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1.
Neuron ; 2019 Oct 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31585809

RESUMO

In humans, disruption of nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) has been associated with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) such as autism spectrum disorder and intellectual disability. However, the mechanism by which deficient NMD leads to neurodevelopmental dysfunction remains unknown, preventing development of targeted therapies. Here we identified novel protein-coding UPF2 (UP-Frameshift 2) variants in humans with NDD, including speech and language deficits. In parallel, we found that mice lacking Upf2 in the forebrain (Upf2 fb-KO mice) show impaired NMD, memory deficits, abnormal long-term potentiation (LTP), and social and communication deficits. Surprisingly, Upf2 fb-KO mice exhibit elevated expression of immune genes and brain inflammation. More importantly, treatment with two FDA-approved anti-inflammatory drugs reduced brain inflammation, restored LTP and long-term memory, and reversed social and communication deficits. Collectively, our findings indicate that impaired UPF2-dependent NMD leads to neurodevelopmental dysfunction and suggest that anti-inflammatory agents may prove effective for treatment of disorders with impaired NMD.

2.
Mol Genet Metab ; 2019 Sep 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540697

RESUMO

Panthothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration (PKAN, OMIM 234200), is an inborn is an autosomal recessive inborn error of metabolism caused by pathogenic variants in PANK2. PANK2 encodes the enzyme pantothenate kinase 2 (EC 2.7.1.33), an essential regulatory enzyme in CoA biosynthesis. Clinical presentation includes dystonia, rigidity, bradykinesia, dysarthria, pigmentary retinopathy and dementia with variable age of onset ranging from childhood to adulthood. In order to provide an accurate incidence estimate of PKAN, we conducted a systematic review of the literature and databases for pathogenic mutations and constructed a bioinformatic profile for pathogenic missense variants in PANK2. We then studied the gnomAD cohort of ~140,000 unrelated adults from global populations to determine the allele frequency of the variants in PANK2 reported pathogenic for PKAN and for those additional variants identified in gnomAD that met bioinformatics criteria for being potentially pathogenic. Incidence was estimated based on three different models using the allele frequencies of pathogenic PKAN variants with or without those bioinformatically determined to be potentially pathogenic. Disease incidence calculations showed PKAN incidence ranging from 1:396,006 in Europeans, 1:1,526,982 in Africans, 1:480,826 in Latino, 1:523,551 in East Asians and 1:531,118 in South Asians. These results indicate PKAN is expected to occur in approximately 2 of every 1 million live births globally outside of Africa, and has a much lower incidence 1 in 1.5 million live births in the African population.

3.
Hum Mutat ; 2019 Aug 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31448843

RESUMO

PARN encodes poly(A)-specific ribonuclease. Biallelic and monoallelic PARN variants are associated with Hoyeraal-Hreidarsson syndrome/dyskeratosis congenita and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), respectively. The molecular features associated with incomplete penetrance of PARN-associated IPF have not been described. We report a family with a rare missense, p.Y91C, and a novel insertion, p.(I274*), PARN variant. We found PARN p.Y91C had reduced deadenylase activity and the p.(I274*) transcript was depleted. Detailed analysis of the consequences of these variants revealed that, while PARN protein was lowest in the severely affected biallelic child who had the shortest telomeres, it was also reduced in his mother with the p.(I274*) variant but telomeres at the 50th percentile. Increased adenylation of telomerase RNA, human telomerase RNA, and certain small nucleolar RNAs, and impaired ribosomal RNA maturation were observed in cells derived from the severely affected biallelic carrier, but not in the other, less affected biallelic carrier, who had less severely shortened telomeres, nor in the monoallelic carriers who were unaffected and had telomeres ranging from the 1st to the 50th percentiles. We identified hsa-miR-202-5p as a potential negative regulator of PARN. We propose one or more genetic modifiers influence the impact of PARN variants on its targets and this underlies incomplete penetrance of PARN-associated disease.

