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1.
Elife ; 82019 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31647408

RESUMO

How variants with different frequencies contribute to trait variation is a central question in genetics. We use a unique model system to disentangle the contributions of common and rare variants to quantitative traits. We generated ~14,000 progeny from crosses among 16 diverse yeast strains and identified thousands of quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for 38 traits. We combined our results with sequencing data for 1,011 yeast isolates to show that rare variants make a disproportionate contribution to trait variation. Evolutionary analyses revealed that this contribution is driven by rare variants that arose recently, and that negative selection has shaped the relationship between variant frequency and effect size. We leveraged the structure of the crosses to resolve hundreds of QTLs to single genes. These results refine our understanding of trait variation at the population level and suggest that studies of rare variants are a fertile ground for discovery of genetic effects.

2.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 2680, 2019 06 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213597

RESUMO

Genetic studies of complex traits in animals have been hindered by the need to generate, maintain, and phenotype large panels of recombinant lines. We developed a new method, C. elegans eXtreme Quantitative Trait Locus (ceX-QTL) mapping, that overcomes this obstacle via bulk selection on millions of unique recombinant individuals. We use ceX-QTL to map a drug resistance locus with high resolution. We also map differences in gene expression in live worms and discovered that mutations in the co-chaperone sti-1 upregulate the transcription of HSP-90. Lastly, we use ceX-QTL to map loci that influence fitness genome-wide confirming previously reported causal variants and uncovering new fitness loci. ceX-QTL is fast, powerful and cost-effective, and will accelerate the study of complex traits in animals.


Assuntos
Caenorhabditis elegans/genética , Mapeamento Cromossômico/métodos , Aptidão Genética/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Animais , Mapeamento Cromossômico/economia , Resistência a Medicamentos/genética , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Masculino , Fatores de Tempo
4.
Nat Genet ; 51(5): 793-803, 2019 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31043756

RESUMO

Bipolar disorder is a highly heritable psychiatric disorder. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) including 20,352 cases and 31,358 controls of European descent, with follow-up analysis of 822 variants with P < 1 × 10-4 in an additional 9,412 cases and 137,760 controls. Eight of the 19 variants that were genome-wide significant (P < 5 × 10-8) in the discovery GWAS were not genome-wide significant in the combined analysis, consistent with small effect sizes and limited power but also with genetic heterogeneity. In the combined analysis, 30 loci were genome-wide significant, including 20 newly identified loci. The significant loci contain genes encoding ion channels, neurotransmitter transporters and synaptic components. Pathway analysis revealed nine significantly enriched gene sets, including regulation of insulin secretion and endocannabinoid signaling. Bipolar I disorder is strongly genetically correlated with schizophrenia, driven by psychosis, whereas bipolar II disorder is more strongly correlated with major depressive disorder. These findings address key clinical questions and provide potential biological mechanisms for bipolar disorder.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar/genética , Loci Gênicos , Transtorno Bipolar/classificação , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Transtornos Psicóticos/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Biologia de Sistemas
5.
Nat Genet ; 51(4): 659-674, 2019 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30911161

RESUMO

Transcriptomic imputation approaches combine eQTL reference panels with large-scale genotype data in order to test associations between disease and gene expression. These genic associations could elucidate signals in complex genome-wide association study (GWAS) loci and may disentangle the role of different tissues in disease development. We used the largest eQTL reference panel for the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to create a set of gene expression predictors and demonstrate their utility. We applied DLPFC and 12 GTEx-brain predictors to 40,299 schizophrenia cases and 65,264 matched controls for a large transcriptomic imputation study of schizophrenia. We identified 413 genic associations across 13 brain regions. Stepwise conditioning identified 67 non-MHC genes, of which 14 did not fall within previous GWAS loci. We identified 36 significantly enriched pathways, including hexosaminidase-A deficiency, and multiple porphyric disorder pathways. We investigated developmental expression patterns among the 67 non-MHC genes and identified specific groups of pre- and postnatal expression.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/fisiopatologia , Expressão Gênica/genética , Esquizofrenia/genética , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Genótipo , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Risco , Transcriptoma/genética
6.
Hum Mol Genet ; 27(22): 3964-3973, 2018 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30124855

