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1.
Am J Nephrol ; 2023 Jan 11.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36630924

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Diabetes is a leading cause of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Biomarkers of tubular health may prognosticate chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression beyond estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR). METHODS: We examined associations of five urinary biomarkers of tubular injury and repair (NGAL, KIM-1, IL-18, MCP-1, YKL-40) with kidney function decline (first occurrence of a decrease in eGFR≥30 ml/min/1.73 m2 if randomization eGFR≥60 or ≥50% if randomization eGFR<60; ESKD) and all-cause mortality among 1,135 VA NEPHRON-D trial participants with baseline UACR ≥300 mg/g and available urine samples. Covariates included age, sex, race, BMI, systolic BP, HbA1c, treatment arm, eGFR, and UACR. In a subset of participants with 12-month samples (n=712), we evaluated associations of KIM-1, MCP-1, and YKL-40 change (from baseline to 12 months) with eGFR decline (from 12 months onwards). RESULTS: At baseline, mean age was 65 years, mean eGFR was 56 ml/min/1.73 m2, and median UACR was 840 mg/g. Over a median of 2.2 years, 13% experienced kidney function decline and 9% died. In fully-adjusted models, the highest vs. lowest quartiles of MCP-1 and YKL-40 were associated with 2.18- and 1.76-fold higher risks of kidney function decline, respectively. One-year changes in KIM-1, MCP-1, and YKL-40 were not associated with subsequent eGFR decline. Higher baseline levels of NGAL, IL-18, MCP-1, and YKL-40 levels (per 2-fold higher) were independently associated with 10-40% higher risk of mortality. DISCUSSION/CONCLUSION: Among Veterans with diabetes and CKD, urinary biomarkers of tubular health were associated with kidney function decline and mortality.

2.
Adv Chronic Kidney Dis ; 29(5): 431-438, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36253026

RESUMO

Machine learning is the field of artificial intelligence in which computers are trained to make predictions or to identify patterns in data through complex mathematical algorithms. It has great potential in critical care to predict outcomes, such as acute kidney injury, and can be used for prognosis and to suggest management strategies. Machine learning can also be used as a research tool to advance our clinical and biochemical understanding of acute kidney injury. In this review, we introduce basic concepts in machine learning and review recent research in each of these domains.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Inteligência Artificial , Injúria Renal Aguda/diagnóstico , Injúria Renal Aguda/terapia , Cuidados Críticos , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Aprendizado de Máquina
5.
BMC Nephrol ; 23(1): 311, 2022 09 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36100915

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mechanisms by which AKI leads to CKD progression remain unclear. Several urine biomarkers have been identified as independent predictors of progressive CKD. It is unknown whether AKI may result in long-term changes in these urine biomarkers, which may mediate the effect of AKI on CKD progression. METHODS: We selected 198 episodes of hospitalized AKI (defined as peak/nadir inpatient serum creatinine values ≥ 1.5) among adult participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study. We matched the best non-AKI hospitalization (unique patients) for each AKI hospitalization using pre-hospitalization characteristics including eGFR and urine protein/creatinine ratio. Biomarkers were measured in banked urine samples collected at annual CRIC study visits. RESULTS: Urine biomarker measurements occurred a median of 7 months before and 5 months after hospitalization. There were no significant differences in the change in urine biomarker-to-creatinine ratio between the AKI and non-AKI groups: KIM-1/Cr + 9% vs + 7%, MCP-1/Cr + 4% vs + 1%, YKL-40/Cr + 7% vs -20%, EGF/Cr -11% vs -8%, UMOD/Cr -2% vs -7% and albumin/Cr + 17% vs + 13% (all p > 0.05). CONCLUSION: In this cohort of adults with CKD, AKI did not associate with long-term changes in urine biomarkers.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Creatinina , Humanos , Testes de Função Renal , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/urina
6.
Nat Biotechnol ; 2022 Aug 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36038632

