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1.
Nat Med ; 25(11): 1733-1738, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31700171

RESUMO

The G-protein-coupled receptor accessory protein MRAP2 is implicated in energy control in rodents, notably via the melanocortin-4 receptor1. Although some MRAP2 mutations have been described in people with obesity1-3, their functional consequences on adiposity remain elusive. Using large-scale sequencing of MRAP2 in 9,418 people, we identified 23 rare heterozygous variants associated with increased obesity risk in both adults and children. Functional assessment of each variant shows that loss-of-function MRAP2 variants are pathogenic for monogenic hyperphagic obesity, hyperglycemia and hypertension. This contrasts with other monogenic forms of obesity characterized by excessive hunger, including melanocortin-4 receptor deficiency, that present with low blood pressure and normal glucose tolerance4. The pleiotropic metabolic effect of loss-of-function mutations in MRAP2 might be due to the failure of different MRAP2-regulated G-protein-coupled receptors in various tissues including pancreatic islets.

2.
Bioinformatics ; 2019 Aug 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31504159

RESUMO

SUMMARY: The NanoStringTM nCounter® is a platform for the targeted quantification of expression data in biofluids and tissues. While software by the manufacturer is available in addition to third parties packages, they do not provide a complete quality control (QC) pipeline. Here, we present NACHO ('NAnostring quality Control dasHbOard'), a comprehensive QC R-package. The package consists of three subsequent steps: summarize, visualize and normalize. The summarize function collects all the relevant data and stores it in a tidy format, the visualize function initiates a dashboard with plots of the relevant QC outcomes. It contains QC metrics that are measured by default by the manufacturer, but also calculates other insightful measures, including the scaling factors that are needed in the normalization step. In this normalization step, different normalization methods can be chosen to optimally preprocess data. Together, NACHO is a comprehensive method that optimizes insight and preprocessing of nCounter® data. AVAILABILITY AND IMPLEMENTATION: NACHO is available as an R-package on CRAN and the development version on GitHub https://github.com/mcanouil/NACHO. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

3.
Curr Diab Rep ; 19(9): 79, 2019 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31385057

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Non-autoimmune monogenic diabetes (MD) in young people shows a broad spectrum of clinical presentations, which is largely explained by multiple genetic etiologies. This review discusses how the application of state-of-the-art genomics research to precision diagnosis of MD, particularly the various subtypes of maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY), has increasingly informed diabetes precision medicine and patient care throughout life. RECENT FINDINGS: Due to extended genetic and clinical heterogeneity of MODY, diagnosis approaches based on next-generation sequencing have been worthwhile to better ascribe a specific subtype to each patient with young-onset diabetes. This guides the best appropriate treatment and clinical follow-up. Early etiological diagnosis of MD and individualized treatment are essential for achieving metabolic targets and avoiding long-term diabetes complications, as well as for drastically decreasing the financial and societal burden of diabetes-related healthcare. Genomic medicine-based practices help to optimize long-term clinical follow-up and patient care management.

4.
Int J Obes (Lond) ; 2019 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31388097

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified more than 250 loci associated with body mass index (BMI) and obesity. However, post-GWAS functional genomic investigations have been inadequate for understanding how these genetic loci physiologically impact disease development. METHODS: We performed a PCR-free expression assay targeting genes located nearby the GWAS-identified SNPs associated with BMI/obesity in a large panel of human tissues. Furthermore, we analyzed several genetic risk scores (GRS) summing GWAS-identified alleles associated with increased BMI in 4236 individuals. RESULTS: We found that the expression of BMI/obesity susceptibility genes was strongly enriched in the brain, especially in the insula (p = 4.7 × 10-9) and substantia nigra (p = 6.8 × 10-7), which are two brain regions involved in addiction and reward. Inversely, we found that top obesity/BMI-associated loci, including FTO, showed the strongest gene expression enrichment in the two brain regions. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest for the first time that the susceptibility genes for common obesity may have an effect on eating addiction and reward behaviors through their high expression in substantia nigra and insula, i.e., a different pattern from monogenic obesity genes that act in the hypothalamus and cause hyperphagia. Further epidemiological studies with relevant food behavior phenotypes are necessary to confirm these findings.