RESUMO

The precise molecular mechanisms by which urate-associated genetic variants affect urate levels are unknown. Here, we tested for functional linkage of the maximally associated genetic variant rs1967017 at the PDZK1 locus to elevated PDZK1 expression. We performed expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) and likelihood analyses and gene expression assays. Zebrafish were used to evaluate tissue-specific gene expression. Luciferase assays in HEK293 and HepG2 cells measured the effect of rs1967017 on transcription amplitude. Probabilistic Annotation Integrator analysis revealed rs1967017 as most likely to be causal and rs1967017 was an eQTL for PDZK1 in the intestine. The region harboring rs1967017 was capable of directly driving green fluorescent protein expression in the kidney, liver and intestine of zebrafish embryos, consistent with a conserved ability to confer tissue-specific expression. Small interfering RNA depletion of HNF4A reduced endogenous PDZK1 expression in HepG2 cells. Luciferase assays showed that the T allele of rs1967017 gains enhancer activity relative to the urate-decreasing C allele, with T allele enhancer activity abrogated by HNF4A depletion. HNF4A physically binds the rs1967017 region, suggesting direct transcriptional regulation of PDZK1 by HNF4A. Computational prediction of increased motif strength, together with our functional assays, suggests that the urate-increasing T allele of rs1967017 strengthens a binding site for the transcription factor HNF4A. Our and other data predict that the urate-raising T allele of rs1967017 enhances HNF4A binding to the PDZK1 promoter, thereby increasing PDZK1 expression. As PDZK1 is a scaffold protein for many ion channel transporters, increased expression can be predicted to increase activity of urate transporters and alter excretion of urate.

7.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 3472, 2018 08 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30135520

RESUMO

In the original version of this Article, Supplementary Table 10 contained incorrect primer sequences for the mobility shift assay for SNP rs4776984. These errors have now been fixed and the corrected version of the Supplementary Information PDF is available to download from the HTML version of the Article.

8.
Am J Hum Genet ; 102(6): 1169-1184, 2018 06 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29805045

RESUMO

Causal genes and variants within genome-wide association study (GWAS) loci can be identified by integrating GWAS statistics with expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) and determining which variants underlie both GWAS and eQTL signals. Most analyses, however, consider only the marginal eQTL signal, rather than dissect this signal into multiple conditionally independent signals for each gene. Here we show that analyzing conditional eQTL signatures, which could be important under specific cellular or temporal contexts, leads to improved fine mapping of GWAS associations. Using genotypes and gene expression levels from post-mortem human brain samples (n = 467) reported by the CommonMind Consortium (CMC), we find that conditional eQTL are widespread; 63% of genes with primary eQTL also have conditional eQTL. In addition, genomic features associated with conditional eQTL are consistent with context-specific (e.g., tissue-, cell type-, or developmental time point-specific) regulation of gene expression. Integrating the 2014 Psychiatric Genomics Consortium schizophrenia (SCZ) GWAS and CMC primary and conditional eQTL data reveals 40 loci with strong evidence for co-localization (posterior probability > 0.8), including six loci with co-localization of conditional eQTL. Our co-localization analyses support previously reported genes, identify novel genes associated with schizophrenia risk, and provide specific hypotheses for their functional follow-up.

9.
Nat Commun ; 9(1): 1512, 2018 04 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29666371

RESUMO

Increased adiposity is a hallmark of obesity and overweight, which affect 2.2 billion people world-wide. Understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms that underlie obesity-related phenotypes can help to improve treatment options and drug development. Here we perform promoter Capture Hi-C in human adipocytes to investigate interactions between gene promoters and distal elements as a transcription-regulating mechanism contributing to these phenotypes. We find that promoter-interacting elements in human adipocytes are enriched for adipose-related transcription factor motifs, such as PPARG and CEBPB, and contribute to heritability of cis-regulated gene expression. We further intersect these data with published genome-wide association studies for BMI and BMI-related metabolic traits to identify the genes that are under genetic cis regulation in human adipocytes via chromosomal interactions. This integrative genomics approach identifies four cis-eQTL-eGene relationships associated with BMI or obesity-related traits, including rs4776984 and MAP2K5, which we further confirm by EMSA, and highlights 38 additional candidate genes.