RESUMO

Directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) into functional ureteric and collecting duct (CD) epithelia is essential to kidney regenerative medicine. Here we describe highly efficient, serum-free differentiation of hPSCs into ureteric bud (UB) organoids and functional CD cells. The hPSCs are first induced into pronephric progenitor cells at 90% efficiency and then aggregated into spheres with a molecular signature similar to the nephric duct. In a three-dimensional matrix, the spheres form UB organoids that exhibit branching morphogenesis similar to the fetal UB and correct distal tip localization of RET expression. Organoid-derived cells incorporate into the UB tips of the progenitor niche in chimeric fetal kidney explant culture. At later stages, the UB organoids differentiate into CD organoids, which contain >95% CD cell types as estimated by single-cell RNA sequencing. The CD epithelia demonstrate renal electrophysiologic functions, with ENaC-mediated vectorial sodium transport by principal cells and V-type ATPase proton pump activity by FOXI1-induced intercalated cells.

7.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 591, 2022 Jul 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35787257

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Microalbuminuria is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular and kidney disease and a predictor of end organ damage, both in the general population and in persons with HIV (PWH). Microalbuminuria is also an important risk factor for mortality in PWH treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART). In the ongoing Renal Risk Reduction (R3) study in Nigeria, we identified a high prevalence of microalbuminuria confirmed by two measurements 4-8 weeks apart in ART-experienced, virologically suppressed PWH. Although Stage 1 or 2 hypertension and exposure to potentially nephrotoxic antiretroviral medications were common in R3 participants, other traditional risk factors for albuminuria and kidney disease, including diabetes, APOL1 high-risk genotype, and smoking were rare. Co-infection with endemic pathogens may also be significant contributors to albuminuria, but co-infections were not evaluated in the R3 study population. METHODS: In Aim 1, we will cross-sectionally compare the prevalence of albuminuria and established kidney disease risk factors in a cohort of PWH to age- and sex-matched HIV-negative adults presenting for routine care at the Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital in Kano, Nigeria. We will leverage stored specimens from 2500 R3 participants and enroll an additional 500 PLWH recently initiated on ART (≤ 24 months) and 750 age- and sex-matched HIV-negative adults to determine the contribution of HIV, hypertension, and other comorbid medical conditions to prevalent albuminuria. In Aim 2, we will follow a cohort of 1000 HIV-positive, ART-treated and 500 HIV-negative normoalbuminuric adults for 30 months to evaluate the incidence and predictors of albuminuria. DISCUSSION: The findings from this study will support the development of interventions to prevent or address microalbuminuria in PWH to reduce kidney and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Such interventions might include more intensive monitoring and treatment of traditional risk factors, the provision of renin-angiotensin aldosterone system or sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors, consideration of changes in ART regimen, and screening and treatment for relevant co-infections.


Assuntos
Coinfecção , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2 , Infecções por HIV , Hipertensão , Nefropatias , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose , Adulto , Albuminúria/epidemiologia , Albuminúria/etiologia , Apolipoproteína L1 , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hipertensão/complicações , Hipertensão/epidemiologia , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Inibidores do Transportador 2 de Sódio-Glicose/uso terapêutico
8.
Kidney Int Rep ; 7(7): 1493-1501, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35812266

