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1.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 2019 Nov 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682074

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Memory stem T cells (TSCM ) are long living self-renewing T cells, which play a relevant role in immunological memory. We investigated whether TSCM might accumulate in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). METHODS: The polarization and differentiation profiles of circulating T cells were assessed by flow cytometry. Antigen specific T cells were characterized upon staining with MHC Class II Tetramers. T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire was high-throughput sequenced using an unbiased RNA-based approach in FACS-sorted CD4+ T-cell subpopulations. RESULTS: We analyzed the dynamics of circulating TSCM (identified as CD45RA+ CD62L+ CD95+ T cells) by flow cytometry in 27 RA patients, 16 of which were also studied during treatment with the anti-TNFα agent Etanercept. Age-matched healthy donors were used as controls. CD4+ TSCM cells were selectively and significantly expanded in RA patients in terms of frequency and absolute counts, and significantly contracted upon anti-TNFα treatment. Expanded CD4+ TSCM displayed a prevalent TH17 phenotype and a skewed TCR repertoire in RA patients, with the 10 most abundant clones representing up to 53.7% of the detected sequences. CD4+ lymphocytes specific for a citrullinated vimentine epitope (VimCit ) were expanded in RA patients with active disease. TSCM accounted for a large fraction of VimCit specific CD4+ cells. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that TSCM , including expanded clones specific for relevant autoantigens, accumulate in RA patients not exposed to biologic agents, and might be involved in the natural history of the disease. Further analysis of TSCM dynamics in autoimmune disorders may have implications for the design and efficacy assessment of innovative therapies.

2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31455899

RESUMO

Information on incidence, and factors associated with mortality is a prerequisite to improve outcome after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Therefore, 55'668 deaths in 114'491 patients with HSCT (83.7% allogeneic) for leukemia were investigated in a landmark analysis for causes of death at day 30 (very early), day 100 (early), at 1 year (intermediate) and at 5 years (late). Mortality from all causes decreased from cohort 1 (1980-2001) to cohort 2 (2002-2015) in all post-transplant phases after autologous HSCT. After allogeneic HSCT, mortality from infections, GVHD, and toxicity decreased up to 1 year, increased at 5 years; deaths from relapse increased in all post-transplant phases. Infections of unknown origin were the main cause of infectious deaths. Lethal bacterial and fungal infections decreased from cohort 1 to cohort 2, not unknown or mixed infections. Infectious deaths were associated with patient-, disease-, donor type, stem cell source, center, and country- related factors. Their impact varied over the post-transplant phases. Transplant centres have successfully managed to reduce death after HSCT in the early and intermediate post-transplant phases, and have identified risk factors. Late post-transplant care could be improved by focus on groups at risk and better identification of infections of "unknown origin".

3.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 54(11): 1868-1880, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31092900

RESUMO

On August 30, 2017, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (US-FDA) approved tisagenlecleucel (KYMRIAH, Novartis, Basel, Switzerland), a synthetic bioimmune product of anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor-T cells (CAR-T), for the treatment of children and young adults with relapsed/refractory B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). With this new era of personalized cancer immunotherapy, multiple challenges are present ranging from implementation of a CAR-T program to safe delivery of the drug, long-term toxicity monitoring and disease assessments. To address these issues, experts representing the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplant (ASBMT), the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT), the International Society of Cell and Gene Therapy (ISCT), and the Foundation for the Accreditation of Cellular Therapy (FACT), formed a global CAR-T task force to identify and address key questions pertinent for hematologists and transplant physicians regarding the clinical use of anti CD19 CAR-T therapy in patients with B-ALL. This article presents an initial roadmap for navigating common clinical practice scenarios that will become more prevalent now that the first commercially available CAR-T product for B-ALL has been approved.

4.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 54(10): 1525-1552, 2019 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30953028

RESUMO

This is the seventh special EBMT report on the indications for haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for haematological diseases, solid tumours and immune disorders. Our aim is to provide general guidance on transplant indications according to prevailing clinical practice in EBMT countries and centres. In order to inform patient decisions, these recommendations must be considered together with the risk of the disease, the risk of the transplant procedure and the results of non-transplant strategies. In over two decades since the first report, the EBMT indications manuscripts have incorporated changes in transplant practice coming from scientific and technical developments in the field. In this same period, the establishment of JACIE accreditation has promoted high quality and led to improved outcomes of patient and donor care and laboratory performance in transplantation and cellular therapy. An updated report with operating definitions, revised indications and an additional set of data with overall survival at 1 year and non-relapse mortality at day 100 after transplant in the commonest standard-of-care indications is presented. Additional efforts are currently underway to enable EBMT member centres to benchmark their risk-adapted outcomes as part of the Registry upgrade Project 2020 against national and/or international outcome data.