10.
Bioinformatics ; 34(15): 2538-2545, 2018 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29579179

RESUMO

Motivation: Most genetic variants implicated in complex diseases by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) are non-coding, making it challenging to understand the causative genes involved in disease. Integrating external information such as quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping of molecular traits (e.g. expression, methylation) is a powerful approach to identify the subset of GWAS signals explained by regulatory effects. In particular, expression QTLs (eQTLs) help pinpoint the responsible gene among the GWAS regions that harbor many genes, while methylation QTLs (mQTLs) help identify the epigenetic mechanisms that impact gene expression which in turn affect disease risk. In this work, we propose multiple-trait-coloc (moloc), a Bayesian statistical framework that integrates GWAS summary data with multiple molecular QTL data to identify regulatory effects at GWAS risk loci. Results: We applied moloc to schizophrenia (SCZ) and eQTL/mQTL data derived from human brain tissue and identified 52 candidate genes that influence SCZ through methylation. Our method can be applied to any GWAS and relevant functional data to help prioritize disease associated genes. Availability and implementation: moloc is available for download as an R package (https://github.com/clagiamba/moloc). We also developed a web site to visualize the biological findings (icahn.mssm.edu/moloc). The browser allows searches by gene, methylation probe and scenario of interest. Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

11.
Ann Rheum Dis ; 77(4): 571-578, 2018 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29247128

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Mitochondria have an important role in the induction of the NLRP3 inflammasome response central in gout. The objective was to test whether mitochondrial genetic variation and copy number in New Zealand Maori and Pacific (Polynesian) people in Aotearoa New Zealand associate with susceptibility to gout. METHODS: 437 whole mitochondrial genomes from Maori and Pacific people (predominantly men) from Aotearoa New Zealand (327 people with gout, 110 without gout) were sequenced. Mitochondrial DNA copy number variation was determined by assessing relative read depth using data produced from whole genome sequencing (32 cases, 43 controls) and targeted resequencing of urate loci (151 cases, 222 controls). Quantitative PCR was undertaken for replication of copy number findings in an extended sample set of 1159 Maori and Pacific men and women (612 cases, 547 controls). RESULTS: There was relatively little mitochondrial genetic diversity, with around 96% of those sequenced in this study belonging to the B4a1a and derived sublineages. A B haplogroup heteroplasmy in hypervariable region I was found to associate with a higher risk of gout among the mitochondrial sequenced sample set (position 16181: OR=1.57, P=0.001). Increased copies of mitochondrial DNA were found to protect against gout risk with the effect being consistent when using hyperuricaemic controls across each of the three independent sample sets (OR=0.89, P=0.007; OR=0.90, P=0.002; OR=0.76, P=0.03). Paradoxically, an increase of mitochondrial DNA also associated with an increase in gout flare frequency in people with gout in the two larger sample sets used for the copy number analysis (ß=0.003, P=7.1×10-7; ß=0.08, P=1.2×10-4). CONCLUSION: Association of reduced copy number with gout in hyperuricaemia was replicated over three Polynesian sample sets. Our data are consistent with emerging research showing that mitochondria are important for the colocalisation of the NLRP3 and ASC inflammasome subunits, a process essential for the generation of interleukin-1ß in gout.

12.
Arthritis Rheumatol ; 69(7): 1461-1469, 2017 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28371506

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: There is no evidence for a genetic association between organic anion transporters 1-3 (SLC22A6, SLC22A7, and SLC22A8) and multidrug resistance protein 4 (MRP4; encoded by ABCC4) with the levels of serum urate or gout. The Maori and Pacific (Polynesian) population of New Zealand has the highest prevalence of gout worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine whether any Polynesian population-specific genetic variants in SLC22A6-8 and ABCC4 are associated with gout. METHODS: All participants had ≥3 self-reported Maori and/or Pacific grandparents. Among the total sample set of 1,808 participants, 191 hyperuricemic and 202 normouricemic individuals were resequenced over the 4 genes, and the remaining 1,415 individuals were used for replication. Regression analyses were performed, adjusting for age, sex, and Polynesian ancestry. To study the functional effect of nonsynonymous variants of ABCC4, transport assays were performed in Xenopus laevis oocytes. RESULTS: A total of 39 common variants were detected, with an ABCC4 variant (rs4148500) significantly associated with hyperuricemia and gout. This variant was monomorphic for the urate-lowering allele in Europeans. There was evidence for an association of rs4148500 with gout in the resequenced samples (odds ratio [OR] 1.62 [P = 0.012]) that was replicated (OR 1.25 [P = 0.033]) and restricted to men (OR 1.43 [P = 0.001] versus OR 0.98 [P = 0.89] in women). The gout risk allele was associated with fractional excretion of uric acid in male individuals (ß = -0.570 [P = 0.01]). A rare population-specific allele (P1036L) with predicted strong functional consequence reduced the uric acid transport activity of ABCC4 by 30%. CONCLUSION: An association between ABCC4 and gout and fractional excretion of uric acid is consistent with the established role of MRP4 as a unidirectional renal uric acid efflux pump.