RESUMO

Introduction: Earlier identification of individuals at high risk of chronic kidney disease (CKD) may facilitate improved risk factor mitigation. Methods: We evaluated the association of novel plasma biomarkers with incident CKD using a case-cohort design in participants without diabetes and with baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥ 60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) and Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) cohorts. Incident CKD was defined as development of eGFR < 60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 and ≥40% decline in eGFR from baseline. We measured plasma markers of inflammation/fibrosis-soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors (TNFRs) 1 and 2 (TNFR-1 and TNFR-2), monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1), chitinase 3-like protein 1 (YKL-40), and soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR)-and tubular injury (kidney injury molecule 1 [KIM-1]). Cox regression models weighted for the case-cohort design were used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) of incident CKD after adjustment for CKD risk factors, eGFR, and albuminuria. Results: In MESA (median follow-up of 9.2 years), there were 497 individuals in the random subcohort and 163 incident CKD cases. In REGARDS (median follow-up of 9.4 years), there were 497 individuals in the random subcohort and 497 incident CKD cases. Each 2-fold higher plasma KIM-1 (adjusted HR 1.38 [95% CI 1.05-1.81]), suPAR (1.96 [1.10-3.49]), TNFR-1 (1.65 [1.04-2.62]), TNFR-2 (2.02 [1.21-3.38]), and YKL-40 (1.38 [1.09-1.75]) concentrations were associated with incident CKD in MESA. In REGARDS, TNFR-1 (1.99 [1.43-2.76]) and TNFR-2 (1.76 [1.22-2.54]) were associated with incident CKD. Conclusion: Plasma concentrations of soluble TNFR-1 and TNFR-2 are consistently associated with incident CKD in nondiabetic community-living individuals in MESA and REGARDS.

9.
Kidney Int Rep ; 7(7): 1514-1523, 2022 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35812302

RESUMO

Introduction: Tubulointerstitial damage in diabetes and chronic kidney disease (CKD) is poorly captured by estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and albuminuria. Urine biomarkers of kidney health may better elucidate disease progression in persons with diabetes and CKD. Methods: Per case-cohort design, we randomly selected a subcohort of 560 study participants of the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study from 1092 adults with diabetes and baseline eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 and registered a total of 161 end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) cases (n = 93 from the subcohort; n = 68 from outside the subcohort) during 4.3 ± 2.7 years mean follow-up. We measured urine biomarkers of kidney tubule injury (kidney injury molecule-1 [KIM-1]), inflammation and fibrosis (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 [MCP-1]), repair (chitinase-3-like protein 1 [YKL-40]), and tubule function, including reabsorption (alpha-1-microglobulin [α1m]) and synthetic capacity (epidermal growth factor [EGF] and uromodulin [UMOD]). Weighted Cox regression models estimated ESKD risk adjusting for demographics, ESKD risk factors, and baseline eGFR and urine albumin. Least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) regression identified a subset of biomarkers most strongly associated with ESKD. Results: At baseline, subcohort participants had mean age of 70 ± 9 years, mean eGFR of 40 ±13 ml/min per 1.73 m2, and median urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio of 33 (interquartile range 10-213) mg/g. Adjusting for baseline eGFR and albuminuria, each 2-fold higher urine KIM-1 (hazard ratio = 1.43 [95% CI: 1.17-1.75]), α1m (hazard ratio = 1.47 [1.19-1.82]), and MCP-1 (hazard ratio = 1.27 [1.06-1.53]) were independently associated with ESKD. LASSO retained KIM-1 and α1m for associations with ESKD. Conclusion: Among adults with diabetes and eGFR <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2, higher urine KIM-1, α1m, and MCP-1 are independently associated with incident ESKD, providing insight into kidney disease progression in persons with diabetes and CKD.

10.
Diabetes Metab Res Rev ; 38(7): e3565, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35830597

RESUMO

AIMS: Several reports indicate that diabetes determines an increased mortality risk in patients with coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) and a good glycaemic control appears to be associated with more favourable outcomes. Evidence also supports that COVID-19 pneumonia only accounts for a part of COVID-19 related deaths. This disease is indeed characterised by abnormal inflammatory response and vascular dysfunction, leading to the involvement and failure of different systems, including severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, coagulopathy, myocardial damage and renal failure. Inflammation and vascular dysfunction are also well-known features of hyperglycemia and diabetes, making up the ground for a detrimental synergistic combination that could explain the increased mortality observed in hyperglycaemic patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this work, we conduct a narrative review on this intriguing connection. Together with this, we also present the clinical characteristics, outcomes, laboratory and histopathological findings related to this topic of a cohort of nearly 1000 subjects with COVID-19 admitted to a third-level Hospital in Milan. RESULTS: We found an increased mortality in subjects with COVID-19 and diabetes, together with an altered inflammatory profile. CONCLUSIONS: This may support the hypothesis that diabetes and COVID-19 meet at the crossroads of inflammation and vascular dysfunction. (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04463849 and NCT04382794).