4.
Hum Mutat ; 40(10): 1731-1748, 2019 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31045291

RESUMO

Mutations in either the mitochondrial or nuclear genomes are associated with a diverse group of human disorders characterized by impaired mitochondrial respiration. Within this group, an increasing number of mutations have been identified in nuclear genes involved in mitochondrial RNA metabolism, including ELAC2. The ELAC2 gene codes for the mitochondrial RNase Z, responsible for endonucleolytic cleavage of the 3' ends of mitochondrial pre-tRNAs. Here, we report the identification of 16 novel ELAC2 variants in individuals presenting with mitochondrial respiratory chain deficiency, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), and lactic acidosis. We provide evidence for the pathogenicity of the novel missense variants by studying the RNase Z activity in an in vitro system. We also modeled the residues affected by a missense mutation in solved RNase Z structures, providing insight into enzyme structure and function. Finally, we show that primary fibroblasts from the affected individuals have elevated levels of unprocessed mitochondrial RNA precursors. Our study thus broadly confirms the correlation of ELAC2 variants with severe infantile-onset forms of HCM and mitochondrial respiratory chain dysfunction. One rare missense variant associated with the occurrence of prostate cancer (p.Arg781His) impairs the mitochondrial RNase Z activity of ELAC2, suggesting a functional link between tumorigenesis and mitochondrial RNA metabolism.

5.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 6(3): 515-524, 2019 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30911575

RESUMO

Objectives: Mitochondrial methionyl-tRNA formyltransferase (MTFMT) is required for the initiation of translation and elongation of mitochondrial protein synthesis. Pathogenic variants in MTFMT have been associated with Leigh syndrome (LS) and mitochondrial multiple respiratory chain deficiencies. We sought to elucidate the spectrum of clinical, neuroradiological and molecular genetic findings of patients with bi-allelic pathogenic variants in MTFMT. Methods: Retrospective cohort study combining new cases and previously published cases. Results: Thirty-eight patients with pathogenic variants in MTFMT were identified, including eight new cases. The median age of presentation was 14 months (range: birth to 17 years, interquartile range [IQR] 4.5 years), with developmental delay and motor symptoms being the most frequent initial manifestation. Twenty-nine percent of the patients survived into adulthood. MRI headings in MTFMT pathogenic variants included symmetrical basal ganglia changes (62%), periventricular and subcortical white matter abnormalities (55%), and brainstem lesions (48%). Isolated complex I and combined respiratory chain deficiencies were identified in 31% and 59% of the cases, respectively. Reduction of the mitochondrial complex I and complex IV subunits was identified in the fibroblasts (13/13). Sixteen pathogenic variants were identified, of which c.626C>T was the most common. Seventy-four percent of the patients were alive at their last clinical review (median 6.8 years, range: 14 months to 31 years, IQR 14.5 years). Interpretation: Patients that harbour pathogenic variants in MTFMT have a milder clinical phenotype and disease progression compared to LS caused by other nuclear defects. Fibroblasts may preclude the need for muscle biopsy, to prove causality of any novel variant.

6.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 5108, 2019 Mar 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30911037

RESUMO

Primary mitochondrial dysfunction is an under-appreciated cause of cardiomyopathy, especially when cardiac symptoms are the unique or prevalent manifestation of disease. Here, we report an unusual presentation of mitochondrial cardiomyopathy, with dilated phenotype and pathologic evidence of biventricular fibro-adipose replacement, in a 33-year old woman who underwent cardiac transplant. Whole exome sequencing revealed two novel compound heterozygous variants in the TSFM gene, coding for the mitochondrial translation elongation factor EF-Ts. This protein participates in the elongation step of mitochondrial translation by binding and stabilizing the translation elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu). Bioinformatics analysis predicted a destabilization of the EF-Ts variants complex with EF-Tu, in agreement with the dramatic steady-state level reduction of both proteins in the clinically affected myocardium, which demonstrated a combined respiratory chain enzyme deficiency. In patient fibroblasts, the decrease of EF-Ts was paralleled by up-regulation of EF-Tu and induction of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, along with increased expression of respiratory chain subunits and normal oxygen consumption rate. Our report extends the current picture of morphologic phenotypes associated with mitochondrial cardiomyopathies and confirms the heart as a main target of TSFM dysfunction. The compensatory response detected in patient fibroblasts might explain the tissue-specific expression of TSFM-associated disease.