Assuntos
Gota/genética , Hiperuricemia/genética , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/genética , Adulto , Animais , Western Blotting , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Proteínas Associadas à Resistência a Múltiplos Medicamentos/metabolismo , Nova Zelândia , Oócitos/metabolismo , Proteína 1 Transportadora de Ânions Orgânicos/genética , Transportadores de Ânions Orgânicos Sódio-Independentes/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Ácido Úrico/metabolismo , Ácido Úrico/urina , Xenopus laevis
13.
Bioinformatics ; 33(15): 2307-2313, 2017 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28369161

RESUMO

Motivation: Expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs), genetic variants associated with gene expression levels, are identified in eQTL mapping studies. Such studies typically test for an association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and expression under an additive model, which ignores interaction and haplotypic effects. Mismatches between the model tested and the underlying genetic architecture can lead to a loss of association power. Here we introduce a new haplotype-based test for eQTL studies that looks for haplotypic effects on expression levels. Our test is motivated by compound heterozygous architectures, a common disease model for recessive monogenic disorders, where two different alleles can have the same effect on a gene's function. Results: When the underlying true causal architecture for a simulated gene is a compound heterozygote, our method is better able to capture the signal than the marginal SNP method. When the underlying model is a single SNP, there is no difference in the power of our method relative to the marginal SNP method. We apply our method to empirical gene expression data measured in 373 European individuals from the GEUVADIS study and find 29 more eGenes (genes with at least one association) than the standard marginal SNP method. Furthermore, in 974 of the 3529 total eGenes, our haplotype-based method results in a stronger association signal than the standard marginal SNP method. This demonstrates our method both increases power over the standard method and provides evidence of haplotypic architectures regulating gene expression. Availability and Implementation: http://bogdan.bioinformatics.ucla.edu/software/. Contact: rob.brown@ucla.edu or pasaniuc@ucla.edu.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Haplótipos , Modelos Genéticos , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Estatística como Assunto , Estudos de Associação Genética/métodos , Humanos , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
14.
BMC Med Genet ; 17(1): 80, 2016 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27846814

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The gene PPARGC1A, in particular the Gly482Ser variant (rs8192678), had been proposed to be subject to natural selection, particularly in recent progenitors of extant Polynesian populations. Reasons include high levels of population differentiation and increased frequencies of the derived type 2 diabetes (T2D) risk 482Ser allele, and association with body mass index (BMI) in a small Tongan population. However, no direct statistical tests for selection have been applied. METHODS: Using a range of Polynesian populations (Tongan, Maori, Samoan) we re-examined evidence for association between Gly482Ser with T2D and BMI as well as gout. Using also Asian, European, and African 1000 Genome Project samples a range of statistical tests for selection (F ST, integrated haplotype score (iHS), cross population extended haplotype homozygosity (XP-EHH), Tajima's D and Fay and Wu's H) were conducted on the PPARGC1A locus. RESULTS: No statistically significant evidence for association between Gly482Ser and any of BMI, T2D or gout was found. Population differentiation (F ST) was smallest between Asian and Pacific populations (New Zealand Maori ≤ 0.35, Samoan ≤ 0.20). When compared to European (New Zealand Maori ≤ 0.40, Samoan ≤ 0.25) or African populations (New Zealand Maori ≤ 0.80, Samoan ≤ 0.66) this differentiation was larger. We did not find any strong evidence for departure from neutral evolution at this locus when applying any of the other statistical tests for selection. However, using the same analytical methods, we found evidence for selection in specific populations at previously identified loci, indicating that lack of selection was the most likely explanation for the lack of evidence of selection in PPARGC1A. CONCLUSION: We conclude that there is no compelling evidence for selection at this locus, and that this gene should not be considered a candidate thrifty gene locus in Pacific populations. High levels of population differentiation at this locus and the reported absence of the derived 482Ser allele in some Melanesian populations, can alternatively be explained by multiple out-of-Africa migrations by ancestral progenitors, and subsequent genetic drift during colonisation of Polynesia. Intermediate 482Ser allele frequencies in extant Western Polynesian populations could therefore be due to recent admixture with Melanesian progenitors.


