resultados: A altura do epitélio da crista gengival foi significativamente (p<0,05) maior nos grupos com periodontite induzida (LIG 44,26±0,69; OBSLIG 43,30±1,23). A altura do tecido conjuntivo na região média mostrou-se menor nos grupos CTL (237,44±7,38) e OBS (238,17±0,73), sendo estas diferenças estatisticamente significativas (p<0,05) em relação aos demais grupos. Conclusão: A obesidade induzida pelo glutamato monossódico não alterou as características dos tecidos epitelial e conjuntivo da região gengival de ratos. (AU)


Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the behavior of gingival tissue upon experimentally-induced obesity and periodontitis in rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were initially divided into 2 groups. Animals were subjected to intradermal injections of 4 g/kg/day Monosodium Glutamate (MSG) and 1.25 g/kg/day saline solution (control group, CTRL) in the cervical region for their first 5 days of life. At 70 days, the groups were subdivided into 2 other groups. A ligature placed around their 1st mandibular molars was used to induce periodontitis. Accordingly, a total of 4 groups were formed, with 6 animals each: ligature-free control group (CTRL); control group with ligature (LIG); ligature-free obese group (OBS); obese group with ligature (OBSLIG). After 100 days, animals were sacrificed and their right hemi-jaws were dissected for morphometric analysis. Results: The height of the gingival crest epithelium was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the groups with induced periodontitis (LIG 44.26±0.69; OBSLIG 43.30±1.23). The height of the connective tissue in the middle region was found to be lower in CTRL (237.44±7.38) and OBS groups (238.17±0.73), with statistically significant differences (p<0.05) as compared to the other groups. Conclusion: MSG-induced obesity did not change the characteristics of the gingival epithelium and connective tissues in rats. (AU)


Assuntos
Humanos , Animais , Ratos , Doenças Periodontais , Obesidade , Gengiva
16.
J. physiol. biochem ; 72(4): 625-633, dic. 2016. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | IBECS | ID: ibc-168370

RESUMO

Herein, we investigated whether subdiaphragmatic vagotomy has benefits on obesity, body glucose homeostasis, and insulin secretion in cafeteria (CAF)-obese rats. Wistar rats were fed a standard or CAF diet for 12 weeks. Subsequently, CAF rats were randomly submitted to truncal vagotomy (CAF Vag) or sham operation (CAF Sham). CAF Sham rats were hyperphagic, obese, and presented metabolic disturbances, including hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. Twelve weeks after vagotomy, CAF Vag rats presented reductions in body weight and perigonadal fat stores. Vagotomy did not modify glucose tolerance but normalized fed glycemia, insulinemia, and insulin sensitivity. Isolated islets from CAF Sham rats secreted more insulin in response to the cholinergic agent, carbachol, and when intracellular cyclic adenine monophosphate (cAMP) is enhanced by forskolin or 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine. Vagotomy decreased glucose-induced insulin release due to a reduction in the cholinergic action on β-cells. This effect also normalized islet secretion in response to cAMP. Therefore, vagotomy in rats fed on a CAF-style diet effectively decreases adiposity and restores insulin sensitivity. These effects were mainly associated with the lack of cholinergic action on the endocrine pancreas, which decreases insulinemia and may gradually reduce fat storage and improve insulin sensitivity (AU)


No disponible


Assuntos
Animais , Masculino , Ratos , Hiperglicemia/cirurgia , Hiperinsulinismo/cirurgia , Hipertrigliceridemia/cirurgia , Obesidade/cirurgia , Vagotomia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Ratos Wistar , Resistência à Insulina , Peso Corporal , Técnicas de Cultura de Células , 1-Metil-3-Isobutilxantina/farmacologia , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica
17.
Sci. med. (Porto Alegre, Online) ; 26(3): ID23711, jul-set 2016.
Artigo em Português | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-846917