Assuntos
Transtornos da Coagulação Sanguínea , COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , COVID-19/complicações , Humanos , Inflamação , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Diabetes ; 71(7): 1579-1590, 2022 07 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35499468

RESUMO

Recent studies have shown that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection may induce metabolic distress, leading to hyperglycemia in patients affected by coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). We investigated the potential indirect and direct effects of SARS-CoV-2 on human pancreatic islets in 10 patients who became hyperglycemic after COVID-19. Although there was no evidence of peripheral anti-islet autoimmunity, the serum of these patients displayed toxicity on human pancreatic islets, which could be abrogated by the use of anti-interleukin-1ß (IL-1ß), anti-IL-6, and anti-tumor necrosis factor α, cytokines known to be highly upregulated during COVID-19. Interestingly, the receptors of those aforementioned cytokines were highly expressed on human pancreatic islets. An increase in peripheral unmethylated INS DNA, a marker of cell death, was evident in several patients with COVID-19. Pathology of the pancreas from deceased hyperglycemic patients who had COVID-19 revealed mild lymphocytic infiltration of pancreatic islets and pancreatic lymph nodes. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2-specific viral RNA, along with the presence of several immature insulin granules or proinsulin, was detected in postmortem pancreatic tissues, suggestive of ß-cell-altered proinsulin processing, as well as ß-cell degeneration and hyperstimulation. These data demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 may negatively affect human pancreatic islet function and survival by creating inflammatory conditions, possibly with a direct tropism, which may in turn lead to metabolic abnormalities observed in patients with COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Ilhotas Pancreáticas , COVID-19/complicações , Citocinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Hiperglicemia/virologia , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/metabolismo , Ilhotas Pancreáticas/virologia , Proinsulina/metabolismo , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Cell Rep ; 38(10): 110473, 2022 03 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35263586

RESUMO

Signal transduction and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a key transcription factor implicated in the pathogenesis of kidney fibrosis. Although Stat3 deletion in tubular epithelial cells is known to protect mice from fibrosis, vFoxd1 cells remains unclear. Using Foxd1-mediated Stat3 knockout mice, CRISPR, and inhibitors of STAT3, we investigate its function. STAT3 is phosphorylated in tubular epithelial cells in acute kidney injury, whereas it is expanded to interstitial cells in fibrosis in mice and humans. Foxd1-mediated deletion of Stat3 protects mice from folic-acid- and aristolochic-acid-induced kidney fibrosis. Mechanistically, STAT3 upregulates the inflammation and differentiates pericytes into myofibroblasts. STAT3 activation increases migration and profibrotic signaling in genome-edited, pericyte-like cells. Conversely, blocking Stat3 inhibits detachment, migration, and profibrotic signaling. Furthermore, STAT3 binds to the Collagen1a1 promoter in mouse kidneys and cells. Together, our study identifies a previously unknown function of STAT3 that promotes kidney fibrosis and has therapeutic value in fibrosis.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Pericitos , Fator de Transcrição STAT3/metabolismo , Injúria Renal Aguda/metabolismo , Animais , Transdiferenciação Celular , Fibrose , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Rim/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Pericitos/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/fisiologia
13.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 33(6): 1173-1181, 2022 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35296554