Assuntos
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais Oceânicos/genética , Coativador 1-alfa do Receptor gama Ativado por Proliferador de Peroxissomo/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Alelos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/patologia , Feminino , Genótipo , Gota/genética , Gota/patologia , Haplótipos , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Samoa , Seleção Genética , Tonga , Adulto Jovem
15.
Front Genet ; 7: 160, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27695476

RESUMO

Copy-number variation (CNV) has been associated with increased risk of complex diseases. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies facilitate the detection of copy-number variable regions (CNVRs) and their breakpoints. This helps in understanding genome structure as well as their evolution process. Various approaches have been proposed for detecting CNV breakpoints, but currently it is still challenging for tools based on a single analysis method to identify breakpoints of CNVs. It has been shown, however, that pipelines which integrate multiple approaches are able to report more reliable breakpoints. Here, based on HTS data, we have developed a pipeline to identify approximate breakpoints (±10 bp) relating to different ancestral events within a specific CNVR. The pipeline combines read-depth and split-read information to infer breakpoints, using information from multiple samples to allow an imputation approach to be taken. The main steps involve using a normal mixture model to cluster samples into different groups, followed by simple kernel-based approaches to maximize information obtained from read-depth and split-read approaches, after which common breakpoints of groups are inferred. The pipeline uses split-read information directly from CIGAR strings of BAM files, without using a re-alignment step. On simulated data sets, it was able to report breakpoints for very low-coverage samples including those for which only single-end reads were available. When applied to three loci from existing human resequencing data sets (NEGR1, LCE3, IRGM) the pipeline obtained good concordance with results from the 1000 Genomes Project (92, 100, and 82%, respectively). The package is available at https://github.com/hoangtn/SRBreak, and also as a docker-based application at https://registry.hub.docker.com/u/hoangtn/srbreak/.

16.
PLoS One ; 11(5): e0155046, 2016.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27224451

RESUMO

While Phoenician culture and trade networks had a significant impact on Western civilizations, we know little about the Phoenicians themselves. In 1994, a Punic burial crypt was discovered on Byrsa Hill, near the entry to the National Museum of Carthage in Tunisia. Inside this crypt were the remains of a young man along with a range of burial goods, all dating to the late 6th century BCE. Here we describe the complete mitochondrial genome recovered from the Young Man of Byrsa and identify that he carried a rare European haplogroup, likely linking his maternal ancestry to Phoenician influenced locations somewhere on the North Mediterranean coast, the islands of the Mediterranean or the Iberian Peninsula. This result not only provides the first direct ancient DNA evidence of a Phoenician individual but the earliest evidence of a European mitochondrial haplogroup, U5b2c1, in North Africa.


Assuntos
DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Europeu/genética , Haplótipos , História Antiga , Humanos , Masculino , Tunísia
17.
PLoS One ; 10(10): e0138536, 2015.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26444283

RESUMO

Dogs accompanied people in their migrations across the Pacific Ocean and ultimately reached New Zealand, which is the southern-most point of their oceanic distribution, around the beginning of the fourteenth century AD. Previous ancient DNA analyses of mitochondrial control region sequences indicated the New Zealand dog population included two lineages. We sequenced complete mitochondrial genomes of fourteen dogs from the colonisation era archaeological site of Wairau Bar and found five closely-related haplotypes. The limited number of mitochondrial lineages present at Wairau Bar suggests that the founding population may have comprised only a few dogs; or that the arriving dogs were closely related. For populations such as that at Wairau Bar, which stemmed from relatively recent migration events, control region sequences have insufficient power to address questions about population structure and founding events. Sequencing mitogenomes provided the opportunity to observe sufficient diversity to discriminate between individuals that would otherwise be assigned the same haplotype and to clarify their relationships with each other. Our results also support the proposition that at least one dispersal of dogs into the Pacific was via a south-western route through Indonesia.