7.
Am J Hum Genet ; 103(5): 817-825, 2018 Nov 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30401461

RESUMO

ADP-ribosylation is a reversible posttranslational modification used to regulate protein function. ADP-ribosyltransferases transfer ADP-ribose from NAD+ to the target protein, and ADP-ribosylhydrolases, such as ADPRHL2, reverse the reaction. We used exome sequencing to identify five different bi-allelic pathogenic ADPRHL2 variants in 12 individuals from 8 families affected by a neurodegenerative disorder manifesting in childhood or adolescence with key clinical features including developmental delay or regression, seizures, ataxia, and axonal (sensori-)motor neuropathy. ADPRHL2 was virtually absent in available affected individuals' fibroblasts, and cell viability was reduced upon hydrogen peroxide exposure, although it was rescued by expression of wild-type ADPRHL2 mRNA as well as treatment with a PARP1 inhibitor. Our findings suggest impaired protein ribosylation as another pathway that, if disturbed, causes neurodegenerative diseases.

8.
EMBO Mol Med ; 10(11)2018 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30201738

RESUMO

OXA1, the mitochondrial member of the YidC/Alb3/Oxa1 membrane protein insertase family, is required for the assembly of oxidative phosphorylation complexes IV and V in yeast. However, depletion of human OXA1 (OXA1L) was previously reported to impair assembly of complexes I and V only. We report a patient presenting with severe encephalopathy, hypotonia and developmental delay who died at 5 years showing complex IV deficiency in skeletal muscle. Whole exome sequencing identified biallelic OXA1L variants (c.500_507dup, p.(Ser170Glnfs*18) and c.620G>T, p.(Cys207Phe)) that segregated with disease. Patient muscle and fibroblasts showed decreased OXA1L and subunits of complexes IV and V. Crucially, expression of wild-type human OXA1L in patient fibroblasts rescued the complex IV and V defects. Targeted depletion of OXA1L in human cells or Drosophila melanogaster caused defects in the assembly of complexes I, IV and V, consistent with patient data. Immunoprecipitation of OXA1L revealed the enrichment of mtDNA-encoded subunits of complexes I, IV and V. Our data verify the pathogenicity of these OXA1L variants and demonstrate that OXA1L is required for the assembly of multiple respiratory chain complexes.

9.
Am J Med Genet A ; 176(5): 1115-1127, 2018 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29575569

RESUMO

Short-chain enoyl-CoA hydratase (SCEH or ECHS1) deficiency is a rare inborn error of metabolism caused by biallelic mutations in the gene ECHS1 (OMIM 602292). Clinical presentation includes infantile-onset severe developmental delay, regression, seizures, elevated lactate, and brain MRI abnormalities consistent with Leigh syndrome (LS). Characteristic abnormal biochemical findings are secondary to dysfunction of valine metabolism. We describe four patients from two consanguineous families (one Pakistani and one Irish Traveler), who presented in infancy with LS. Urine organic acid analysis by GC/MS showed increased levels of erythro-2,3-dihydroxy-2-methylbutyrate and 3-methylglutaconate (3-MGC). Increased urine excretion of methacrylyl-CoA and acryloyl-CoA related metabolites analyzed by LC-MS/MS, were suggestive of SCEH deficiency; this was confirmed in patient fibroblasts. Both families were shown to harbor homozygous pathogenic variants in the ECHS1 gene; a c.476A > G (p.Gln159Arg) ECHS1variant in the Pakistani family and a c.538A > G, p.(Thr180Ala) ECHS1 variant in the Irish Traveler family. The c.538A > G, p.(Thr180Ala) ECHS1 variant was postulated to represent a Canadian founder mutation, but we present SNP genotyping data to support Irish ancestry of this variant with a haplotype common to the previously reported Canadian patients and our Irish Traveler family. The presence of detectable erythro-2,3-dihydroxy-2-methylbutyrate is a nonspecific marker on urine organic acid analysis but this finding, together with increased excretion of 3-MGC, elevated plasma lactate, and normal acylcarnitine profile in patients with a Leigh-like presentation should prompt consideration of a diagnosis of SCEH deficiency and genetic analysis of ECHS1. ECHS1 deficiency can be added to the list of conditions with 3-MGA.