5.
Proteomics ; 19(21-22): e1800454, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31430054

RESUMO

Many solid cancers are hierarchically organized with a small number of cancer stem cells (CSCs) able to regrow a tumor, while their progeny lacks this feature. Breast CSC is known to contribute to therapy resistance. The study of those cells is usually based on their cell-surface markers like CD44high /CD24low/neg or their aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity. However, these markers cannot be used to track the dynamics of CSC. Here, a transcriptomic analysis is performed to identify segregating gene expression in CSCs and non-CSCs, sorted by Aldefluor assay. It is observed that among ALDH-associated genes, only ALDH1A1 isoform is increased in CSCs. A CSC reporter system is then developed by using a far red-fluorescent protein (mNeptune) under the control of ALDH1A1 promoter. mNeptune-positive cells exhibit higher sphere-forming capacity, tumor formation, and increased resistance to anticancer therapies. These results indicate that the reporter identifies cells with stemness characteristics. Moreover, live tracking of cells in a microfluidic system reveals a higher extravasation potential of CSCs. Live tracking of non-CSCs under irradiation treatment show, for the first time, live reprogramming of non-CSCs into CSCs. Therefore, the reporter will allow for cell tracking to better understand the implication of CSCs in breast cancer development and recurrence.

6.
Mol Metab ; 24: 98-107, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30956117

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Genome wide association studies (GWAS) for type 2 diabetes (T2D) have identified genetic loci that often localise in non-coding regions of the genome, suggesting gene regulation effects. We combined genetic and transcriptomic analysis from human islets obtained from brain-dead organ donors or surgical patients to detect expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) and shed light into the regulatory mechanisms of these genes. METHODS: Pancreatic islets were isolated either by laser capture microdissection (LCM) from surgical specimens of 103 metabolically phenotyped pancreatectomized patients (PPP) or by collagenase digestion of pancreas from 100 brain-dead organ donors (OD). Genotyping (> 8.7 million single nucleotide polymorphisms) and expression (> 47,000 transcripts and splice variants) analyses were combined to generate cis-eQTLs. RESULTS: After applying genome-wide false discovery rate significance thresholds, we identified 1,173 and 1,021 eQTLs in samples of OD and PPP, respectively. Among the strongest eQTLs shared between OD and PPP were CHURC1 (OD p-value=1.71 × 10-24; PPP p-value = 3.64 × 10-24) and PSPH (OD p-value = 3.92 × 10-26; PPP p-value = 3.64 × 10-24). We identified eQTLs in linkage-disequilibrium with GWAS loci T2D and associated traits, including TTLL6, MLX and KIF9 loci, which do not implicate the nearest gene. We found in the PPP datasets 11 eQTL genes, which were differentially expressed in T2D and two genes (CYP4V2 and TSEN2) associated with HbA1c but none in the OD samples. CONCLUSIONS: eQTL analysis of LCM islets from PPP led us to identify novel genes which had not been previously linked to islet biology and T2D. The understanding gained from eQTL approaches, especially using surgical samples of living patients, provides a more accurate 3-dimensional representation than those from genetic studies alone.

7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(4)2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30769939

RESUMO

The NOD2 gene, involved in innate immune responses to bacterial peptidoglycan, has been found to be closely associated with Crohn's Disease (CD), with an Odds Ratio ranging from 3⁻36. Families with three or more CD-affected members were related to a high frequency of NOD2 gene variations, such as R702W, G908R, and 1007fs, and were reported in the EPIMAD Registry. However, some rare CD multiplex families were described without identification of common NOD2 linked-to-disease variations. In order to identify new genetic variation(s) closely linked with CD, whole exome sequencing was performed on available subjects, comprising four patients in two generations affected with Crohn's disease without R702W and G908R variation and three unaffected related subjects. A rare and, not yet, reported missense variation of the NOD2 gene, N1010K, was detected and co-segregated across affected patients. In silico evaluation and modelling highlighted evidence for an adverse effect of the N1010K variation with regard to CD. Moreover, cumulative characterization of N1010K and 1007fs as a compound heterozygous state in two, more severe CD family members strongly suggests that N1010K could well be a new risk factor involved in Crohn's disease genetic susceptibility.


