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1.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32476401

RESUMO

Self-heating in light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) has been long overlooked, while it has a significant impact on (i) device chromaticity by changing the electroluminescent band shape, (ii) device efficiency because of thermal quenching and exciton dissociation reducing the external quantum efficiency (EQE), and (iii) device stability because of thermal degradation of excitons and eliminate doped species, phase separation, and collapse of the intrinsic emitting zone. Herein, we reveal, for the first time, a direct relationship between self-heating and the early changes in the device chromaticity as well as the magnitude of the error comparing theoretical/experimental EQEs-that is, an overestimation error of ca. 35% at usual pixel working temperatures of around 50 °C. This has been realized in LECs using a benchmark nanographene-that is, a substituted hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronene-as an emerging class of emitters with outstanding device performance compared to the prior art of small-molecule LECs-for example, luminances of 345 cd/m2 and EQEs of 0.35%. As such, this work is a fundamental contribution highlighting how self-heating is a critical limitation toward the optimization and wide use of LECs.

2.
Org Lett ; 22(11): 4283-4288, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32429668

RESUMO

We take advantage of the Pummerer oxidative annulation reaction to extend PAHs through the formation of an intramolecular C-O bond with a suitable phenol substituent. Depending on the peripheral topology of the PAH precursor (e.g., pyrene, boron-dipyrromethene, or perylene diimide) five-, six-, and seven-membered O-containing rings could be obtained. The effect of the O-annulations on the optoelectronic properties were studied by various methods with the pyrano-annulated pyrene and BODIPY derivatives depicting quantitative emission quantum yields.

3.
Chemistry ; 2020 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023358

RESUMO

In this work, a comprehensive account of the authors' synthetic efforts to prepare borazino-doped hexabenzocoronenes by using the Friedel-Crafts-type electrophilic aromatic substitution is reported. Hexafluoro-functionalized aryl borazines, bearing an ortho fluoride leaving group on each of the N- and B-aryl rings, was shown to lead to cascade-type electrophilic aromatic substitution events in the stepwise C-C bond formation, giving higher yields of borazinocoronenes than those obtained with borazine precursors bearing fluoride leaving groups at the ortho positions of the B-aryl substituents. By using this pathway, an unprecedented boroxadizine-doped PAH featuring a gulf-type periphery could be isolated, and its structure proven by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Mechanistic studies on the stepwise Friedel-Crafts-type cyclization suggest that the mechanism of the planarization reaction proceeds through extension of the π system. To appraise the doping effect of the boroxadizine unit on the optoelectronic properties of topology-equivalent molecular graphenes, the all-carbon and pyrylium PAH analogues, all featuring a gulf-type periphery, were also prepared. As already shown for the borazino-doped hexabenzocoronene, the replacement of the central benzene ring by its B3 N2 O congener widens the HOMO-LUMO gap and dramatically enhances the fluorescence quantum yield.

4.
J Org Chem ; 85(5): 3454-3464, 2020 Mar 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32027511

RESUMO

The replacement of carbon atoms at the zigzag periphery of a benzo[fg]tetracenyl derivative with an NBN atomic triad allows the formation of heteroatom-doped polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) isosteres, which expose BN mimics of the amidic NH functions. Their ability to form H-bonded complexes has never been touched so far. Herein, we report the first solution recognition studies of peripherally NBN-doped PAHs to form H-bonded DD·AA- and ADDA·DAAD-type complexes with suitable complementary H-bonding acceptor partners. The first determination of Ka in solution showed that the 1:1 association strength is around 27 ± 1 M-1 for the DD·AA complexes in C6D6, whereas it rises to 1820 ± 130 M-1 for the ADDA·DAAD array in CDCl3. Given the interest of BN-doped polyaromatic hydrocarbons in supramolecular and materials chemistry, it is expected that these findings will open new possibilities to design novel materials, where the H-bonding properties of peripheral NH hydrogens could serve as anchors to tailor the organizational properties of PAHs.

5.
Chemistry ; 26(13): 2904-2913, 2020 Mar 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31840314

RESUMO

The engineering of crystalline molecular solids through the simultaneous combination of distinctive non-covalent interactions is an important field of research, as it could allow chemist to prepare materials depicting multi-responsive properties. It is in this context that, pushed by a will to expand the chemical space of chalcogen-bonding interactions, a concept is put forward for which chalcogen- and halogen-bonding interactions can be used simultaneously to engineer multicomponent co-crystals. Through the rational design of crystallizable molecules, chalcogenazolo pyridine scaffold (CGP) modules were prepared that, bearing either a halogen-bond acceptor or donor at the 2-position, can interact with suitable complementary molecular modules undergoing formation of supramolecular polymers at the solid state. The recognition reliability of the CGP moiety to form chalcogen-bonded dimers allows the formation of heteromolecular supramolecular polymers through halogen-bonding interactions, as confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis.