5.
Nat Med ; 25(4): 603-611, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30911134

RESUMO

Transplantation of hematopoietic cells from a healthy individual (allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (allo-HCT)) demonstrates that adoptive immunotherapy can cure blood cancers: still, post-transplantation relapses remain frequent. To explain their drivers, we analyzed the genomic and gene expression profiles of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) blasts purified from patients at serial time-points during their disease history. We identified a transcriptional signature specific for post-transplantation relapses and highly enriched in immune-related processes, including T cell costimulation and antigen presentation. In two independent patient cohorts we confirmed the deregulation of multiple costimulatory ligands on AML blasts at post-transplantation relapse (PD-L1, B7-H3, CD80, PVRL2), mirrored by concomitant changes in circulating donor T cells. Likewise, we documented the frequent loss of surface expression of HLA-DR, -DQ and -DP on leukemia cells, due to downregulation of the HLA class II regulator CIITA. We show that loss of HLA class II expression and upregulation of inhibitory checkpoint molecules represent alternative modalities to abolish AML recognition from donor-derived T cells, and can be counteracted by interferon-γ or checkpoint blockade, respectively. Our results demonstrate that the deregulation of pathways involved in T cell-mediated allorecognition is a distinctive feature and driver of AML relapses after allo-HCT, which can be rapidly translated into personalized therapies.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/imunologia , Regulação Leucêmica da Expressão Gênica , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/genética , Antígenos de Histocompatibilidade Classe II/metabolismo , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , RNA Mensageiro/genética , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Recidiva , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Transplante Homólogo
6.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 1065, 2019 03 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30911002

RESUMO

The major cause of death after allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) for acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is disease relapse. We investigated the expression of Inhibitory Receptors (IR; PD-1/CTLA-4/TIM-3/LAG-3/2B4/KLRG1/GITR) on T cells infiltrating the bone marrow (BM) of 32 AML patients relapsing (median 251 days) or maintaining complete remission (CR; median 1 year) after HSCT. A higher proportion of early-differentiated Memory Stem (TSCM) and Central Memory BM-T cells express multiple IR in relapsing patients than in CR patients. Exhausted BM-T cells at relapse display a restricted TCR repertoire, impaired effector functions and leukemia-reactive specificities. In 57 patients, early detection of severely exhausted (PD-1+Eomes+T-bet-) BM-TSCM predicts relapse. Accordingly, leukemia-specific T cells in patients prone to relapse display exhaustion markers, absent in patients maintaining long-term CR. These results highlight a wide, though reversible, immunological dysfunction in the BM of AML patients relapsing after HSCT and suggest new therapeutic opportunities for the disease.


Assuntos
Anergia Clonal , Regulação Leucêmica da Expressão Gênica , Transplante de Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas , Memória Imunológica/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/imunologia , Linfócitos T/imunologia , Adulto , Antígenos CD/genética , Antígenos CD/imunologia , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Células da Medula Óssea/imunologia , Células da Medula Óssea/patologia , Antígeno CTLA-4/genética , Antígeno CTLA-4/imunologia , Feminino , Proteína Relacionada a TNFR Induzida por Glucocorticoide/genética , Proteína Relacionada a TNFR Induzida por Glucocorticoide/imunologia , Receptor Celular 2 do Vírus da Hepatite A/genética , Receptor Celular 2 do Vírus da Hepatite A/imunologia , Humanos , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/genética , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/patologia , Leucemia Mieloide Aguda/terapia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/genética , Receptor de Morte Celular Programada 1/imunologia , Receptores KIR/genética , Receptores KIR/imunologia , Recidiva , Indução de Remissão , Estudos Retrospectivos , Transdução de Sinais , Família de Moléculas de Sinalização da Ativação Linfocitária/genética , Família de Moléculas de Sinalização da Ativação Linfocitária/imunologia , Linfócitos T/patologia , Transplante Homólogo
7.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 25(3): e76-e85, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30576834