Assuntos
Doença de Crohn/genética , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Imunidade Inata/genética , Proteína Adaptadora de Sinalização NOD2/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Alelos , Criança , Doença de Crohn/imunologia , Doença de Crohn/patologia , Feminino , Estudos de Associação Genética , Genótipo , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto/genética , Proteína Adaptadora de Sinalização NOD2/química , Proteína Adaptadora de Sinalização NOD2/imunologia , Peptidoglicano/imunologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Conformação Proteica , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma
8.
EBioMedicine ; 2018 Nov 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30442561

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation at the GFI1-locus has been repeatedly associated with exposure to smoking from the foetal period onwards. We explored whether DNA methylation may be a mechanism that links exposure to maternal prenatal smoking with offspring's adult cardio-metabolic health. METHODS: We meta-analysed the association between DNA methylation at GFI1-locus with maternal prenatal smoking, adult own smoking, and cardio-metabolic phenotypes in 22 population-based studies from Europe, Australia, and USA (n = 18,212). DNA methylation at the GFI1-locus was measured in whole-blood. Multivariable regression models were fitted to examine its association with exposure to prenatal and own adult smoking. DNA methylation levels were analysed in relation to body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), fasting glucose (FG), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TG), diastolic, and systolic blood pressure (BP). FINDINGS: Lower DNA methylation at three out of eight GFI1-CpGs was associated with exposure to maternal prenatal smoking, whereas, all eight CpGs were associated with adult own smoking. Lower DNA methylation at cg14179389, the strongest maternal prenatal smoking locus, was associated with increased WC and BP when adjusted for sex, age, and adult smoking with Bonferroni-corrected P < 0·012. In contrast, lower DNA methylation at cg09935388, the strongest adult own smoking locus, was associated with decreased BMI, WC, and BP (adjusted 1 × 10-7 < P < 0.01). Similarly, lower DNA methylation at cg12876356, cg18316974, cg09662411, and cg18146737 was associated with decreased BMI and WC (5 × 10-8 < P < 0.001). Lower DNA methylation at all the CpGs was consistently associated with higher TG levels. INTERPRETATION: Epigenetic changes at the GFI1 were linked to smoking exposure in-utero/in-adulthood and robustly associated with cardio-metabolic risk factors. FUND: European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement no. 633595 DynaHEALTH.

9.
J Clin Lipidol ; 2018 Jul 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30158064

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Multiple symmetric lipomatosis (MSL) is characterized by upper-body lipomatous masses frequently associated with metabolic and neurological signs. MFN2 pathogenic variants were recently implicated in a very rare autosomal recessive form of MSL. MFN2 encodes mitofusin-2, a mitochondrial fusion protein previously involved in Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical, metabolic, tissular, and molecular characteristics of MFN2-associated MSL. METHODS: We sequenced MFN2 in 66 patients referred for altered fat distribution with one or several lipomas or lipoma-like regions and performed clinical and metabolic investigations in patients with positive genetic testing. Lipomatous tissues were studied in 3 patients. RESULTS: Six patients from 5 families carried a homozygous p.Arg707Trp pathogenic variant, representing the largest reported series of MFN2-associated MSL. Patients presented both lipomatous masses and a lipodystrophic syndrome (lipoatrophy, low leptinemia and adiponectinemia, hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance and/or diabetes). Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy was of highly variable clinical severity. Lipomatous tissue mainly contained hyperplastic unilocular adipocytes, with few multilocular cells. It displayed numerous mitochondrial alterations (increased number and size, structural defects). As compared to control subcutaneous fat, mRNA and protein expression of leptin and adiponectin was strikingly decreased, whereas the CITED1 and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) thermogenic markers were strongly overexpressed. Consistently, serum FGF21 was markedly increased, and 18F-FDG-PET-scan revealed increased fat metabolic activity. CONCLUSION: MFN2-related MSL is a novel mitochondrial lipodystrophic syndrome involving both lipomatous masses and lipoatrophy. Its complex neurological and metabolic phenotype justifies careful clinical evaluation and multidisciplinary care. Low leptinemia and adiponectinemia, high serum FGF21, and increased 18F-FDG body fat uptake may be disease markers.

