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1.
J Clin Immunol ; 39(1): 81-89, 2019 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30607663

RESUMO

The association of immunodeficiency-related vaccine-derived rubella virus (iVDRV) with cutaneous and visceral granulomatous disease has been reported in patients with primary immunodeficiency disorders (PIDs). The majority of these PID patients with rubella-positive granulomas had DNA repair disorders. To support this line of inquiry, we provide additional descriptive data on seven previously reported patients with Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) (n = 3) and ataxia telangiectasia (AT) (n = 4) as well as eight previously unreported patients with iVDRV-induced cutaneous granulomas and DNA repair disorders including NBS (n = 1), AT (n = 5), DNA ligase 4 deficiency (n = 1), and Artemis deficiency (n = 1). We also provide descriptive data on several previously unreported PID patients with iVDRV-induced cutaneous granulomas including cartilage hair hypoplasia (n = 1), warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, immunodeficiency, myelokathexis (WHIM) syndrome (n = 1), MHC class II deficiency (n = 1), Coronin-1A deficiency (n = 1), X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID) (n = 1), and combined immunodeficiency without a molecular diagnosis (n = 1). At the time of this report, the median age of the patients with skin granulomas and DNA repair disorders was 9 years (range 3-18). Cutaneous granulomas have been documented in all, while visceral granulomas were observed in six cases (40%). All patients had received rubella virus vaccine. The median duration of time elapsed from vaccination to the development of cutaneous granulomas was 48 months (range 2-152). Hematopoietic cell transplantation was reported to result in scarring resolution of cutaneous granulomas in two patients with NBS, one patient with AT, one patient with Artemis deficiency, one patient with DNA Ligase 4 deficiency, one patient with MHC class II deficiency, and one patient with combined immunodeficiency without a known molecular etiology. Of the previously reported and unreported cases, the majority share the diagnosis of a DNA repair disorder. Analysis of additional patients with this complication may clarify determinants of rubella pathogenesis, identify specific immune defects resulting in chronic infection, and may lead to defect-specific therapies.

2.
PLoS Pathog ; 14(7): e1007076, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30059535

RESUMO

Phosphate is an essential macronutrient required for cell growth and division. Pho84 is the major high-affinity cell-surface phosphate importer of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and a crucial element in the phosphate homeostatic system of this model yeast. We found that loss of Candida albicans Pho84 attenuated virulence in Drosophila and murine oropharyngeal and disseminated models of invasive infection, and conferred hypersensitivity to neutrophil killing. Susceptibility of cells lacking Pho84 to neutrophil attack depended on reactive oxygen species (ROS): pho84-/- cells were no more susceptible than wild type C. albicans to neutrophils from a patient with chronic granulomatous disease, or to those whose oxidative burst was pharmacologically inhibited or neutralized. pho84-/- mutants hyperactivated oxidative stress signalling. They accumulated intracellular ROS in the absence of extrinsic oxidative stress, in high as well as low ambient phosphate conditions. ROS accumulation correlated with diminished levels of the unique superoxide dismutase Sod3 in pho84-/- cells, while SOD3 overexpression from a conditional promoter substantially restored these cells' oxidative stress resistance in vitro. Repression of SOD3 expression sharply increased their oxidative stress hypersensitivity. Neither of these oxidative stress management effects of manipulating SOD3 transcription was observed in PHO84 wild type cells. Sod3 levels were not the only factor driving oxidative stress effects on pho84-/- cells, though, because overexpressing SOD3 did not ameliorate these cells' hypersensitivity to neutrophil killing ex vivo, indicating Pho84 has further roles in oxidative stress resistance and virulence. Measurement of cellular metal concentrations demonstrated that diminished Sod3 expression was not due to decreased import of its metal cofactor manganese, as predicted from the function of S. cerevisiae Pho84 as a low-affinity manganese transporter. Instead of a role of Pho84 in metal transport, we found its role in TORC1 activation to impact oxidative stress management: overexpression of the TORC1-activating GTPase Gtr1 relieved the Sod3 deficit and ROS excess in pho84-/- null mutant cells, though it did not suppress their hypersensitivity to neutrophil killing or hyphal growth defect. Pharmacologic inhibition of Pho84 by small molecules including the FDA-approved drug foscarnet also induced ROS accumulation. Inhibiting Pho84 could hence support host defenses by sensitizing C. albicans to oxidative stress.