6.
Nano Lett ; 19(11): 7681-7690, 2019 11 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31593477

RESUMO

We report on metal-assisted chemical etching of Si for the synthesis of mechanically stable, hybrid crystallographic orientation Si superstructures with high aspect ratio, above 200. This method sustains high etching rates and facilitates reproducible results. The protocol enables the control of the number, angle, and location of the kinks via successive etch-quench sequences. We analyzed relevant Au mask catalyst features to systematically assess their impact on a wide spectrum of etched morphologies that can be easily attained and customized by fine-tuning of the critical etching parameters. For instance, the designed kinked Si nanowires can be incorporated in biological cells without affecting their viability. An accessible numerical model is provided to explain the etch profiles and the physicochemical events at the Si/Au-electrolyte interface and offers guidelines for the development of finite-element modeling of metal-assisted Si chemical etching.

7.
Org Lett ; 21(22): 8957-8961, 2019 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647246

RESUMO

Reported herein is a dual nickel- and photoredox-catalyzed modular approach for the preparation of enantioenriched N-benzylic heterocycles. α-Heterocyclic carboxylic acids, easily obtainable from common commercial material, are reported as suitable substrates for a decarboxylative strategy in conjunction with a chiral pyridine-oxazoline (PyOx) ligand, providing quick access to enantioenriched drug-like products. The presence of a directing group on the heterocyclic moiety is shown to be beneficial, affording improved stereoselectivity in a number of cases.

8.
Chemistry ; 25(71): 16179-16200, 2019 Dec 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491049

RESUMO

Two-dimensional (2D) porous networks are of great interest for the fabrication of complex organized functional materials for potential applications in nanotechnologies and nanoelectronics. This review aims at providing an overview of bottom-up approaches towards the engineering of 2D porous networks by using biomacromolecules, with a particular focus on nucleic acids and proteins. The first part illustrates how the advancements in DNA nanotechnology allowed for the attainment of complex ordered porous two-dimensional DNA nanostructures, thanks to a biomimetic approach based on DNA molecules self-assembly through specific hydrogen-bond base pairing. The second part focuses the attention on how polypeptides and proteins structural properties could be used to engineer organized networks templating the formation of multifunctional materials. The structural organization of all examples is discussed as revealed by scanning probe microscopy or transmission electron microscopy imaging techniques.


Assuntos
DNA/química , Peptídeos/química , Proteínas/química , Ligação de Hidrogênio , Microscopia de Força Atômica , Nanoestruturas/química , Porosidade
9.
ACS Omega ; 4(5): 9343-9351, 2019 May 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31460023

RESUMO

Here we describe the synthesis and spectroscopic and structural characterization of various borazine-doped polyphenylenes displaying high doping dosages (16-18%). Capitalizing on the condensation reaction approach, the desired products were formed using a mixture of p-phenylendiamine and aniline with BCl3, followed by the addition of an aryl lithium derivative. The use of mesityl lithium (MesLi) yields strained multiborazine derivatives, which proved to be unstable in the presence of moisture. However, when xylyl lithium (XylLi) was used, chemically stable multiborazines were obtained, with oligomers showing molecular weight up to 104, corresponding to 16-18 monomer units. While the dimer, trimer, and tetramer could be isolated as pure products and their structure characterized by mass and NMR analysis, higher oligomers could only be isolated as mixtures of B-hydroxy-substituted derivatives and characterized by gel permeation chromatography. The structures of the dimer and trimer derivatives were confirmed by X-ray analysis, which nicely showed the presence of the two and three borazine rings spaced by one and two 1,4-aryl bridges, respectively. Notably, the trimer forms a porous crystalline clathrate. The peripheral xylyl and phenyl moieties of each molecule intramolecularly embrace each other through C-H and π-π stacking interactions. Steady-state UV-vis absorption characterization suggested that the molecules are UV absorbers, with the extinction coefficient linearly scaling with the degree of oligomerization. On the other hand, low-emission quantum yields were obtained for all derivatives (<7%), suggesting that high BN-doping dosages dramatically affect the emission properties of the doped polyphenylenes.

10.
J Org Chem ; 84(14): 9101-9116, 2019 Jul 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31282157

RESUMO

In this paper, we describe synthetic routes for preparing a novel switchable BNC-based chromophore, composed of a borazine core peripherally functionalized with azobenzene moieties. Capitalizing on the Pd-catalyzed Suzuki cross-coupling reaction between a tris-triflate borazine and an organoboron azobenzene derivative, a photoswtichable azo-borazine derivative was successfully prepared. The molecule showed reversible E/Z photoisomerization upon irradiation at the maximum of the intense π-π* absorption feature (360 nm). X-ray crystallographic investigations revealed a nonplanar orientation of the three azobenzene moieties and the trans configuration of the -N═N- bonds. Building on the synthetic versatility of the borazine-azobenzene derivative, we used this photoactive scaffold to engineer soluble BN-doped polythiophene polymers. Photophysical characterization performed in solvents of different polarity suggested that the polymer undergoes intramolecular charge transfer (ICT).