10.
Sci Signal ; 11(545)2018 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30154102

RESUMO

Melatonin is produced during the night and regulates sleep and circadian rhythms. Loss-of-function variants in MTNR1B, which encodes the melatonin receptor MT2, a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), are associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). To identify specific T2D-associated signaling pathway(s), we profiled the signaling output of 40 MT2 variants by monitoring spontaneous (ligand-independent) and melatonin-induced activation of multiple signaling effectors. Genetic association analysis showed that defects in the melatonin-induced activation of Gαi1 and Gαz proteins and in spontaneous ß-arrestin2 recruitment to MT2 were the most statistically significantly associated with an increased T2D risk. Computational variant impact prediction by in silico evolutionary lineage analysis strongly correlated with the measured phenotypic effect of each variant, providing a predictive tool for future studies on GPCR variants. Together, this large-scale functional study provides an operational framework for the postgenomic analysis of the multiple GPCR variants present in the human population. The association of T2D risk with signaling pathway-specific defects opens avenues for pathway-specific personalized therapeutic intervention and reveals the potential relevance of MT2 function during the day, when melatonin is undetectable, but spontaneous activity of the receptor occurs.

11.
Am J Med Sci ; 355(6): 559-565, 2018 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29891039

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We have investigated the association between 4 cis- and trans-genetic variants (rs6921438, rs4416670, rs6993770 and rs10738760) of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) gene and metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its individual components in an Iranian population. MATERIAL & METHOD: Three hundred and thirty-six subjects were enrolled and MetS was defined according to the International-Diabetes-Federation (IDF) criteria. Genotyping was carried out in all the individuals for 4 VEGF genetic variants using an assay based on a combination of multiplex polymerase chain reaction and biochip array hybridization. RESULTS: As may be expected, patients with MetS had significantly higher levels of serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, waist circumference, hip circumference, body mass index, fat percentage, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and triglyceride, whereas the high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly lower, compared to the control group (P < 0.05). We also found that 1 of the VEGF- level associated genetic variants, rs6993770, was associated with the presence of MetS; the less common T allele at this locus was associated with an increased risk for MetS. This association remained significant after adjustment for confounding factors (P = 0.007). Individuals with MetS carrying the AT + TT genotypes had markedly higher levels of fasting blood glucose, triglyceride and systolic blood pressure (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We have found an association between the rs6993770 polymorphism and MetS. This gene variant was also associated with serum VEGF concentrations. There was also an association between this variant and the individual components of the MetS, including triglyceride, fasting blood glucose and systolic blood pressure.

12.
Mol Metab ; 13: 1-9, 2018 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29784605

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The molecular diagnosis of extreme forms of obesity, in which accurate detection of both copy number variations (CNVs) and point mutations, is crucial for an optimal care of the patients and genetic counseling for their families. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) has benefited considerably this molecular diagnosis, but its poor ability to detect CNVs remains a major limitation. We aimed to develop a method (CoDE-seq) enabling the accurate detection of both CNVs and point mutations in one step. METHODS: CoDE-seq is based on an augmented WES method, using probes distributed uniformly throughout the genome. CoDE-seq was validated in 40 patients for whom chromosomal DNA microarray was available. CNVs and mutations were assessed in 82 children/young adults with suspected Mendelian obesity and/or intellectual disability and in their parents when available (ntotal = 145). RESULTS: CoDE-seq not only detected all of the 97 CNVs identified by chromosomal DNA microarrays but also found 84 additional CNVs, due to a better resolution. When compared to CoDE-seq and chromosomal DNA microarrays, WES failed to detect 37% and 14% of CNVs, respectively. In the 82 patients, a likely molecular diagnosis was achieved in >30% of the patients. Half of the genetic diagnoses were explained by CNVs while the other half by mutations. CONCLUSIONS: CoDE-seq has proven cost-efficient and highly effective as it avoids the sequential genetic screening approaches currently used in clinical practice for the accurate detection of CNVs and point mutations.