3.
Blood ; 131(21): 2335-2344, 2018 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29653965

RESUMO

Integrity of the T-cell receptor/CD3 complex is crucial for positive and negative selection of T cells in the thymus and for effector and regulatory functions of peripheral T lymphocytes. In humans, CD3D, CD3E, and CD3Z gene defects are a cause of severe immune deficiency and present early in life with increased susceptibility to infections. By contrast, CD3G mutations lead to milder phenotypes, mainly characterized by autoimmunity. However, the role of CD3γ in establishing and maintaining immune tolerance has not been elucidated. In this manuscript, we aimed to investigate abnormalities of T-cell repertoire and function in patients with genetic defects in CD3G associated with autoimmunity. High throughput sequencing was used to study composition and diversity of the T-cell receptor ß (TRB) repertoire in regulatory T cells (Tregs), conventional CD4+ (Tconv), and CD8+ T cells from 6 patients with CD3G mutations and healthy controls. Treg function was assessed by studying its ability to suppress proliferation of Tconv cells. Treg cells of patients with CD3G defects had reduced diversity, increased clonality, and reduced suppressive function. The TRB repertoire of Tconv cells from patients with CD3G deficiency was enriched for hydrophobic amino acids at positions 6 and 7 of the CDR3, a biomarker of self-reactivity. These data demonstrate that the T-cell repertoire of patients with CD3G mutations is characterized by a molecular signature that may contribute to the increased rate of autoimmunity associated with this condition.

4.
Front Immunol ; 9: 450, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29576764

RESUMO

[This corrects the article on p. 586 in vol. 8, PMID: 28588580.].

5.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 141(2): 474-481, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29288077

RESUMO

Vaccines were originally developed to prevent or ameliorate infectious disease. As knowledge of immune function and appreciation of immunodeficiency has developed, researchers have used vaccine responses as a tool to characterize the phenotypes of patients exhibiting various syndromes. Thus it has become possible for a clinician to evaluate individual responses to vaccines to interrogate the immunocompetence of their patients. Although there have been many advances in these areas, we still have much to learn about the quantity and quality of humoral and cellular vaccine responses in healthy and immunodeficient subjects and how that knowledge can then be extrapolated to diagnostic purposes. Adverse effects of vaccines have been recognized for many years, especially the occurrence of infections caused by viable vaccine organisms in immunodeficient hosts. Nevertheless, vaccines are essential for disease prevention in immunodeficient patients, just as they are for healthy subjects. Clinicians must understand the appropriate and safe use of vaccines in patients with immunodeficiency. This review highlights some recent advances and ongoing challenges in application of vaccines for the diagnosis and treatment of immunodeficiencies.

6.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 141(3): 1028-1035, 2018 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28606585

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We evaluated the overall and site-specific incidence of cancer in subjects with primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDD) enrolled in the United States Immune Deficiency Network (USIDNET) registry compared with age-adjusted cancer incidence in the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results Program (SEER) database. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that subjects with PIDD would have an increased incidence of cancer due to impaired immune function. METHODS: Overall and site-specific cancer incidence rates were evaluated in subjects with PIDD (n = 3658) enrolled in the USIDNET registry from 2003 to 2015 and compared with age-adjusted incidence rates in the SEER database. RESULTS: We observed a 1.42-fold excess relative risk of cancer in subjects with PIDD compared with the age-adjusted SEER population (P < .001). Men with PIDD had a 1.91-fold excess relative risk of cancer compared with the age-adjusted male population (P < .001), while women with PIDD had similar overall cancer rates compared with the age-adjusted female population. Of the 4 most common malignancies in men and women in SEER (lung, colon, breast, and prostate cancers), we found no significant increase in these diagnoses in subjects with PIDD. Significant increases in lymphoma in both men (10-fold increase, P < .001) and women (8.34-fold increase, P < .001) with PIDD were observed. CONCLUSIONS: Excess incidence of cancer occurred in subjects with PIDD. An excess of lymphoma in specific PIDD populations principally drove this increased incidence, while no increased risk of the most common solid tumor malignancies was observed. These data point to a restricted role of the immune system in protecting from specific cancers.