11.
J Phys Chem C Nanomater Interfaces ; 123(12): 7151-7157, 2019 Mar 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30949275

RESUMO

We report on the self-assembly of a conformational flexible organic compound on Au(111) using scanning tunneling microscopy and low-energy electron diffraction measurements. We observed different conformers of the compound upon adsorption on the reconstructed Au(111) surface. Increasing the molecular coverage enhanced the lateral pressure, that is, parallel to the surface, favoring a coverage-controlled transition from a supramolecular network displaying only one molecular organization, into a polymorphic array with two coexisting arrangements. Our results give insights into the role of substrate-induced conformational changes on the formation of polymorphic supramolecular networks.

12.
Chempluschem ; 84(9): 1270-1278, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944054

RESUMO

The preparation and characterisation of a novel three-dimensional organic material consisting of porphyrin arrays on carbon nanotubes embedded in an organogel is reported. Firstly, the porphyrin array was prepared through metal-ligand coordination of a ditopic ligand (1,2-bis(4-pyridyl)ethane) and two bis-Zn(II) porphyrins, linked through a pyrene core, and was studied through UV-Vis, NMR and diffusion spectroscopies. Secondly, the porphyrin supramolecular architecture was adsorbed on pristine carbon nanotubes, greatly improving the dispersibility of the latter in organic solvents. The hybrid material was characterised by means of UV-Vis spectroscopy, microscopic techniques and thermogravimetric analysis. Finally, by exploiting the anisotropic magnetic susceptibility of carbon nanotubes, the hybrid material was aligned under a magnetic field, the organisation of which could be maintained by in situ gelation. The resultant hybrid organogel exhibited notable optical anisotropy, suggesting an anisotropic arrangement of the porphyrin-CNTs architectures in the macroscopic material.

13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31889372

RESUMO

Herein we report an efficient synthesis to prepare O-doped nanographenes derived from the π-extension of pyrene. The derivatives are highly fluorescent and feature low oxidation potentials. Using electrooxidation, crystals of cationic mixed-valence (MV) complexes were grown in which the organic salts organize into face-to-face π-stacks, a favorable solid-state arrangement for organic electronics. Variable-temperature electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurements and relaxation studies suggest a strong electron delocalization along the longitudinal axis of the columnar π-stacking architectures. Electric measurements of single crystals of the MV salts show a semiconducting behavior with a remarkably high conductivity at room temperature. These findings support the notion that π-extension of heteroatom-doped polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons is an attractive approach to fabricate nanographenes with a broad spectrum of semiconducting properties and high charge mobilities.

14.
Chempluschem ; 84(9): 1177-1178, 2019 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31944033

RESUMO

Appealing properties: ChemPlusChem is proud to present its Special Issue on π-Conjugated Molecules and their Applications, guest-edited by Paolo Samorí, Xinliang Feng, and Davide Bonifazi. It contains both research and review articles that feature some of the most enlightening approaches on the synthesis of novel conjugated (macro)molecules, and highlights their special chemical and physical properties arising from the π-conjugation, as well as their processing and self-assembly at surfaces and interfaces, and integration into a range of devices.

15.
J Org Chem ; 83(22): 13787-13798, 2018 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30354131

RESUMO

The tailored synthesis of homo (A2) and hetero (AB) N-substituted peri-xanthenoxanthene diimides (PXXDIs) and peri-functionalized PXX monoimides (PXXMIs) from 3-hydroxy naphthalic anhydride is described. As A2-type PXXDIs could be synthesized in one step, AB-type PXXDIs and PXXMIs were prepared through a modular approach capitalizing on sequential Suzuki coupling, imidation, and Pummerer reactions with very high yields. In view of their potential applications as organic semiconductors, self-organization studies were performed through liquid deposition on surfaces, depicting the formation of islands, needles, and rods.