RESUMO

OBJETIVOS: Analisar os efeitos do exercício físico resistido de subida em escada, sobre o edema, nocicepção e regeneração nervosa de ratos Wistar, submetidos à compressão do nervo isquiático. MÉTODOS: Foram estudados 24 ratos Wistar, divididos igualmente entre quatro grupos: Grupo Controle, Grupo Exercício, Grupo Lesão e Grupo Tratado ­ Lesão e Exercício. O Grupo Lesão e o Grupo Tratado foram submetidos à compressão do nervo isquiático com pinça hemostática por 30 segundos. A partir do terceiro dia após a lesão, iniciou-se o tratamento com exercício resistido de subida em escada para o Grupo Exercício e o Grupo Tratado. O tratamento consistiu em realizar duas séries de 10 subidas na escada, com sobrecarga de 100 gramas e intervalo de um minuto entre uma série e outra. O estudo foi conduzido por 22 dias e nesse tempo os animais foram avaliados quanto ao edema e à nocicepção. No 22º dia de pós-operatório, os animais foram anestesiados para retirada de um fragmento do nervo isquiático para análise do número de axônios e da densidade de fibras. Em seguida, ainda sob efeito da anestesia, os animais foram eutanasiados. Os nervos coletados seguiram protocolo de processamento histológico de rotina. As expressões do Fator de Crescimento Neural e do Fator de Crescimento Derivado do Cérebro foram avaliadas por Western blotting. RESULTADOS: Não houve diferença significativa entre os grupos no tamanho do edema. O Grupo Controle apresentou maior limiar nociceptivo comparado aos demais grupos. A análise morfométrica não revelou diferença significativa entre os grupos, quanto à quantidade de axônios e à densidade de fibras. A expressão do Fator de Crescimento Derivado do Cérebro foi maior no Grupo Lesão e no Grupo Tratado quando comparados ao Grupo Controle. CONCLUSÕES: O exercício físico resistido de subida em escada, nos parâmetros propostos, não foi eficaz para reduzir o edema, a nocicepção ou aumentar o número de axônios e a densidade de fibras nervosas após lesão do nervo isquiático.


AIMS: To analyze the effects of ladder-climbing resistance training exercise on edema, nociception, and regeneration of the sciatic nerve in Wistar rats subjected to sciatic nerve compression. METHODS: Twenty-four Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Control Group, Exercise Group, Injury Group, and Treated Group (injury and exercise). Injury Group and Treated Group were subjected to sciatic nerve compression with a hemostat for 30 seconds. On the third day after injury, Exercise Group and Treated Group began treatment with ladder-climbing resistance exercise. The treatment consisted in performing two series of 10 ladder climbs with a 100-gram overload and a one-minute interval between the series. The study was conducted for 22 days, during which time the animals were evaluated for edema and nociception. Twenty-two days after surgery, the animals were anesthetized for removal of a sciatic nerve fragment and analysis of the number of axons and fiber density. Thereafter, still under anesthesia, the animals were euthanized. Nerve sampling followed the routine histological processing protocol. Expressions of Neural Growth Factor and Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor were evaluated by Western blotting. RESULTS: There was no significant difference in edema size between groups. Control Group showed the highest nociceptive threshold compared to the other groups. The morphometric analysis showed no significant difference in number of axons and fiber density between groups. The expression of Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor was greater in the Injury Group and the Treated Group compared to the Control Group. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed ladder-climbing resistance training was not effective in reducing edema and nociception or in increasing the number of axons and fiber density after sciatic nerve injury.

18.
J Physiol Biochem ; 72(4): 625-633, 2016 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27351887

RESUMO

Herein, we investigated whether subdiaphragmatic vagotomy has benefits on obesity, body glucose homeostasis, and insulin secretion in cafeteria (CAF)-obese rats. Wistar rats were fed a standard or CAF diet for 12 weeks. Subsequently, CAF rats were randomly submitted to truncal vagotomy (CAF Vag) or sham operation (CAF Sham). CAF Sham rats were hyperphagic, obese, and presented metabolic disturbances, including hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. Twelve weeks after vagotomy, CAF Vag rats presented reductions in body weight and perigonadal fat stores. Vagotomy did not modify glucose tolerance but normalized fed glycemia, insulinemia, and insulin sensitivity. Isolated islets from CAF Sham rats secreted more insulin in response to the cholinergic agent, carbachol, and when intracellular cyclic adenine monophosphate (cAMP) is enhanced by forskolin or 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine. Vagotomy decreased glucose-induced insulin release due to a reduction in the cholinergic action on ß-cells. This effect also normalized islet secretion in response to cAMP. Therefore, vagotomy in rats fed on a CAF-style diet effectively decreases adiposity and restores insulin sensitivity. These effects were mainly associated with the lack of cholinergic action on the endocrine pancreas, which decreases insulinemia and may gradually reduce fat storage and improve insulin sensitivity.


Assuntos
Hiperglicemia/cirurgia , Hiperinsulinismo/cirurgia , Hipertrigliceridemia/cirurgia , Obesidade/cirurgia , Vagotomia , Nervo Vago/cirurgia , 1-Metil-3-Isobutilxantina/farmacologia , Tecido Adiposo/efeitos dos fármacos , Tecido Adiposo/metabolismo , Animais , Peso Corporal/efeitos dos fármacos , Carbacol/farmacologia , Colforsina/farmacologia , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Dieta Hiperlipídica , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glucose/metabolismo , Glucose/farmacologia , Hiperglicemia/etiologia , Hiperglicemia/metabolismo , Hiperglicemia/patologia , Hiperinsulinismo/etiologia , Hiperinsulinismo/metabolismo , Hiperinsulinismo/patologia , Hipertrigliceridemia/etiologia , Hipertrigliceridemia/metabolismo , Hipertrigliceridemia/patologia , Insulina/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Secreção de Insulina , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Masculino , Obesidade/etiologia , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos , Nervo Vago/metabolismo
19.
Acta sci., Health sci ; 37(2): 119-125, jul.-dez. 2015. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: biblio-832096