7.
Front Immunol ; 8: 586, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28588580

RESUMO

Specific antibody deficiency (SAD) is a primary immunodeficiency disease characterized by normal immunoglobulins (Igs), IgA, IgM, total IgG, and IgG subclass levels, but with recurrent infection and diminished antibody responses to polysaccharide antigens following vaccination. There is a lack of consensus regarding the diagnosis and treatment of SAD, and its clinical significance is not well understood. Here, we discuss current evidence and challenges regarding the diagnosis and treatment of SAD. SAD is normally diagnosed by determining protective titers in response to the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. However, the definition of an adequate response to immunization remains controversial, including the magnitude of response and number of pneumococcal serotypes needed to determine a normal response. Confounding these issues, anti-polysaccharide antibody responses are age- and probably serotype dependent. Therapeutic strategies and options for patients with SAD are often based on clinical experience due to the lack of focused studies and absence of a robust case definition. The mainstay of therapy for patients with SAD is antibiotic prophylaxis. However, there is no consensus regarding the frequency and severity of infections warranting antibiotic prophylaxis and no standardized regimens and no studies of efficacy. Published expert guidelines and opinions have recommended IgG therapy, which are supported by observations from retrospective studies, although definitive data are lacking. In summary, there is currently a lack of evidence regarding the efficacy of therapeutic strategies for patients with SAD. We believe that it is best to approach each patient as an individual and progress through diagnostic and therapeutic interventions together with existing practice guidelines.

8.
J Clin Immunol ; 37(3): 287-294, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28236219

RESUMO

PURPOSE: X-linked agammaglobulinemia is a primary humoral immunodeficiency characterized by hypogammaglobulinemia and increased susceptibility to infection. Although there is increased awareness of autoimmune and inflammatory complications in X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA), the spectrum of gastrointestinal manifestations has not previously been fully explored. METHODS: We present a case report of a family with two affected patients with XLA. Given the gastrointestinal involvement of the grandfather in this family, we performed a retrospective descriptive analysis of XLA patients with reported diagnoses of GI manifestations and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or enteritis registered at the United States Immunodeficiency Network, a national registry of primary immunodeficiencies. RESULTS: In this cohort of patients with XLA, we found that up to 35% had concurrent gastrointestinal manifestations, and 10% had reported diagnoses of IBD or enteritis. The most commonly reported mutations were missense, which have been associated with a less severe XLA phenotype in the literature. The severity of symptoms were wide ranging, and management strategies were diverse and mainly experimental. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with XLA may require close monitoring with particular attention for GI manifestations including IBD and infectious enteritis. Further studies are needed to improve diagnosis and management of GI conditions in XLA patients.


Assuntos
Agamaglobulinemia/diagnóstico , Trato Gastrointestinal/patologia , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/diagnóstico , Agamaglobulinemia/complicações , Agamaglobulinemia/terapia , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores , Gastroenteropatias/diagnóstico , Gastroenteropatias/etiologia , Estudos de Associação Genética , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/complicações , Doenças Genéticas Ligadas ao Cromossomo X/terapia , Humanos , Isotipos de Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Imunofenotipagem , Lactente , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/imunologia , Subpopulações de Linfócitos/metabolismo , Masculino , Mutação , Linhagem , Fenótipo
11.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 139(4): 1282-1292, 2017 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27697500