Assuntos
Cães/genética , Genoma Mitocondrial/genética , Mitocôndrias/genética , Animais , DNA Mitocondrial/genética , Genética Populacional/métodos , Geografia/métodos , Haplótipos/genética , Indonésia , Nova Zelândia , Oceano Pacífico , Filogenia , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos
18.
BMC Genomics ; 16: 848, 2015 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26493398

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Copy number variation (CNV) is a common feature of eukaryotic genomes, and a growing body of evidence suggests that genes affected by CNV are enriched in processes that are associated with environmental responses. Here we use next generation sequence (NGS) data to detect copy-number variable regions (CNVRs) within the Malus x domestica genome, as well as to examine their distribution and impact. METHODS: CNVRs were detected using NGS data derived from 30 accessions of M. x domestica analyzed using the read-depth method, as implemented in the CNVrd2 software. To improve the reliability of our results, we developed a quality control and analysis procedure that involved checking for organelle DNA, not repeat masking, and the determination of CNVR identity using a permutation testing procedure. RESULTS: Overall, we identified 876 CNVRs, which spanned 3.5 % of the apple genome. To verify that detected CNVRs were not artifacts, we analyzed the B- allele-frequencies (BAF) within a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array dataset derived from a screening of 185 individual apple accessions and found the CNVRs were enriched for SNPs having aberrant BAFs (P < 1e-13, Fisher's Exact test). Putative CNVRs overlapped 845 gene models and were enriched for resistance (R) gene models (P < 1e-22, Fisher's exact test). Of note was a cluster of resistance gene models on chromosome 2 near a region containing multiple major gene loci conferring resistance to apple scab. CONCLUSION: We present the first analysis and catalogue of CNVRs in the M. x domestica genome. The enrichment of the CNVRs with R gene models and their overlap with gene loci of agricultural significance draw attention to a form of unexplored genetic variation in apple. This research will underpin further investigation of the role that CNV plays within the apple genome.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA/genética , Genoma , Malus/genética , Genótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
19.
BMC Bioinformatics ; 16: 21, 2015 Jan 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25626999

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Pausing of DNA polymerase can indicate the presence of a DNA structure that differs from the canonical double-helix. Here we detail a method to investigate how polymerase pausing in the Pacific Biosciences sequencer reads can be related to DNA sequences. The Pacific Biosciences sequencer uses optics to view a polymerase and its interaction with a single DNA molecule in real-time, offering a unique way to detect potential alternative DNA structures. RESULTS: We have developed a new way to examine polymerase kinetics data and relate it to the DNA sequence by using a wavelet transform of read information from the sequencer. We use this method to examine how polymerase kinetics are related to nucleotide base composition. We then examine tandem repeat sequences known for their ability to form different DNA structures: (CGG)n and (CG)n repeats which can, respectively, form G-quadruplex DNA and Z-DNA. We find pausing around the (CGG)n repeat that may indicate the presence of G-quadruplexes in some of the sequencer reads. The (CG)n repeat does not appear to cause polymerase pausing, but its kinetics signature nevertheless suggests the possibility that alternative nucleotide conformations may sometimes be present. CONCLUSION: We discuss the implications of using our method to discover DNA sequences capable of forming alternative structures. The analyses presented here can be reproduced on any Pacific Biosciences kinetics data for any DNA pattern of interest using an R package that we have made publicly available.


Assuntos
DNA Forma Z/química , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/química , DNA/química , Quadruplex G , Análise de Sequência de DNA/métodos , DNA/metabolismo , DNA Polimerase Dirigida por DNA/metabolismo , Humanos , Cinética , Modelos Moleculares
20.
Front Genet ; 5: 293, 2014.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25206364

RESUMO

The detection of "signatures of selection" is now possible on a genome-wide scale in many plant and animal species, and can be performed in a population-specific manner due to the wealth of per-population genome-wide genotype data that is available. With genomic regions that exhibit evidence of having been under selection shown to also be enriched for genes associated with biologically important traits, detection of evidence of selective pressure is emerging as an additional approach for identifying novel gene-trait associations. While high-density genotype data is now relatively easy to obtain, for many researchers it is not immediately obvious how to go about identifying signatures of selection in these data sets. Here we describe a basic workflow, constructed from open source tools, for detecting and examining evidence of selection in genomic data. Code to install and implement the pipeline components, and instructions to run a basic analysis using the workflow described here, can be downloaded from our public GitHub repository: http://www.github.com/smilefreak/selectionTools/

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