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Some markers of inflammation-TNF receptors 1 and 2 (TNFR1 and TNFR2)-are independently associated with progressive CKD, as is a marker of proximal tubule injury, kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1). However, whether an episode of hospitalized AKI may cause long-term changes in these biomarkers is unknown. METHODS: Among adult participants in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study, we identified 198 episodes of hospitalized AKI (defined as peak/nadir inpatient serum creatinine values ≥1.5). For each AKI hospitalization, we found the best matched non-AKI hospitalization (unique patients), using prehospitalization characteristics, including eGFR and urine protein/creatinine ratio. We measured TNFR1, TNFR2, and KIM-1 in banked plasma samples collected at annual CRIC study visits before and after the hospitalization (a median of 7 months before and 5 months after hospitalization). RESULTS: In the AKI and non-AKI groups, we found similar prehospitalization median levels of TNFR1 (1373 pg/ml versus 1371 pg/ml, for AKI and non-AKI, respectively), TNFR2 (47,141 pg/ml versus 46,135 pg/ml, respectively), and KIM-1 (857 pg/ml versus 719 pg/ml, respectively). Compared with matched study participants who did not experience AKI, study participants who did experience AKI had greater increases in TNFR1 (23% versus 10%, P<0.01), TNFR2 (10% versus 3%, P<0.01), and KIM-1 (13% versus -2%, P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with CKD, AKI during hospitalization was associated with increases in plasma TNFR1, TNFR2, and KIM-1 several months after their hospitalization. These results highlight a potential mechanism by which AKI may contribute to more rapid loss of kidney function months to years after the acute insult.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Receptor Celular 1 do Vírus da Hepatite A/sangue , Receptores Tipo I de Fatores de Necrose Tumoral/sangue , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Adulto , Biomarcadores , Creatinina , Humanos , Receptores Tipo II do Fator de Necrose Tumoral , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/complicações , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia
14.
Kidney Int ; 101(5): 845-853, 2022 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35276204

RESUMO

Acute kidney injury impacts âˆ¼13.3 million individuals and causes âˆ¼1.7 million deaths per year globally. Numerous injury pathways contribute to acute kidney injury, including cell cycle arrest, senescence, inflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, and endothelial injury and dysfunction, and can lead to chronic inflammation and fibrosis. However, factors enabling productive repair versus nonproductive, persistent injury states remain less understood. The (Re)Building a Kidney (RBK) consortium is a National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases consortium focused on both endogenous kidney repair mechanisms and the generation of new kidney tissue. This short review provides an update on RBK studies of endogenous nephron repair, addressing the following questions: (i) What is productive nephron repair? (ii) What are the cellular sources and drivers of repair? and (iii) How do RBK studies promote development of therapeutics? Also, we provide a guide to RBK's open access data hub for accessing, downloading, and further analyzing data sets.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Rim , Injúria Renal Aguda/patologia , Feminino , Fibrose , Humanos , Inflamação/patologia , Rim/patologia , Masculino , National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (U.S.) , Regeneração , Estados Unidos
15.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(5): e022991, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35179046

RESUMO

Background The myocardial cytoskeleton functions as the fundamental framework critical for organelle function, bioenergetics and myocardial remodeling. To date, impairment of the myocardial cytoskeleton occurring in the failing heart in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease has been largely undescribed. Methods and Results We conducted a 3-arm cross-sectional cohort study of explanted human heart tissues from patients who are dependent on hemodialysis (n=19), hypertension (n=10) with preserved renal function, and healthy controls (n=21). Left ventricular tissues were subjected to pathologic examination and next-generation RNA sequencing. Mechanistic and interference RNA studies utilizing in vitro human cardiac fibroblast models were performed. Left ventricular tissues from patients undergoing hemodialysis exhibited increased myocardial wall thickness and significantly greater fibrosis compared with hypertension patients (P<0.05) and control (P<0.01). Transcriptomic analysis revealed that the focal adhesion pathway was significantly enriched in hearts from patients undergoing hemodialysis. Hearts from patients undergoing hemodialysis exhibited dysregulated components of the focal adhesion pathway including reduced ß-actin (P<0.01), ß-tubulin (P<0.01), vimentin (P<0.05), and increased expression of vinculin (P<0.05) compared with controls. Cytoskeletal adaptations in hearts from the hemodialysis group were associated with impaired mitochondrial bioenergetics, including dysregulated mitochondrial dynamics and fusion, and loss of cell survival pathways. Mechanistic studies revealed that cytoskeletal changes can be driven by uremic and metabolic abnormalities of chronic kidney disease, in vitro. Furthermore, focal adhesion kinase silencing via interference RNA suppressed major cytoskeletal proteins synergistically with mineral stressors found in chronic kidney disease in vitro. Conclusions Myocardial failure in advanced chronic kidney disease is characterized by impairment of the cytoskeleton involving disruption of the focal adhesion pathway, mitochondrial failure, and loss of cell survival pathways.