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome (XHIGM) is a primary immunodeficiency with high morbidity and mortality compared with those seen in healthy subjects. Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) has been considered a curative therapy, but the procedure has inherent complications and might not be available for all patients. OBJECTIVES: We sought to collect data on the clinical presentation, treatment, and follow-up of a large sample of patients with XHIGM to (1) compare long-term overall survival and general well-being of patients treated with or without HCT along with clinical factors associated with mortality and (2) summarize clinical practice and risk factors in the subgroup of patients treated with HCT. METHODS: Physicians caring for patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases were identified through the Jeffrey Modell Foundation, United States Immunodeficiency Network, Latin American Society for Immunodeficiency, and Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium. Data were collected with a Research Electronic Data Capture Web application. Survival from time of diagnosis or transplantation was estimated by using the Kaplan-Meier method compared with log-rank tests and modeled by using proportional hazards regression. RESULTS: Twenty-eight clinical sites provided data on 189 patients given a diagnosis of XHIGM between 1964 and 2013; 176 had valid follow-up and vital status information. Sixty-seven (38%) patients received HCT. The average follow-up time was 8.5 ± 7.2 years (range, 0.1-36.2 years). No difference in overall survival was observed between patients treated with or without HCT (P = .671). However, risk associated with HCT decreased for diagnosis years 1987-1995; the hazard ratio was significantly less than 1 for diagnosis years 1995-1999. Liver disease was a significant predictor of overall survival (hazard ratio, 4.9; 95% confidence limits, 2.2-10.8; P < .001). Among survivors, those treated with HCT had higher median Karnofsky/Lansky scores than those treated without HCT (P < .001). Among patients receiving HCT, 27 (40%) had graft-versus-host disease, and most deaths occurred within 1 year of transplantation. CONCLUSION: No difference in survival was observed between patients treated with or without HCT across all diagnosis years (1964-2013). However, survivors treated with HCT experienced somewhat greater well-being, and hazards associated with HCT decreased, reaching levels of significantly less risk in the late 1990s. Among patients treated with HCT, treatment at an early age is associated with improved survival. Optimism remains guarded as additional evidence accumulates.


Assuntos
Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/mortalidade , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência com Hiper-IgM/mortalidade , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência com Hiper-IgM/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Lactente , Estimativa de Kaplan-Meier , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , Estudos Retrospectivos , Tempo , Adulto Jovem
12.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 37(6): 426-431, 2016 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27931296

RESUMO

Human polyclonal immunoglobulin G (IgG) for therapeutic use has been available for decades. This drug was developed for treatment of antibody deficiency (replacement therapy), although its use has expanded into many anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory applications in recent years. This review focuses on IgG prescribing for replacement therapy. IgG for replacement is most often administered via the intravenous IgG (IVIG) or subcutaneous IgG (SCIG) routes. IVIG is usually administered every 34 weeks, and SCIG is usually administered weekly, although variations may be considered in all cases. Recently, a new product became available that uses hyaluronidase to facilitate absorption of large doses of SCIG less frequently (every 34 weeks, as with IVIG). There are important differences between the pharmacokinetics of these three routes of administration. IVIG therapy leads to high peaks and low troughs between infusions. IgG concentration fluctuates much less over time with SCIG. Hyaluronidase-facilitated SCIG is intermediate. SCIG may have lower bioavailability in comparison with IVIG and may require higher doses over time; this is not true for hyaluronidase SCIG. However, there are large variations in IgG half-life among individuals and with different products. Therefore, individualization of therapy is essential. Mild systemic flu-like adverse effects may affect up to 2025% of patients who receive IVIG, smaller fractions may experience more-severe symptoms, whereas anaphylaxis is exceedingly rare. General flu-like systemic adverse effects are minimal with SCIG (intermediate with hyaluronidase SCIG), but transient (24 hours), mild, local inflammatory symptoms at infusion sites are relatively common with both forms. Additional rare but important complications of IgG therapy include thrombotic events and hemolysis that can be seen at high doses with any route of administration. Renal adverse effects may occur with IVIG as well. The variety of IgG products and routes of administration available today creates many opportunities for physicians to work with patients to find the optimal therapy for all.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulina G/administração & dosagem , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/terapia , Monitoramento de Medicamentos , Humanos , Imunoglobulina G/efeitos adversos , Imunoglobulinas Intravenosas , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/diagnóstico , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/etiologia , Injeções Subcutâneas , Qualidade de Vida , Resultado do Tratamento
13.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 4(6): 1066-1075, 2016 Nov - Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27836056