10.
Genet Med ; 20(10): 1255-1265, 2018 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29419818

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Biallelic mutations in SCYL1 were recently identified as causing a syndromal disorder characterized by peripheral neuropathy, cerebellar atrophy, ataxia, and recurrent episodes of liver failure. The occurrence of SCYL1 deficiency among patients with previously undetermined infantile cholestasis or acute liver failure has not been studied; furthermore, little is known regarding the hepatic phenotype. METHODS: We aimed to identify patients with SCYL1 variants within an exome-sequencing study of individuals with infantile cholestasis or acute liver failure of unknown etiology. Deep clinical and biochemical phenotyping plus analysis of liver biopsies and functional studies on fibroblasts were performed. RESULTS: Seven patients from five families with biallelic SCYL1 variants were identified. The main clinical phenotype was recurrent low γ-glutamyl-transferase (GGT) cholestasis or acute liver failure with onset in infancy and a variable neurological phenotype of later onset (CALFAN syndrome). Liver crises were triggered by febrile infections and were transient, but fibrosis developed. Functional studies emphasize that SCYL1 deficiency is linked to impaired intracellular trafficking. CONCLUSION: SCYL1 deficiency can cause recurrent low-GGT cholestatic liver dysfunction in conjunction with a variable neurological phenotype. Like NBAS deficiency, it is a member of the emerging group of congenital disorders of intracellular trafficking causing hepatopathy.

11.
JIMD Rep ; 2018 Feb 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29480352

RESUMO

Metabolomic profiling is an emerging technology in the clinical setting with immediate diagnostic potential for the population of patients with Inborn Errors of Metabolism. We present the metabolomics profile of two ABAT deficiency patients both pre- and posttreatment with flumazenil. ABAT deficiency, also known as GABA-transaminase deficiency, is caused by recessive mutations in the gene ABAT and leads to encephalopathy of variable severity with hypersomnolence, hypotonia, hypomyelination, and seizures. Through metabolomics screening of multiple patient tissues, we identify 2-pyrrolidinone as a biomarker for GABA that is informative in plasma, urine, and CSF. These data will enable noninvasive diagnostic testing for the population of patients with disorders of GABA metabolism.

12.
Hum Mutat ; 39(4): 563-578, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29314548

RESUMO

In recent years, an increasing number of mitochondrial disorders have been associated with mutations in mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (mt-aaRSs), which are key enzymes of mitochondrial protein synthesis. Bi-allelic functional variants in VARS2, encoding the mitochondrial valyl tRNA-synthetase, were first reported in a patient with psychomotor delay and epilepsia partialis continua associated with an oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) Complex I defect, before being described in a patient with a neonatal form of encephalocardiomyopathy. Here we provide a detailed genetic, clinical, and biochemical description of 13 patients, from nine unrelated families, harboring VARS2 mutations. All patients except one, who manifested with a less severe disease course, presented at birth exhibiting severe encephalomyopathy and cardiomyopathy. Features included hypotonia, psychomotor delay, seizures, feeding difficulty, abnormal cranial MRI, and elevated lactate. The biochemical phenotype comprised a combined Complex I and Complex IV OXPHOS defect in muscle, with patient fibroblasts displaying normal OXPHOS activity. Homology modeling supported the pathogenicity of VARS2 missense variants. The detailed description of this cohort further delineates our understanding of the clinical presentation associated with pathogenic VARS2 variants and we recommend that this gene should be considered in early-onset mitochondrial encephalomyopathies or encephalocardiomyopathies.