RESUMO

On August 30, 2017 the US Food and Drug Administration approved tisagenlecleucel (Kymriah; Novartis, Basel, Switzerland), a synthetic bioimmune product of anti-CD19 chimeric antigen receptor T cells (CAR-T), for the treatment of children and young adults with relapsed/refractory B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). With this new era of personalized cancer immunotherapy, multiple challenges are present, ranging from implementation of a CAR-T program to safe delivery of the drug, long-term toxicity monitoring, and disease assessments. To address these issues experts representing the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplant, the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, the International Society of Cell and Gene Therapy, and the Foundation for the Accreditation of Cellular Therapy formed a global CAR-T task force to identify and address key questions pertinent for hematologists and transplant physicians regarding the clinical use of anti CD19 CAR-T therapy in patients with B-ALL. This article presents an initial roadmap for navigating common clinical practice scenarios that will become more prevalent now that the first commercially available CAR-T product for B-ALL has been approved.

8.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 54(6): 867-876, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30531916

RESUMO

HLA-haploidentical haematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT) is increasingly offered to patients with high-risk acute leukaemia. Unfortunately, haplo-HSCT is followed by a delayed immunoreconstitution. The aim of this EBMT registry study was to explore the clinical impact of lymphocyte subset counts after haplo-HSCT. We considered 144 leukaemic patients transplanted in the period 2001-2012. Pre-transplantation clinical variables and differential immune-cell counts (CD3, CD4, CD8 T cells, NK and B cells) measured before day 100 were evaluated for their capacity to predict overall survival, relapse mortality or non-relapse mortality (NRM). Negative prognostic factors for overall survival were advanced disease state at transplantation, host age and CMV seropositivity. Higher CD3, CD4 and CD8 counts were associated with a better overall survival and a lower NRM. Strikingly, when tested in multivariable analysis, higher CD3 and CD8 counts were still significantly associated with a lower NRM. These results indicate that an accelerated T-cell reconstitution correlates with less transplantation mortality, likely due to the protective role of T cells against viral infections. This observation suggests that CD8+ T-cell counts should be investigated as surrogate biomarkers of outcome in prospective haplo-HSCT trials.

10.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 24(11): 2365-2370, 2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30031938

RESUMO

The immunosuppressive properties of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have been successfully tested to control clinical severe graft-versus host disease and improve survival. However, clinical studies have not yet provided conclusive evidence of their efficacy largely because of lack of patients' stratification criteria. The heterogeneity of MSC preparations is also a major contributing factor, as manufacturing of therapeutic MSC is performed according to different protocols among different centers. Understanding the variability of the manufacturing protocol would allow a better comparison of the results obtained in the clinical setting among different centers. In order to acquire information on MSC manufacturing we sent a questionnaire to the European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation centers registered as producing MSC. Data from 17 centers were obtained and analyzed by means of a 2-phase questionnaire specifically focused on product manufacturing. Gathered information included MSC tissue sources, MSC donor matching, medium additives for ex vivo expansion, and data on MSC product specification for clinical release. The majority of centers manufactured MSC from bone marrow (88%), whilst only 2 centers produced MSC from umbilical cord blood or cord tissue. One of the major changes in the manufacturing process has been the replacement of fetal bovine serum with human platelet lysate as medium supplement. 59% of centers used only third-party MSC, whilst only 1 center manufactured exclusively autologous MSC. The large majority of these facilities (71%) administered MSC exclusively from frozen batches. Aside from variations in the culture method, we found large heterogeneity also regarding product specification, particularly in the markers used for phenotypical characterization and their threshold of expression, use of potency assays to test MSC functionality, and karyotyping. The initial data collected from this survey highlight the variability in MSC manufacturing as clinical products and the need for harmonization. Until more informative potency assays become available, a more homogeneous approach to cell production may at least reduce variability in clinical trials and improve interpretation of results.