Assuntos
Hipertensão , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Estudos Transversais , Citoesqueleto , Humanos , Rim/fisiologia , RNA , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/terapia
16.
Nat Rev Nephrol ; 18(4): 241-257, 2022 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35064233

RESUMO

The use of biomimetic models of the glomerulus has the potential to improve our understanding of the pathogenesis of kidney diseases and to enable progress in therapeutics. Current in vitro models comprise organ-on-a-chip, scaffold-based and organoid approaches. Glomerulus-on-a-chip designs mimic components of glomerular microfluidic flow but lack the inherent complexity of the glomerular filtration barrier. Scaffold-based 3D culture systems and organoids provide greater microenvironmental complexity but do not replicate fluid flows and dynamic responses to fluidic stimuli. As the available models do not accurately model the structure or filtration function of the glomerulus, their applications are limited. An optimal approach to glomerular modelling is yet to be developed, but the field will probably benefit from advances in biofabrication techniques. In particular, 3D bioprinting technologies could enable the fabrication of constructs that recapitulate the complex structure of the glomerulus and the glomerular filtration barrier. The next generation of in vitro glomerular models must be suitable for high(er)-content or/and high(er)-throughput screening to enable continuous and systematic monitoring. Moreover, coupling of glomerular or kidney models with those of other organs is a promising approach to enable modelling of partial or full-body responses to drugs and prediction of therapeutic outcomes.


Assuntos
Biomimética , Nefropatias , Feminino , Humanos , Rim , Glomérulos Renais , Masculino , Microfluídica , Organoides
17.
Nanomicro Lett ; 14(1): 41, 2022 Jan 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34981278

RESUMO

During the last decades, the use of nanotechnology in medicine has effectively been translated to the design of drug delivery systems, nanostructured tissues, diagnostic platforms, and novel nanomaterials against several human diseases and infectious pathogens. Nanotechnology-enabled vaccines have been positioned as solutions to mitigate the pandemic outbreak caused by the novel pathogen severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. To fast-track the development of vaccines, unprecedented industrial and academic collaborations emerged around the world, resulting in the clinical translation of effective vaccines in less than one year. In this article, we provide an overview of the path to translation from the bench to the clinic of nanotechnology-enabled messenger ribonucleic acid vaccines and examine in detail the types of delivery systems used, their mechanisms of action, obtained results during each phase of their clinical development and their regulatory approval process. We also analyze how nanotechnology is impacting global health and economy during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond.

18.
medRxiv ; 2022 Jan 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32995803

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 precipitates respiratory distress by infection of airway epithelial cells and is often accompanied by acute kidney injury. We report that Kidney Injury Molecule-1/T cell immunoglobulin mucin domain 1 (KIM-1/TIM-1) is expressed in lung and kidney epithelial cells in COVID-19 patients and is a receptor for SARS-CoV-2. Human and mouse lung and kidney epithelial cells express KIM-1 and endocytose nanoparticles displaying the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (virosomes). Uptake was inhibited by anti-KIM-1 antibodies and TW-37, a newly discovered inhibitor of KIM-1-mediated endocytosis. Enhanced KIM-1 expression by human kidney tubuloids increased uptake of virosomes. KIM-1 binds to the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein in vitro . KIM-1 expressing cells, not expressing angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), are permissive to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Thus, KIM-1 is an alternative receptor to ACE2 for SARS-CoV-2. KIM-1 targeted therapeutics may prevent and/or treat COVID-19.