13.
Hum Mutat ; 39(4): 537-549, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29297947

RESUMO

Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are essential cofactors for proteins that participate in fundamental cellular processes including metabolism, DNA replication and repair, transcriptional regulation, and the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC). ISCA2 plays a role in the biogenesis of Fe-S clusters and a recent report described subjects displaying infantile-onset leukodystrophy due to bi-allelic mutation of ISCA2. We present two additional unrelated cases, and provide a more complete clinical description that includes hyperglycinemia, leukodystrophy of the brainstem with longitudinally extensive spinal cord involvement, and mtDNA deficiency. Additionally, we characterize the role of ISCA2 in mitochondrial bioenergetics and Fe-S cluster assembly using subject cells and ISCA2 cellular knockdown models. Loss of ISCA2 diminished mitochondrial membrane potential, the mitochondrial network, basal and maximal respiration, ATP production, and activity of ETC complexes II and IV. We specifically tested the impact of loss of ISCA2 on 2Fe-2S proteins versus 4Fe-4S proteins and observed deficits in the functioning of 4Fe-4S but not 2Fe-2S proteins. Together these data indicate loss of ISCA2 impaired function of 4Fe-4S proteins resulting in a fatal encephalopathy accompanied by a relatively unusual combination of features including mtDNA depletion alongside complex II deficiency and hyperglycinemia that may facilitate diagnosis of ISCA2 deficiency patients.

14.
Am J Hum Genet ; 101(5): 833-843, 2017 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29100093

RESUMO

Gorlin-Chaudhry-Moss syndrome (GCMS) is a dysmorphic syndrome characterized by coronal craniosynostosis and severe midface hypoplasia, body and facial hypertrichosis, microphthalmia, short stature, and short distal phalanges. Variable lipoatrophy and cutis laxa are the basis for a progeroid appearance. Using exome and genome sequencing, we identified the recurrent de novo mutations c.650G>A (p.Arg217His) and c.649C>T (p.Arg217Cys) in SLC25A24 in five unrelated girls diagnosed with GCMS. Two of the girls had pronounced neonatal progeroid features and were initially diagnosed with Wiedemann-Rautenstrauch syndrome. SLC25A24 encodes a mitochondrial inner membrane ATP-Mg/Pi carrier. In fibroblasts from affected individuals, the mutated SLC25A24 showed normal stability. In contrast to control cells, the probands' cells showed mitochondrial swelling, which was exacerbated upon treatment with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The same effect was observed after overexpression of the mutant cDNA. Under normal culture conditions, the mitochondrial membrane potential of the probands' fibroblasts was intact, whereas ATP content in the mitochondrial matrix was lower than that in control cells. However, upon H2O2 exposure, the membrane potential was significantly elevated in cells harboring the mutated SLC25A24. No reduction of mitochondrial DNA copy number was observed. These findings demonstrate that mitochondrial dysfunction with increased sensitivity to oxidative stress is due to the SLC25A24 mutations. Our results suggest that the SLC25A24 mutations induce a gain of pathological function and link mitochondrial ATP-Mg/Pi transport to the development of skeletal and connective tissue.


Assuntos
Anormalidades Múltiplas/genética , Antiporters/genética , Proteínas de Ligação ao Cálcio/genética , Anormalidades Craniofaciais/genética , Craniossinostoses/genética , Permeabilidade do Canal Arterial/genética , Hipertricose/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Mutação/genética , Trifosfato de Adenosina/genética , Adolescente , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Cútis Laxa/genética , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Retardo do Crescimento Fetal/genética , Fibroblastos/patologia , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Lactente , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/efeitos dos fármacos , Potencial da Membrana Mitocondrial/genética , Mitocôndrias/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Progéria/genética
15.
Neurology ; 88(20): 1919-1924, 2017 May 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28411234