RESUMO

Immunocompromised patients have increased susceptibility to vaccine-preventable infections. Thus, vaccination is a critical issue in this population. Vaccines are usually classified as live versus inactivated or subunit (nonviable) vaccines. In general, inactivated vaccines are safe in immunocompromised patients and should be given per the routine schedule except when they are unlikely to have any benefit as in severe antibody deficiency or combined immunodeficient patients and patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy or immunoglobulin replacement. However, viable vaccines usually carry the risk of causing disease, especially in severely immunocompromised patients. Therefore, much greater caution must be exercised with the use of viable vaccines and administration is individualized on the basis of the estimated risk of infections if not vaccinated versus the potential adverse effects of the vaccine itself. In this review, we make clear recommendations on the basis of available evidence regarding both routine and specialized vaccines, viable and nonviable, and the degree of immune compromise in all the categories of immunodeficiency disorders.


Assuntos
Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/terapia , Vacinação , Humanos , Vacinas de Produtos Inativados/uso terapêutico , Vacinas Vivas não Atenuadas/uso terapêutico
15.
J Clin Immunol ; 36(5): 490-501, 2016 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27189378

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The United States Immunodeficiency Network (USIDNET) patient registry was used to characterize the presentation, genetics, phenotypes, and treatment of patients with Hyper IgM Syndrome (HIGM). METHODS: The USIDNET Registry was queried for HIGM patient data collected from October 1992 to July 2015. Data fields included demographics, criteria for diagnosis, pedigree analysis, mutations, clinical features, treatment and transplant records, laboratory findings, and mortality. RESULTS: Fifty-two physicians entered data from 145 patients of ages 2 months to 62 years (median 12 years); 131 were males. Using patients' age at last entry, data from 2072 patient years are included. Mutations were recorded for 85 subjects; 82 were in CD40LG. Eighteen subjects had non-X-linked HIGM. 40 % had a normal serum IgM and 15 %, normal IgA. Infections were reported for 91 %, with pulmonary, ear, and sinus infections being the most common. 42 % had Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia; 6 % had Cryptosporidium. 41 % had neutropenia. 78 % experienced non-infectious complications: chronic diarrhea (n = 22), aphthous ulcers (n = 28), and neoplasms (n = 8) including colon cancer, adrenal adenoma, liver adenocarcinoma, pancreatic carcinoid, acute myeloid leukemia, hepatoma, and, in a female with an autosomal dominant gain of function mutation in PIK3CD, an ovarian dysgerminoma. Thirteen patients had a hematopoietic marrow or stem cell transplant; three had solid organ transplants. Thirteen were known to have died (median age = 14 years). CONCLUSIONS: Analysis of the USIDNET Registry provides data on the common clinical features of this rare syndrome, and in contrast with previously published data, demonstrates longer survival times and reduced gastrointestinal manifestations.