RESUMO

The present study investigated the effects of short-chain fructooligosaccharides (scFOS) feeding on body weight, fat accumulation, glucose homeostasis and lipid profile in cafeteria (CAF) obese rats. Male Wistar rats were divided randomly into two groups: control group (CTL, n = 10), which received a chow diet and water and CAF (n = 20), which received the cafeteria diet, standard chow and soda. After 30 weeks of diet, 10 animals of CAF group received scFOS in the diet (50 g kg-1 of diet) over a period of 50 days, forming the CAF FOS group. Were evaluated the body weight, fat pad as well as, quantity of feces, glucose tolerance, insulin resistance (IR) and serum lipids levels. Animals submitted to the CAF diet displayed obesity, hyperglycemia, glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia and IR. The scFOS feeding not altered obesity, glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia and IR. CAF rats also presented hypertriglyceridemia and lower levels of HDL-cholesterol. The CAF FOS animals had reduced serum triglycerides (TG) and increased HDL-cholesterol. Thus, the use of scFOS in the diet can be considered as a hypolipidemic agent in the obese state.


O presente estudo investigou os efeitos da adição de frutooligossacarídeos de cadeia curta (scFOS) sobre o peso corporal, acúmulo de gordura, homeostase glicêmica e perfil lipídico em ratos obesos pela dieta de cafeteria (CAF). Ratos Wistar foram divididos em dois grupos: controle (CTL, n = 10), que receberam dieta padrão e água e CAF, que receberam dieta de CAF, ração padrão e refrigerante (n = 20). Após 30 semanas, dez animais do grupo CAF receberam 50 g kg-1 de dieta de scFOS na ração padrão durante 50 dias, formando o grupo CAF FOS. Foram avaliados o peso corporal e o peso das gorduras, bem como, quantidade de fezes, homeostase glicêmica e concentração de lipídios séricos. Animais do grupo CAF apresentaram obesidade, hiperglicemia, intolerância à glicose, hiperinsulinemia e RI. A adição scFOS não alterou a obesidade, intolerância à glicose, hiperinsulinemia e RI no grupo CAF FOS comparado ao grupo CAF. Animais CAF também apresentaram hipertrigliceridemia e redução na concentração de HDL-colesterol. Os animais CAF FOS apresentaram redução na concentração sérica de triglicerídeos (TG) e aumento no HDL-colesterol. Desta forma, a utilização de scFOS na dieta pode ser considerado como um agente hipolipidêmico nos estados de obesidade.


Assuntos
Ratos , HDL-Colesterol , Dieta , Obesidade , Triglicerídeos
20.
Life Sci ; 135: 15-21, 2015 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26092479

RESUMO

AIMS: Fat deposition in the liver, which leads to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is associated with obesity. Taurine (Tau) regulates lipid metabolism, representing a possible nutraceutical agent against obesity and its comorbidities. Here, we investigated whether Tau supplementation prevents hepatic lipid accumulation by regulation of the main hepatic genes involved in de novo lipogenesis and ß-oxidation. MAIN METHODS: Male rats received subcutaneous injections of monosodium glutamate (MSG; 4 mg/kg body weight/day) or saline (control group, CTL) during the first 5 days of life. From 21 to 120 days of age, half of each of the MSG and CTL groups received 2.5% Tau in drinking water (CTau and MTau). KEY FINDINGS: MSG-treated rats were normoglycemic, hypertriglyceridemic and insulin resistant (IR). MSG rats also exhibited massive obesity and higher hepatic triglyceride (TG) content. This effect was associated with enhanced gene expression of fatty acid synthase (FASN), but reduced carbohydrate response element-binding protein (ChREBP), microsomal TG transfer protein (MTP) and carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT)-1a mRNAs in MSG livers. Tau supplementation decreased whole body fat accumulation and serum TG levels, without altering IR. Tau also normalized hepatic TG content by enhancing ChREBP, MTP, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α, ACO (acyl-CoA oxidase) and CPT-1a gene expressions. SIGNIFICANCE: Therefore, increased hepatic TG deposition in MSG-obese rats is associated with an enhanced FASN, and reduced MTP and CPT-1a genes. Tau supplementation prevented obesity and hepatic TG deposition by upregulating MTP mRNA, ameliorating hepatic lipid efflux, and consequently enhancing PPAR-α which increases lipid oxidation through ACO and CPT-1a gene expressions.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácidos Graxos/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fígado/metabolismo , Obesidade/prevenção & controle , Taurina/farmacologia , Animais , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Obesidade/metabolismo , Obesidade/patologia , Ratos , Ratos Wistar
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