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: We report a case series of 10 patients with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-transaminase deficiency including a novel therapeutic trial and an expanded phenotype. METHODS: Case ascertainment, literature review, comprehensive evaluations, and long-term treatment with flumazenil. RESULTS: All patients presented with neonatal or early infantile-onset encephalopathy; other features were hypotonia, hypersomnolence, epilepsy, choreoathetosis, and accelerated linear growth. EEGs showed burst-suppression, modified hypsarrhythmia, multifocal spikes, and generalized spike-wave. Five of the 10 patients are currently alive with age at last follow-up between 18 months and 9.5 years. Treatment with continuous flumazenil was implemented in 2 patients. One patient, with a milder phenotype, began treatment at age 21 months and has continued for 20 months with improved alertness and less excessive adventitious movements. The second patient had a more severe phenotype and was 7 years of age at initiation of flumazenil, which was not continued. CONCLUSIONS: GABA-transaminase deficiency presents with neonatal or infantile-onset encephalopathy including hypersomnolence and choreoathetosis. A widened phenotypic spectrum is reported as opposed to lethality by 2 years of age. The GABA-A benzodiazepine receptor antagonist flumazenil may represent a therapeutic strategy.


Assuntos
4-Aminobutirato Transaminase/deficiência , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/diagnóstico , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/fisiopatologia , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/tratamento farmacológico , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo dos Aminoácidos/mortalidade , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Feminino , Flumazenil/uso terapêutico , Seguimentos , Moduladores GABAérgicos/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Fenótipo
16.
Ann Clin Transl Neurol ; 4(1): 4-14, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28078310

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Mitochondrial dysfunction plays a key role in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders such as ataxia and Parkinson's disease. We describe an extended Belgian pedigree where seven individuals presented with adult-onset cerebellar ataxia, axonal peripheral ataxic neuropathy, and tremor, in variable combination with parkinsonism, seizures, cognitive decline, and ophthalmoplegia. We sought to identify the underlying molecular etiology and characterize the mitochondrial pathophysiology of this neurological syndrome. METHODS: Clinical, neurophysiological, and neuroradiological evaluations were conducted. Patient muscle and cultured fibroblasts underwent extensive analyses to assess mitochondrial function. Genetic studies including genome-wide sequencing were conducted. RESULTS: Hallmarks of mitochondrial dysfunction were present in patients' tissues including ultrastructural anomalies of mitochondria, mosaic cytochrome c oxidase deficiency, and multiple mtDNA deletions. We identified a splice acceptor variant in POLG2, c.970-1G>C, segregating with disease in this family and associated with a concomitant decrease in levels of POLG2 protein in patient cells. INTERPRETATION: This work extends the clinical spectrum of POLG2 deficiency to include an overwhelming, adult-onset neurological syndrome that includes cerebellar syndrome, peripheral neuropathy, tremor, and parkinsonism. We therefore suggest to include POLG2 sequencing in the evaluation of ataxia and sensory neuropathy in adults, especially when it is accompanied by tremor or parkinsonism with white matter disease. The demonstration that deletions of mtDNA resulting from autosomal-dominant POLG2 variant lead to a monogenic neurodegenerative multicomponent syndrome provides further evidence for a major role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathomechanism of nonsyndromic forms of the component neurodegenerative disorders.

17.
JIMD Rep ; 35: 1-5, 2017.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27858369

RESUMO

Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is an inborn error of metabolism leading to progressive multisystem disease. Symptoms often begin in the first decade of life with chronic diarrhea, cataracts, developmental delay, intellectual disability, and cerebellar or pyramidal dysfunction. Later manifestations include tendon xanthomas, polyneuropathy, and abnormal neuroimaging. Pathogenic biallelic variants in CYP27A1 leading to compromised function of sterol 27-hydroxylase result in accumulation of detectable toxic intermediates of bile acid synthesis rendering both genetic and biochemical testing effective diagnostic tools. Effective treatment with chenodeoxycholic acid is available, making early diagnosis critical for patient care. Here we report a new patient with CTX and describe the early signs of disease in this patient. Initial symptoms included infantile spasms, which have not previously been reported in CTX. Developmental delay, mild intellectual disability with measured cognitive decline in childhood, was also observed. These clinical signs do not traditionally compel testing for CTX, and we highlight the need to consider this rare but treatable disorder among the differential diagnosis of children with similar clinical presentation. Increased awareness of early signs of CTX is important for improving time to diagnosis for this patient population.