13.
Diabetes ; 67(7): 1310-1321, 2018 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29728363

RESUMO

In type 2 diabetes (T2D), hepatic insulin resistance is strongly associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). In this study, we hypothesized that the DNA methylome of livers from patients with T2D compared with livers of individuals with normal plasma glucose levels can unveil some mechanism of hepatic insulin resistance that could link to NAFLD. Using DNA methylome and transcriptome analyses of livers from obese individuals, we found that hypomethylation at a CpG site in PDGFA (encoding platelet-derived growth factor α) and PDGFA overexpression are both associated with increased T2D risk, hyperinsulinemia, increased insulin resistance, and increased steatohepatitis risk. Genetic risk score studies and human cell modeling pointed to a causative effect of high insulin levels on PDGFA CpG site hypomethylation, PDGFA overexpression, and increased PDGF-AA secretion from the liver. We found that PDGF-AA secretion further stimulates its own expression through protein kinase C activity and contributes to insulin resistance through decreased expression of insulin receptor substrate 1 and of insulin receptor. Importantly, hepatocyte insulin sensitivity can be restored by PDGF-AA-blocking antibodies, PDGF receptor inhibitors, and by metformin, opening therapeutic avenues. Therefore, in the liver of obese patients with T2D, the increased PDGF-AA signaling contributes to insulin resistance, opening new therapeutic avenues against T2D and possibly NAFLD.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Resistência à Insulina , Fígado/metabolismo , Obesidade/metabolismo , Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/genética , Fator de Crescimento Derivado de Plaquetas/metabolismo , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Células Cultivadas , Metilação de DNA , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/etiologia , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Epigênese Genética/fisiologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Humanos , Resistência à Insulina/genética , Fígado/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/metabolismo , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/patologia , Obesidade/complicações , Obesidade/genética , Obesidade/patologia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Regulação para Cima/genética
14.
Stem Cell Res ; 29: 56-59, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29597128

RESUMO

Heterozygous non-synonymous (p.S142F) mutation in HNF1A leads to maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) type 3, which is a subtype of dominant inherited young-onset non-autoimmune diabetes due to the defect of insulin secretion from pancreatic beta cells. We generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from a patient with HNF1A p.S142F mutation. Cells from this patient, which were reprogrammed by non-integrative viral transduction had normal karyotype, harboured the HNF1A p.S142F mutation, expressed pluripotency hallmarks.

15.
Nat Genet ; 50(2): 175-179, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29311637

RESUMO

Study of monogenic forms of obesity has demonstrated the pivotal role of the central leptin-melanocortin pathway in controlling energy balance, appetite and body weight 1 . The majority of loss-of-function mutations (mostly recessive or co-dominant) have been identified in genes that are directly involved in leptin-melanocortin signaling. These genes, however, only explain obesity in <5% of cases, predominantly from outbred populations 2 . We previously showed that, in a consanguineous population in Pakistan, recessive mutations in known obesity-related genes explain ~30% of cases with severe obesity3-5. These data suggested that new monogenic forms of obesity could also be identified in this population. Here we identify and functionally characterize homozygous mutations in the ADCY3 gene encoding adenylate cyclase 3 in children with severe obesity from consanguineous Pakistani families, as well as compound heterozygous mutations in a severely obese child of European-American descent. These findings highlight ADCY3 as an important mediator of energy homeostasis and an attractive pharmacological target in the treatment of obesity.