11.
BMC Cancer ; 18(1): 651, 2018 Jun 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29895278

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Despite the clear endocrine-metabolic relationship between androgenic activity and adiposity, the role of androgens in breast cancer prognosis according to patient's adiposity is scarcely explored. Here, we aimed at investigating the prognostic value of circulating testosterone in association with patient's body mass index (BMI). METHODS: Circulating testosterone and BMI were evaluated at breast cancer diagnosis in 460 estrogen receptor (ER)-positive postmenopausal patients. Local relapse, distant metastasi(e)s and contralateral breast cancer were considered recurrence events. The Kruskal-Wallis test was performed to evaluate if testosterone levels differed within subgroups of categorical tumour characteristics. The Cox proportional hazard regression model was fitted to estimate the impact of standard prognostic factors on relapse-specific hazard ratio (HR). After backward selection, a model including continuous testosterone level, BMI categories (< 25, normal-weight; =25-30, overweight; ≥30 kg/m2, obese), tumour size and lymph nodes number was fitted. Furthermore, Cox models provided the relapse-specific HRs for median, third quartile and 95th percentile compared to the first quartile of testosterone levels, stratified by BMI categories. RESULTS: During a median follow up of 6.3 years, 45 patients relapsed. Testosterone levels significantly increased across BMI categories (p = 0.001). Both circulating testosterone and BMI were positively associated with disease free survival (p = 0.005 and p = 0.021, respectively). A significant interaction was found between testosterone and BMI (p = 0.006). For normal-weight women, testosterone concentration around median (0.403 ng/mL) or third quartile (0.532 ng/mL) showed a high significant HR of relapse (5.52; 95% CI:1.65-18.49 and 4.55; 95% CI:1.09-18.98, respectively). Overweight patients showed increased HR at increasing testosterone levels, reaching a significant high HR (4.68; 95% CI:1.39-15.70) for testosterone values of 0.782 ng/mL (95th percentile). For obese patients HR decreased (not significantly) at increased testosterone concentrations, explaining the interaction between testosterone levels and BMI categories. CONCLUSIONS: In ER-positive postmenopausal breast cancer patients, high testosterone levels are associated with worse prognosis in normal-weight and overweight women, whereas in obese seems to be associated with a better outcome. Although the results require further validation, they suggest that assessment of circulating testosterone and BMI could help to identify postmenopausal ER-positive patients at higher risk of relapse and potentially open new therapeutic strategies.

12.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 53(12): 1548-1552, 2018 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29720705

RESUMO

Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is increasingly used worldwide. This treatment approach is complex and requires specific knowledge and training. The European Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation (EBMT) identified the need for a set of international recommendations for the clinical training of physicians to qualify them as being competent in performing HCT procedures as well as novel cellular immune therapies and taking care of such patients. The goal is to implement an EBMT HCT-focused global curriculum (EBMT-GC) that can serve as a tool for the development of the HCT sub-specialty worldwide. Despite the diversity and heterogeneity of health and educational systems around the globe, this set of recommendations can be fairly adopted by any national educational and health authorities and can be adjusted to specific conditions and resources of a given country, if needed. The ultimate goal of the EBMT-GC is to define standards for personal knowledge in allogeneic stem cell transplantation for physicians worldwide in order to ensure that all patients will receive treatment by well-trained physicians.

13.
Nat Med ; 24(6): 739-748, 2018 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29808007

RESUMO

In the clinic, chimeric antigen receptor-modified T (CAR T) cell therapy is frequently associated with life-threatening cytokine-release syndrome (CRS) and neurotoxicity. Understanding the nature of these pathologies and developing treatments for them are hampered by the lack of appropriate animal models. Herein, we describe a mouse model recapitulating key features of CRS and neurotoxicity. In humanized mice with high leukemia burden, CAR T cell-mediated clearance of cancer triggered high fever and elevated IL-6 levels, which are hallmarks of CRS. Human monocytes were the major source of IL-1 and IL-6 during CRS. Accordingly, the syndrome was prevented by monocyte depletion or by blocking IL-6 receptor with tocilizumab. Nonetheless, tocilizumab failed to protect mice from delayed lethal neurotoxicity, characterized by meningeal inflammation. Instead, the IL-1 receptor antagonist anakinra abolished both CRS and neurotoxicity, resulting in substantially extended leukemia-free survival. These findings offer a therapeutic strategy to tackle neurotoxicity and open new avenues to safer CAR T cell therapies.

15.
Sci Transl Med ; 10(436)2018 Apr 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29643233

RESUMO

Over the last 60 years, more than a million patients received hematopoietic cell transplantation. Having incorporated multiple changes in clinical practices, it remains a complex procedure facing a dual challenge: cure of the underlying disease and prevention of relapse while controlling potentially severe complications. Improved understanding of underlying biological processes resulted in the design of innovative therapies engineered from defined cell populations and testing of these therapies as addition or substitution at virtually every step of the procedure. This review provides an overview of these developments, many of them now applied outside the historical field of hematopoietic cell transplantation.