18.
Am J Hum Genet ; 100(1): 151-159, 2017 Jan 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27989324

RESUMO

MDH2 encodes mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (MDH), which is essential for the conversion of malate to oxaloacetate as part of the proper functioning of the Krebs cycle. We report bi-allelic pathogenic mutations in MDH2 in three unrelated subjects presenting with early-onset generalized hypotonia, psychomotor delay, refractory epilepsy, and elevated lactate in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Functional studies in fibroblasts from affected subjects showed both an apparently complete loss of MDH2 levels and MDH2 enzymatic activity close to null. Metabolomics analyses demonstrated a significant concomitant accumulation of the MDH substrate, malate, and fumarate, its immediate precursor in the Krebs cycle, in affected subjects' fibroblasts. Lentiviral complementation with wild-type MDH2 cDNA restored MDH2 levels and mitochondrial MDH activity. Additionally, introduction of the three missense mutations from the affected subjects into Saccharomyces cerevisiae provided functional evidence to support their pathogenicity. Disruption of the Krebs cycle is a hallmark of cancer, and MDH2 has been recently identified as a novel pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma susceptibility gene. We show that loss-of-function mutations in MDH2 are also associated with severe neurological clinical presentations in children.


Assuntos
Encefalopatias/genética , Ciclo do Ácido Cítrico , Malato Desidrogenase/genética , Mutação , Idade de Início , Alelos , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Ciclo do Ácido Cítrico/genética , Fibroblastos/enzimologia , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Fumaratos/metabolismo , Teste de Complementação Genética , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Malato Desidrogenase/química , Malato Desidrogenase/metabolismo , Malatos/metabolismo , Masculino , Metabolômica , Modelos Moleculares
19.
J Inherit Metab Dis ; 40(1): 121-130, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27696117

RESUMO

Mitochondrial diseases collectively represent one of the most heterogeneous group of metabolic disorders. Symptoms can manifest at any age, presenting with isolated or multiple-organ involvement. Advances in next-generation sequencing strategies have greatly enhanced the diagnosis of patients with mitochondrial disease, particularly where a mitochondrial aetiology is strongly suspected yet OXPHOS activities in biopsied tissue samples appear normal. We used whole exome sequencing (WES) to identify the molecular basis of an early-onset mitochondrial syndrome-pathogenic biallelic variants in the HTRA2 gene, encoding a mitochondria-localised serine protease-in five subjects from two unrelated families characterised by seizures, neutropenia, hypotonia and cardio-respiratory problems. A unifying feature in all affected children was 3-methylglutaconic aciduria (3-MGA-uria), a common biochemical marker observed in some patients with mitochondrial dysfunction. Although functional studies of HTRA2 subjects' fibroblasts and skeletal muscle homogenates showed severely decreased levels of mutant HTRA2 protein, the structural subunits and complexes of the mitochondrial respiratory chain appeared normal. We did detect a profound defect in OPA1 processing in HTRA2-deficient fibroblasts, suggesting a role for HTRA2 in the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics and OPA1 proteolysis. In addition, investigated subject fibroblasts were more susceptible to apoptotic insults. Our data support recent studies that described important functions for HTRA2 in programmed cell death and confirm that patients with genetically-unresolved 3-MGA-uria should be screened by WES with pathogenic variants in the HTRA2 gene prioritised for further analysis.


Assuntos
Variação Genética/genética , Serina Peptidase 2 de Requerimento de Alta Temperatura A/genética , Erros Inatos do Metabolismo/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Doenças Mitocondriais/genética , Morte Celular/genética , Células Cultivadas , Criança , Exoma/genética , Feminino , Fibroblastos/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Proteínas Mitocondriais/genética , Músculo Esquelético/metabolismo , Serina Proteases/genética , Síndrome
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