16.
J Clin Endocrinol Metab ; 103(2): 539-545, 2018 02 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29216354

RESUMO

Context: The population of Guadeloupe Island exhibits a high prevalence of obesity. Objective: We aimed to investigate whether rare genetic mutations in genes involved in monogenic obesity (or diabetes) might be causal in this population of Afro-Caribbean ancestry. Design and Setting: This was a secondary analysis of a study on obesity conducted in schoolchildren from Guadeloupe in 2013 that aimed to assess changes in children's profiles after a lifestyle intervention program. Through next-generation sequencing, we sequenced coding regions of 59 genes involved in monogenic obesity or diabetes in participants from this study. Participants and Interventions: A total of 25 obese schoolchildren from Guadeloupe were screened for rare mutations (nonsynonymous, splice-site, or insertion/deletion) in 59 genes. Main Outcome Measures: Correlation between phenotypes and mutations of interest. Results: We detected five rare heterozygous mutations in five different children with obesity: MC4R p.Ile301Thr and SIM1 p.Val326Thrfs*43 mutations that were pathogenic; SIM1 p.Ser343Pro and SH2B1 p.Pro90His mutations that were likely pathogenic; and NTRK2 p.Leu140Phe that was of uncertain significance. In parallel, we identified seven carriers of mutations in ABCC8 (p.Lys1521Asn and p.Ala625Val) or KCNJ11 (p.Val13Met and p.Val151Met) that were of uncertain significance. Conclusions: We were able to detect pathogenic or likely pathogenic mutations linked to severe obesity in >15% of this population, which is much higher than what we observed in Europeans (∼5%).


Assuntos
Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano , Obesidade Pediátrica/epidemiologia , Obesidade Pediátrica/genética , Adolescente , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano/estatística & dados numéricos , Região do Caribe/etnologia , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Análise Mutacional de DNA , Feminino , Guadalupe/epidemiologia , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Masculino , Mutação , Obesidade Pediátrica/etnologia , Prevalência , Instituições Acadêmicas/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos
17.
Mol Metab ; 8: 65-76, 2018 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29237539

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Genome-wide association studies have reported that DNA polymorphisms at the CDKN2A locus modulate fasting glucose in human and contribute to type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk. Yet the causal relationship between this gene and defective energy homeostasis remains elusive. Here we sought to understand the contribution of Cdkn2a to metabolic homeostasis. METHODS: We first analyzed glucose and energy homeostasis from Cdkn2a-deficient mice subjected to normal or high fat diets. Subsequently Cdkn2a-deficient primary adipose cells and human-induced pluripotent stem differentiated into adipocytes were further characterized for their capacity to promote browning of adipose tissue. Finally CDKN2A levels were studied in adipocytes from lean and obese patients. RESULTS: We report that Cdkn2a deficiency protects mice against high fat diet-induced obesity, increases energy expenditure and modulates adaptive thermogenesis, in addition to improving insulin sensitivity. Disruption of Cdkn2a associates with increased expression of brown-like/beige fat markers in inguinal adipose tissue and enhances respiration in primary adipose cells. Kinase activity profiling and RNA-sequencing analysis of primary adipose cells further demonstrate that Cdkn2a modulates gene networks involved in energy production and lipid metabolism, through the activation of the Protein Kinase A (PKA), PKG, PPARGC1A and PRDM16 signaling pathways, key regulators of adipocyte beiging. Importantly, CDKN2A expression is increased in adipocytes from obese compared to lean subjects. Moreover silencing CDKN2A expression during human-induced pluripotent stem cells adipogenic differentiation promoted UCP1 expression. CONCLUSION: Our results offer novel insight into brown/beige adipocyte functions, which has recently emerged as an attractive therapeutic strategy for obesity and T2D. Modulating Cdkn2a-regulated signaling cascades may be of interest for the treatment of metabolic disorders.