19.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 79(2): 231-243.e1, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34175376

RESUMO

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Plasma kidney injury molecule 1 (KIM-1) is a sensitive marker of proximal tubule injury, but its association with risks of adverse clinical outcomes across a spectrum of kidney diseases is unknown. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, observational cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: 524 individuals enrolled into the Boston Kidney Biopsy Cohort (BKBC) Study undergoing clinically indicated native kidney biopsy with biopsy specimens adjudicated for semiquantitative scores of histopathology by 2 kidney pathologists and 3,800 individuals with common forms of chronic kidney disease (CKD) enrolled into the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study. EXPOSURE: Histopathologic lesions and clinicopathologic diagnosis in cross-sectional analyses, baseline plasma KIM-1 levels in prospective analyses. OUTCOMES: Baseline plasma KIM-1 levels in cross-sectional analyses, kidney failure (defined as initiation of kidney replacement therapy) and death in prospective analyses. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Multivariable-adjusted linear regression models tested associations of plasma KIM-1 levels with histopathologic lesions and clinicopathologic diagnoses. Cox proportional hazards models tested associations of plasma KIM-1 levels with future kidney failure and death. RESULTS: In the BKBC Study, higher plasma KIM-1 levels were associated with more severe acute tubular injury, tubulointerstitial inflammation, and more severe mesangial expansion after multivariable adjustment. Participants with diabetic nephropathy, glomerulopathies, and tubulointerstitial disease had significantly higher plasma KIM-1 levels after multivariable adjustment. In the BKBC Study, CKD in 124 participants progressed to kidney failure and 85 participants died during a median follow-up time of 5 years. In the CRIC Study, CKD in 1,153 participants progressed to kidney failure and 1,356 participants died during a median follow-up time of 11.5 years. In both cohorts, each doubling of plasma KIM-1 level was associated with an increased risk of kidney failure after multivariable adjustment (hazard ratios of 1.19 [95% CI, 1.03-1.38] and 1.10 [95% CI, 1.06-1.15] for BKBC and CRIC, respectively). There was no statistically significant association of plasma KIM-1 levels with death in either cohort. LIMITATIONS: Generalizability and unmeasured confounding. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma KIM-1 is associated with underlying tubulointerstitial and mesangial lesions and progression to kidney failure in 2 cohort studies of individuals with kidney diseases.


Assuntos
Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Biomarcadores , Biópsia , Boston/epidemiologia , Estudos de Coortes , Estudos Transversais , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Rim , Estudos Prospectivos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/diagnóstico , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia
20.
Nephron ; 146(3): 274-277, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34649246

RESUMO

DNA damage is an important consequence of injury to the proximal tubule. The proximal tubule cell responds to this damage by mounting a DNA damage response (DDR). Two protein kinases, ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) or ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related (ATR), play an important role in this DDR. If efficient, the DDR can lead to repair of the DNA, cell renewal, and return to a healthy state. In many cases, however, especially in the setting of baseline kidney injury, there is incomplete repair. In human chronic kidney disease (CKD) and in human kidney organoids exposed to acute injury, there is increased evidence of DNA damage and activation of ATR. This review focuses on 3 aspects of the DNA damage and response to it: (1) DNA damage and the DDR precipitated by acute injury; (2) protection afforded by the DDR kinase, ATR, in multiple mouse models of acute kidney injury; and (3) downstream effects of genetic inhibition of ATR in the proximal tubule, leading to maladaptive repair, fibrosis, and CKD.


Assuntos
Injúria Renal Aguda , Ataxia Telangiectasia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica , Injúria Renal Aguda/genética , Animais , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/genética , Proteínas Mutadas de Ataxia Telangiectasia/metabolismo , Dano ao DNA , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/genética
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