16.
Chemistry ; 24(60): 16136-16148, 2018 Oct 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30133049

RESUMO

The use of a template that bears pre-programmed receptor sites for selectively accommodating chromophores at given positions is an attractive approach for engineering artificial-light-harvesting systems. Indulging this line of thought, this work tackles the creation of tailored antenna architectures with yellow, red and blue chromophores, exploiting three dynamic covalent reactions simultaneously, namely disulfide exchange, acyl hydrazone, and boronic ester formations. The effect of various structural modifications, such as the chromophores as well as their spatial organization (distance, orientation, order) on the energy transfer within the antennas was studied by means of steady-state UV/Vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopies. This systematic study allowed for a significant improvement of the energy-transfer efficiencies to a noticeable 22 and 15 % for the yellow and red donors, respectively, across the chromophores to the blue acceptor. Metadynamics simulations suggested that the conformational properties of the antennas are driven by intramolecular chromophoric stacking interactions that, upon forcing the α-helix to fold on itself, annul any effects deriving from the programming of the spatial arrangement of the receptor sides in the peptide backbone.


Assuntos
Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Complexos de Proteínas Captadores de Luz/química , Peptídeos/química , Ácidos Borônicos/química , Dissulfetos/química , Transferência de Energia , Ésteres/química , Hidrazonas/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas , Luz , Conformação Molecular , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Fotossíntese , Solventes
17.
Sci Rep ; 8(1): 9794, 2018 Jun 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29955101

RESUMO

A tri-dimensional interweaving kinked silicon nanowires (k-SiNWs) assembly, with a Ni current collector co-integrated, is evaluated as electrode configuration for lithium ion batteries. The large-scale fabrication of k-SiNWs is based on a procedure for continuous metal assisted chemical etching of Si, supported by a chemical peeling step that enables the reuse of the Si substrate. The kinks are triggered by a simple, repetitive etch-quench sequence in a HF and H2O2-based etchant. We find that the inter-locking frameworks of k-SiNWs and multi-walled carbon nanotubes exhibit beneficial mechanical properties with a foam-like behavior amplified by the kinks and a suitable porosity for a minimal electrode deformation upon Li insertion. In addition, ionic liquid electrolyte systems associated with the integrated Ni current collector repress the detrimental effects related to the Si-Li alloying reaction, enabling high cycling stability with 80% capacity retention (1695 mAh/gSi) after 100 cycles. Areal capacities of 2.42 mAh/cm2 (1276 mAh/gelectrode) can be achieved at the maximum evaluated thickness (corresponding to 1.3 mgSi/cm2). This work emphasizes the versatility of the metal assisted chemical etching for the synthesis of advanced Si nanostructures for high performance lithium ion battery electrodes.

18.
Angew Chem Int Ed Engl ; 57(29): 8942-8946, 2018 Jul 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29732664

RESUMO

The synthesis of a zig-zag oxygen-doped molecular rhombic ribbon has been achieved. This includes oxidative C-C and C-O bond formations that allowed the stepwise elongation and planarization of an oxa-congener of 2,7-periacenoacene. X-ray diffraction analysis corroborated the flat structure and the zig-zag topology of the O-doped edges. Photophysical and electrochemical investigations showed that the extension of the peri-xanthenoxanthene (PXX) into the molecular ribbon induces a noticeable shrinking of the molecular band gap devised by a rising of the HOMO energy level, a desirable property for p-type organic semiconductors.

19.
J Phys Chem A ; 122(23): 5142-5152, 2018 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29786443

RESUMO

The nonlinear optical response of some O-doped polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is systematically investigated in the present work aiming to understand the influence of structural effects on their nonlinear optical response. In that view, the third-order nonlinear optical properties of these PAHs were measured under 4 ns visible (532 nm) and infrared (1064 nm) laser excitation. The O-doped PAHs were found to exhibit large saturable absorption and negative sign nonlinear refraction under visible excitation, increasing both with the addition of naphthalene units and with the number of O atoms. Their nonlinear optical response was found to be negligible under infrared excitation. Similar measurements performed on thin films of these PAHs have shown that they maintain their large nonlinear optical response even in the solid state, confirming their high potential for optoelectronic and photonic applications.

20.
Chemistry ; 24(38): 9565-9571, 2018 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29701892

RESUMO

We report on the synthesis of pyridine-terminated borazine derivatives, their molecular self-assembly as well as the electronic properties investigated on silver and copper surfaces by means of scanning tunneling microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The introduction of pyridine functionalities allows us to achieve distinct supramolecular architectures with control of the interdigitation of the molecules by surface templating. On silver surfaces, the borazine derivatives arrange in a dense-packed hexagonal structure through van der Waals and H-bonding interactions, whereas on Cu(111), the molecules undergo metal coordination. The porosity and coordination symmetry of the reticulated structure depends on the stoichiometric ratio between copper adatoms and the borazine ligands, permitting an unusual three-fold coordinated Cu-pyridyl network. Finally, spectroscopy measurements indicate that the borazine core is electronically decoupled from the metallic substrate. We thus demonstrate that BNC-containing molecular units can be integrated into stable metal-coordination architectures on surfaces, opening pathways to patterned, BN-doped sheets with specific functionalities, for example, regarding the adsorption of polar guest gases.

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