18.
Pediatr Diabetes ; 19(3): 381-387, 2018 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28940958

RESUMO

Neonatal diabetes mellitus (NDM) is a rare form of non-autoimmune diabetes usually diagnosed in the first 6 months of life. Various genetic defects have been shown to cause NDM with diverse clinical presentations and variable severity. Among transcriptional factor genes associated with isolated or syndromic NDM, a few cases of homozygous mutations in the NEUROG3 gene have been reported, all mutated patients presenting with congenital malabsorptive diarrhea with or without diabetes at a variable age of onset from early life to childhood. Through a targeted next-generation sequencing assay for monogenic diabetes genes, we aimed to search for pathogenic deleterious mutation in a Turkish patient with NDM, severe malabsorptive diarrhea, neurointestinal dysplasia and other atypical features. In this patient, we identified a novel homozygous nonsense mutation (p.Q4*) in NEUROG3. The same biallelic mutation was found in another affected family member. Of note, the study proband presents with abnormalities of the intrahepatic biliary tract, thyroid gland and central nervous system, which has never been reported before in NEUROG3 mutation carriers. Our findings extend the usually described clinical features associated with NEUROG3 deficiency in humans, and question the extent to which a complete lack of NEUROG3 expression may affect pancreas endocrine function in humans.


Assuntos
Fatores de Transcrição Hélice-Alça-Hélice Básicos/genética , Complicações do Diabetes/genética , Síndromes de Malabsorção/genética , Proteínas do Tecido Nervoso/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Códon sem Sentido , Feminino , Humanos , Síndromes de Malabsorção/complicações , Masculino
19.
Curr Diab Rep ; 17(12): 122, 2017 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29063374

RESUMO

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a complex genetic metabolic disorder. T2D heritability has been estimated around 40-70%. In the last decade, exponential progress has been made in identifying T2D genetic determinants, through genome-wide association studies (GWAS). Among single-nucleotide polymorphisms mostly associated with T2D risk, rs10830963 is located in the MTNR1B gene, encoding one of the two receptors of melatonin, a neurohormone involved in circadian rhythms. Subsequent studies aiming to disentangle the role of MTNR1B in T2D pathophysiology led to controversies. In this review, we will tackle them and will try to give some directions to get a better view of MTNR1B contribution to T2D pathophysiology. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies either based on genetic/genomic analyses, clinical/epidemiology data, functional analyses at rs10830963 locus, insulin secretion assays in response to melatonin (involving or not MTNR1B) or animal model analyses have led to strong controversies at each level of interpretation. We discuss possible caveats in these studies and present ways to go beyond these issues, towards a better understanding of T2D molecular mechanisms, keeping in mind that melatonin is a versatile hormone and regulates many functions via its primary role in the body clock.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/metabolismo , Melatonina/metabolismo , Receptor MT2 de Melatonina/metabolismo , Animais , Ritmo Circadiano/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/fisiopatologia , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Insulina/metabolismo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Receptor MT2 de Melatonina/genética
20.
Stem Cell Res ; 23: 178-181, 2017 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28925365

RESUMO

Heterozygous activating mutation (p.Glu227Lys) in KCNJ11 leads to maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) type 13, that is a subtype of dominant inherited young-onset non-autoimmune diabetes due to a primary defect in pancreatic beta cells. We generated induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from a patient with KCNJ11p.Glu227Lys mutation who developed MODY at 13years old. KCNJ11p.Glu227Lys-mutated cells that were reprogrammed by non-integrative viral transduction had normal karyotype, harboured the KCNJ11p.Glu227Lys mutation, expressed pluripotency hallmarks and had the differentiation capacity into the three germ layers.


Assuntos
Técnicas de Cultura de Células/métodos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Células-Tronco Pluripotentes Induzidas/patologia , Mutação/genética , Canais de Potássio Corretores do Fluxo de Internalização/genética , Animais , Sequência de Bases , Forma Celular , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Repetições de Microssatélites/genética , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Fenótipo
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