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1.
JAMA Neurol ; 78(10): 1236-1248, 2021 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34459874

RESUMO

Importance: Juvenile amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rare form of ALS characterized by age of symptom onset less than 25 years and a variable presentation. Objective: To identify the genetic variants associated with juvenile ALS. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this multicenter family-based genetic study, trio whole-exome sequencing was performed to identify the disease-associated gene in a case series of unrelated patients diagnosed with juvenile ALS and severe growth retardation. The patients and their family members were enrolled at academic hospitals and a government research facility between March 1, 2016, and March 13, 2020, and were observed until October 1, 2020. Whole-exome sequencing was also performed in a series of patients with juvenile ALS. A total of 66 patients with juvenile ALS and 6258 adult patients with ALS participated in the study. Patients were selected for the study based on their diagnosis, and all eligible participants were enrolled in the study. None of the participants had a family history of neurological disorders, suggesting de novo variants as the underlying genetic mechanism. Main Outcomes and Measures: De novo variants present only in the index case and not in unaffected family members. Results: Trio whole-exome sequencing was performed in 3 patients diagnosed with juvenile ALS and their parents. An additional 63 patients with juvenile ALS and 6258 adult patients with ALS were subsequently screened for variants in the SPTLC1 gene. De novo variants in SPTLC1 (p.Ala20Ser in 2 patients and p.Ser331Tyr in 1 patient) were identified in 3 unrelated patients diagnosed with juvenile ALS and failure to thrive. A fourth variant (p.Leu39del) was identified in a patient with juvenile ALS where parental DNA was unavailable. Variants in this gene have been previously shown to be associated with autosomal-dominant hereditary sensory autonomic neuropathy, type 1A, by disrupting an essential enzyme complex in the sphingolipid synthesis pathway. Conclusions and Relevance: These data broaden the phenotype associated with SPTLC1 and suggest that patients presenting with juvenile ALS should be screened for variants in this gene.

2.
Am J Hum Genet ; 108(8): 1436-1449, 2021 08 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216551

RESUMO

Despite widespread clinical genetic testing, many individuals with suspected genetic conditions lack a precise diagnosis, limiting their opportunity to take advantage of state-of-the-art treatments. In some cases, testing reveals difficult-to-evaluate structural differences, candidate variants that do not fully explain the phenotype, single pathogenic variants in recessive disorders, or no variants in genes of interest. Thus, there is a need for better tools to identify a precise genetic diagnosis in individuals when conventional testing approaches have been exhausted. We performed targeted long-read sequencing (T-LRS) using adaptive sampling on the Oxford Nanopore platform on 40 individuals, 10 of whom lacked a complete molecular diagnosis. We computationally targeted up to 151 Mbp of sequence per individual and searched for pathogenic substitutions, structural variants, and methylation differences using a single data source. We detected all genomic aberrations-including single-nucleotide variants, copy number changes, repeat expansions, and methylation differences-identified by prior clinical testing. In 8/8 individuals with complex structural rearrangements, T-LRS enabled more precise resolution of the mutation, leading to changes in clinical management in one case. In ten individuals with suspected Mendelian conditions lacking a precise genetic diagnosis, T-LRS identified pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in six and variants of uncertain significance in two others. T-LRS accurately identifies pathogenic structural variants, resolves complex rearrangements, and identifies Mendelian variants not detected by other technologies. T-LRS represents an efficient and cost-effective strategy to evaluate high-priority genes and regions or complex clinical testing results.


Assuntos
Aberrações Cromossômicas , Análise Citogenética/métodos , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/diagnóstico , Doenças Genéticas Inatas/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Genoma Humano , Mutação , Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Feminino , Testes Genéticos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Cariotipagem , Masculino , Análise de Sequência de DNA
3.
Neurology ; 85(23): 2026-35, 2015 Dec 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26537056

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical spectrum and distinguishing features of adenylate cyclase 5 (ADCY5)-related dyskinesia and genotype-phenotype relationship. METHODS: We analyzed ADCY5 in patients with choreiform or dystonic movements by exome or targeted sequencing. Suspected mosaicism was confirmed by allele-specific amplification. We evaluated clinical features in our 50 new and previously reported cases. RESULTS: We identified 3 new families and 12 new sporadic cases with ADCY5 mutations. These mutations cause a mixed hyperkinetic disorder that includes dystonia, chorea, and myoclonus, often with facial involvement. The movements are sometimes painful and show episodic worsening on a fluctuating background. Many patients have axial hypotonia. In 2 unrelated families, a p.A726T mutation in the first cytoplasmic domain (C1) causes a relatively mild disorder of prominent facial and hand dystonia and chorea. Mutations p.R418W or p.R418Q in C1, de novo in 13 individuals and inherited in 1, produce a moderate to severe disorder with axial hypotonia, limb hypertonia, paroxysmal nocturnal or diurnal dyskinesia, chorea, myoclonus, and intermittent facial dyskinesia. Somatic mosaicism is usually associated with a less severe phenotype. In one family, a p.M1029K mutation in the C2 domain causes severe dystonia, hypotonia, and chorea. The progenitor, whose childhood-onset episodic movement disorder almost disappeared in adulthood, was mosaic for the mutation. CONCLUSIONS: ADCY5-related dyskinesia is a childhood-onset disorder with a wide range of hyperkinetic abnormal movements. Genotype-specific correlations and mosaicism play important roles in the phenotypic variability. Recurrent mutations suggest particular functional importance of residues 418 and 726 in disease pathogenesis.


Assuntos
Adenilil Ciclases/genética , Discinesias/diagnóstico , Discinesias/genética , Genótipo , Fenótipo , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Linhagem , Adulto Jovem
4.
Ann Neurol ; 75(4): 542-9, 2014 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24700542

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To identify the cause of childhood onset involuntary paroxysmal choreiform and dystonic movements in 2 unrelated sporadic cases and to investigate the functional effect of missense mutations in adenylyl cyclase 5 (ADCY5) in sporadic and inherited cases of autosomal dominant familial dyskinesia with facial myokymia (FDFM). METHODS: Whole exome sequencing was performed on 2 parent-child trios. The effect of mutations in ADCY5 was studied by measurement of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) accumulation under stimulatory and inhibitory conditions. RESULTS: The same de novo mutation (c.1252C>T, p.R418W) in ADCY5 was found in both studied cases. An inherited missense mutation (c.2176G>A, p.A726T) in ADCY5 was previously reported in a family with FDFM. The significant phenotypic overlap with FDFM was recognized in both cases only after discovery of the molecular link. The inherited mutation in the FDFM family and the recurrent de novo mutation affect residues in different protein domains, the first cytoplasmic domain and the first membrane-spanning domain, respectively. Functional studies revealed a statistically significant increase in ß-receptor agonist-stimulated intracellular cAMP consistent with an increase in adenylyl cyclase activity for both mutants relative to wild-type protein, indicative of a gain-of-function effect. INTERPRETATION: FDFM is likely caused by gain-of-function mutations in different domains of ADCY5-the first definitive link between adenylyl cyclase mutation and human disease. We have illustrated the power of hypothesis-free exome sequencing in establishing diagnoses in rare disorders with complex and variable phenotype. Mutations in ADCY5 should be considered in patients with undiagnosed complex movement disorders even in the absence of a family history.


Assuntos
Adenilil Ciclases/genética , Distúrbios Distônicos/genética , Doenças do Nervo Facial/genética , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Adenilil Ciclases/metabolismo , Adolescente , AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Distúrbios Distônicos/complicações , Doenças do Nervo Facial/complicações , Feminino , Proteínas de Fluorescência Verde/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Transfecção
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