16.
Front Immunol ; 9: 507, 2018.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29619024

RESUMO

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cell immunotherapy is at the forefront of innovative cancer therapeutics. However, lack of standardization of cellular products within the same clinical trial and lack of harmonization between different trials have hindered the clear identification of efficacy and safety determinants that should be unveiled in order to advance the field. With the aim of facilitating the isolation and in vivo tracking of CAR-T cells, we here propose the inclusion within the CAR molecule of a novel extracellular spacer based on the low-affinity nerve-growth-factor receptor (NGFR). We screened four different spacer designs using as target antigen the CD44 isoform variant 6 (CD44v6). We successfully generated NGFR-spaced CD44v6 CAR-T cells that could be efficiently enriched with clinical-grade immuno-magnetic beads without negative consequences on subsequent expansion, immuno-phenotype, in vitro antitumor reactivity, and conditional ablation when co-expressing a suicide gene. Most importantly, these cells could be tracked with anti-NGFR monoclonal antibodies in NSG mice, where they expanded, persisted, and exerted potent antitumor effects against both high leukemia and myeloma burdens. Similar results were obtained with NGFR-enriched CAR-T cells specific for CD19 or CEA, suggesting the universality of this strategy. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that the incorporation of the NGFR marker gene within the CAR sequence allows for a single molecule to simultaneously work as a therapeutic and selection/tracking gene. Looking ahead, NGFR spacer enrichment might allow good manufacturing procedures-manufacturing of standardized CAR-T cell products with high therapeutic potential, which could be harmonized in different clinical trials and used in combination with a suicide gene for future application in the allogeneic setting.

17.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 70(7): 1133-1143, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29499100

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: An unconventional population of CD4+ signaling lymphocytic activation molecule family member 7-positive (SLAMF7+) cytotoxic effector memory T (TEM ) cells (CD4+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes [CTLs]) has been linked causally to IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD). Glucocorticoids represent the first-line therapeutic approach in patients with IgG4-RD, but their mechanism of action in this specific condition remains unknown. We undertook this study to determine the impact of glucocorticoids on CD4+ CTLs in IgG4-RD. METHODS: Expression of CD8α, granzyme A, perforin, and SLAMF7 within the effector memory compartment of CD45RO+ (TEM ) and CD45RA+ effector memory T (TEMRA ) CD4+ cells was quantified by flow cytometry in 18 patients with active IgG4-RD, both at baseline and after 6 months of glucocorticoid treatment. Eighteen healthy subjects were studied as controls. Next-generation sequencing of the T cell receptor α- and ß-chain gene was performed on circulating CD4+ CTLs from patients with IgG4-RD before and after treatment and in affected tissues. RESULTS: Circulating CD4+ TEM and TEMRA cells were not expanded in IgG4-RD patients compared to healthy controls. CD4+SLAMF7+ TEM cells (but not TEMRA cells) were significantly increased among IgG4-RD patients. Within CD4+SLAMF7+ TEM cells, CD8α- cells but not CD8αlow cells were elevated in IgG4-RD patients. The same dominant clones of CD8α-CD4+SLAMF7+ TEM cells found in peripheral blood were also identified in affected tissue. CD8α- and CD8αlow CD4+SLAMF7+ TEM cells both expressed cytolytic molecules. Clonally expanded CD8α- but not CD8αlow CD4+SLAMF7+ TEM cells decreased following glucocorticoid-induced disease remission. CONCLUSION: A subset of CD8α-CD4+SLAMF7+ cytotoxic TEM cells is oligoclonally expanded in patients with active IgG4-RD. This TEM cell population contracts following glucocorticoid-induced remission. Further characterization of this cell population may provide prognostic information and targets for therapeutic intervention.