Assuntos
Ligante de CD40/genética , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência com Hiper-IgM/genética , Mutação/genética , Sistema de Registros , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia , Feminino , Humanos , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência com Hiper-IgM/mortalidade , Síndrome de Imunodeficiência com Hiper-IgM/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neutropenia , Análise de Sobrevida , Estados Unidos , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 136(5): 1186-205.e1-78, 2015 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26371839

RESUMO

The American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (AAAAI) and the American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology (ACAAI) have jointly accepted responsibility for establishing the "Practice parameter for the diagnosis and management of primary immunodeficiency." This is a complete and comprehensive document at the current time. The medical environment is a changing environment, and not all recommendations will be appropriate for all patients. Because this document incorporated the efforts of many participants, no single individual, including those who served on the Joint Task Force, is authorized to provide an official AAAAI or ACAAI interpretation of these practice parameters. Any request for information about or an interpretation of these practice parameters by the AAAAI or ACAAI should be directed to the Executive Offices of the AAAAI, the ACAAI, and the Joint Council of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. These parameters are not designed for use by pharmaceutical companies in drug promotion.


Assuntos
Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/diagnóstico , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/terapia , Comitês Consultivos , Animais , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Gerenciamento Clínico , Medicina Baseada em Evidências , Humanos
18.
J Clin Immunol ; 35(6): 558-65, 2015 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26336818

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Hizentra® (IGSC 20%) is a 20% liquid IgG product approved for subcutaneous administration in adults and children 2 years of age and older who have primary immunodeficiency disease (PIDD). There is limited information about the use of IGSC 20 % in very young children including those less than 5 years of age. METHODS: A retrospective chart review involved 88 PIDD infants and children less than 5 years of age who received Hizentra®. RESULTS: The mean age at the start of Hizentra® was 34 months (range 2 to 59 months). IGSC 20 % was administered weekly to 86 infants (two additional infants received twice weekly and three times weekly infusions, respectively) and included an average of 63 infusions (range 6-182) for an observation period up to 45.5 months. Infusion by manual delivery occurred in 15 patients. The mean dose was 674 mg/kg/4 weeks. The mean IgG level was 942 mg/dL while on IGSC 20 %, compared to a mean trough IgG level of 794 mg/dL (p < 0.0001) during intravenous or subcutaneous IgG administration prior to IGSC 20 %. Average infusion time was 47 (range 5-120) minutes, and the median number of infusion sites was 2 (range 1-4). Local reactions were mostly mild and observed in 36/88 (41%) children. No serious adverse events were reported. A significant increase in weight percentile (7 % ± 19.2, p = 0.0012) among subjects was observed during IGSC 20% administration. The rate of serious bacterial infections was 0.067 per patient-year while receiving IGSC 20%, similar to previously reported efficacy studies. CONCLUSIONS: Hizentra® is effective in preventing infections, and is well tolerated in children less than age 5 years.


Assuntos
Imunoglobulina G/administração & dosagem , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/terapia , Adulto , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Síndromes de Imunodeficiência/imunologia , Lactente , Injeções Subcutâneas , Masculino , Estudos Retrospectivos , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos
19.
PLoS One ; 10(4): e0121489, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25849362

RESUMO

Omenn syndrome is a primary immunodeficiency disorder, featuring susceptibility to infections and autoreactive T cells and resulting from defective genomic rearrangement of genes for the T cell and B cell receptors. The most frequent etiologies are hypomorphic mutations in "non-core" regions of the Rag1 or Rag2 genes, the protein products of which are critical members of the cellular apparatus for V(D)J recombination. In this report, we describe an infant with Omenn syndrome with a previously unreported termination mutation (p.R142*) in Rag1 on one allele and a partially characterized substitution mutation (p.V779M) in a "core" region of the other Rag1 allele. Using a cellular recombination assay, we found that while the p.R142* mutation completely abolished V(D)J recombination activity, the p.V779M mutation conferred a severe, but not total, loss of V(D)J recombination activity. The recombination defect of the V779 mutant was not due to overall misfolding of Rag1, however, as this mutant supported wild-type levels of V(D)J cleavage. These findings provide insight into the role of this poorly understood region of Rag1 and support the role of Rag1 in a post-cleavage stage of recombination.


Assuntos
Alelos , Heterozigoto , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/genética , Substituição de Aminoácidos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Proteínas de Homeodomínio/metabolismo , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Proteólise , Recombinação Genética , Imunodeficiência Combinada Severa/metabolismo
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