18.
Eur J Surg Oncol ; 44(6): 792-798, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29503128

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The differential diagnosis between diffuse malignant peritoneal mesothelioma (DMPM) and other peritoneal surface malignancies (PSM) is still challenging. Serum mesothelin and osteopontin are increasingly used as markers of pleural mesothelioma, but their role in DMPM is unclear. We assessed the diagnostic and prognostic values of mesothelin, osteopontin, CEA, CA19.9, CA125, and CA15.3 in DMPM patients. METHODS: Markers were dosed before cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in 30 DMPM patients and 14 controls with other PSMs. Receiver-operating characteristics (ROC) curve were plotted. The performance of each marker was assessed by the area under the ROC curve (AUC-ROC). RESULTS: Mean mesothelin levels were 7.84 ng/dl (SD = 5.14) in DMPM group and 3.00 ng/dl (SD = 1.25) in controls (P = 0.001). Mean CEA levels were 5.3 ng/dl (SD = 4.7), and 61.96 ng/dl (SD = 112.5) in the two groups (P = 0.008). No statistical difference was seen for osteopontin (P = 0.738), CA19.9 (P = 0.081), CA125 (P = 0.600), and CA15.3 (P = 0.365). AUC-ROC was 0.836 for CA19.9, 0.812 for mesothelin, 0.793 for CEA, and lower for CA125 (0.652), osteopontin (0.531), and CA15.3 (0.481). Using diagnostic cut-offs selected by ROC methodology, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were 70.0%, 100.0%, 100.0%, and 60.9% for mesothelin >5.21 ng/dl, and 90.0%, 85.7%, 93.1%, and 80.0% for CA19.9 < 8.8 U/dl. At multivariate analysis, osteopontin correlated with survival (hazard rate 6.46; 95%CI 1.81-23.05; P = 0.004). CONCLUSION: When assessing PSMs of unknown origin, elevated mesothelin with low CA19.9 may increase the suspicion index for DMPM. Ospeopontin warrants further investigations as a prognostic marker for DMPM.


Assuntos
Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/sangue , Mesotelioma/sangue , Osteopontina/sangue , Neoplasias Peritoneais/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Antígenos de Neoplasias , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Biomarcadores Tumorais/sangue , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos de Citorredução/métodos , Ensaio de Imunoadsorção Enzimática , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Hipertermia Induzida/métodos , Imuno-Histoquímica , Masculino , Mesotelioma/diagnóstico , Mesotelioma/terapia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Peritoneais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Peritoneais/terapia , Prognóstico , Curva ROC , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
19.
Bone Marrow Transplant ; 53(9): 1139-1148, 2018 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29540849

RESUMO

Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is an established procedure for acquired and congenital disorders of the hematopoietic system. In 2016, there was a tendency for continued activity in this field with 43,636 HCT in 39,313 patients [16,507 allogeneic (42%), 22,806 autologous (58%)] reported by 679 centers in 49 countries in 2016. The main indications were myeloid malignancies 9547 (24%; 96% allogeneic), lymphoid malignancies 25,618 (65%; 20% allogeneic), solid tumors 1516 (4%; 2% allogeneic), and non-malignant disorders 2459 (6%; 85% allogeneic). There was a remarkable leveling off in the use of unrelated donor HCT being replaced by haploidentical HCT. Continued growth in allogeneic HCT for marrow failure, AML, and MPN was seen, whereas MDS appears stable. Allogeneic HCT for lymphoid malignancies vary in trend with increases for NHL and decreases for Hodgkin lymphoma and myeloma. Trends in CLL are not clear, with recent increases after a decrease in activity. In autologous HCT, the use in myeloma continues to expand but is stable in Hodgkin lymphoma. There is a notable increase in autologous HCT for autoimmune disease. These data reflect the most recent advances in the field, in which some trends and changes are likely to be related to development of non-transplant technologies.

20.
Sci Transl Med ; 10(429)2018 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29467301

RESUMO

Recent evidence has revealed that oncogenic mutations may confer immune escape. A better understanding of how an oncogenic mutation affects immunosuppressive programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression may help in developing new therapeutic strategies. We show that oncogenic JAK2 (Janus kinase 2) activity caused STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) and STAT5 phosphorylation, which enhanced PD-L1 promoter activity and PD-L1 protein expression in JAK2V617F-mutant cells, whereas blockade of JAK2 reduced PD-L1 expression in myeloid JAK2V617F-mutant cells. PD-L1 expression was higher on primary cells isolated from patients with JAK2V617F-myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) compared to healthy individuals and declined upon JAK2 inhibition. JAK2V617F mutational burden, pSTAT3, and PD-L1 expression were highest in primary MPN patient-derived monocytes, megakaryocytes, and platelets. PD-1 (programmed death receptor 1) inhibition prolonged survival in human MPN xenograft and primary murine MPN models. This effect was dependent on T cells. Mechanistically, PD-L1 surface expression in JAK2V617F-mutant cells affected metabolism and cell cycle progression of T cells. In summary, we report that in MPN, constitutive JAK2/STAT3/STAT5 activation, mainly in monocytes, megakaryocytes, and platelets, caused PD-L1-mediated immune escape by reducing T cell activation, metabolic activity, and cell cycle progression. The susceptibility of JAK2V617F-mutant MPN to PD-1 targeting paves the way for immunomodulatory approaches relying on PD-1 inhibition.

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