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1.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 24(2): 103-109, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34213412

RESUMO

There are research questions whose answers require record linkage of multiple databases that may be characterized by limited options for full data sharing. For this purpose, the Open Data Infrastructure for Social Science and Economic Innovations (ODISSEI) consortium has supported the development of the ODISSEI Secure Supercomputer (OSSC) platform that allows researchers to link cohort data to data from Statistics Netherlands and run large-scale analyses in a high-performance computing (HPC) environment. Here, we report a successful record linkage genomewide association (GWA) study on expenditure for total health, mental health, primary and hospital care, and medication. Record linkage for genotype data from 16,726 participants from the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR) with data from Statistics Netherlands was accomplished in the secure OSSC platform, followed by gene-based tests and estimation of total and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-based heritability. The total heritability of expenditure ranged between 29.4% (SE 0.8) and 37.5% (SE 0.8), but GWA analyses did not identify SNPs or genes that were genomewide significantly associated with health care expenditure. SNP-based heritability was between 0.0% (SE 3.5) and 5.4% (SE 4.0) and was different from zero for mental health care and primary care expenditure. We conclude that successfully linking genotype data to administrative health care expenditure data from Statistics Netherlands is feasible and demonstrates a series of analyses on health care expenditure. The OSSC platform offers secure possibilities for analyzing linked data in large scale and realizing sample sizes required for GWA studies, providing invaluable opportunities to answer many new research questions.

2.
Am J Psychiatry ; : appiajp202020091390, 2021 May 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33985350

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), a 10-item screen for alcohol use disorder (AUD), have elucidated novel loci for alcohol consumption and misuse. However, these studies also revealed that GWASs can be influenced by numerous biases (e.g., measurement error, selection bias), which may have led to inconsistent genetic correlations between alcohol involvement and AUD, as well as paradoxically negative genetic correlations between alcohol involvement and psychiatric disorders and/or medical conditions. The authors used genomic structural equation modeling to elucidate the genetics of alcohol consumption and problematic consequences of alcohol use as measured by AUDIT. METHODS: To explore these unexpected differences in genetic correlations, the authors conducted the first item-level and the largest GWAS of AUDIT items (N=160,824) and applied a multivariate framework to mitigate previous biases. RESULTS: The authors identified novel patterns of similarity (and dissimilarity) among the AUDIT items and found evidence of a correlated two-factor structure at the genetic level ("consumption" and "problems," rg=0.80). Moreover, by applying empirically derived weights to each of the AUDIT items, the authors constructed an aggregate measure of alcohol consumption that was strongly associated with alcohol dependence (rg=0.67), moderately associated with several other psychiatric disorders, and no longer positively associated with health and positive socioeconomic outcomes. Lastly, by conducting polygenic analyses in three independent cohorts that differed in their ascertainment and prevalence of AUD, the authors identified novel genetic associations between alcohol consumption, alcohol misuse, and health. CONCLUSIONS: This work further emphasizes the value of AUDIT for both clinical and genetic studies of AUD and the importance of using multivariate methods to study genetic associations that are more closely related to AUD.

3.
Hum Mol Genet ; 2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33955455

RESUMO

Birth weight (BW) is an important predictor of newborn survival and health and has associations with many adult health outcomes, including cardio-metabolic disorders, autoimmune diseases, and mental health. On average, twins have a lower BW than singletons as a result of a different pattern of fetal growth and shorter gestational duration. Therefore, investigations into the genetics of BW often exclude data from twins, leading to a reduction in sample size and remaining ambiguities concerning the genetic contribution to BW in twins. In this study, we carried out a genome-wide association meta-analysis of BW in 42 212 twin individuals and found a positive correlation of beta values (Pearson's r = 0.66, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.47-0.77) with 150 previously reported genome-wide significant variants for singleton BW. We identified strong positive genetic correlations between BW in twins and numerous anthropometric traits, most notably with BW in singletons (genetic correlation [rg] = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.66-1.18). Genetic correlations of BW in twins with a series of health-related traits closely resembled those previously observed for BW in singletons. Polygenic scores constructed from a genome-wide association study on BW in UK Biobank demonstrated strong predictive power in a target sample of Dutch twins and singletons. Together, our results indicate that a similar genetic architecture underlies BW in twins and singletons and that future genome-wide studies might benefit from including data from large twin registers.

4.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0238667, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33914742

RESUMO

Aggressive behavior in school is an ongoing concern. The current focus is on specific manifestations such as bullying, but the behavior is broad and heterogenous. Children spend a substantial amount of time in school, but their behaviors in the school setting tend to be less well characterized than at home. Because aggression may index multiple behavioral problems, we used three validated instruments to assess means, correlations and gender differences of teacher-rated aggressive behavior with co-occurring externalizing/internalizing problems and social behavior in 39,936 schoolchildren aged 7-14 from 4 population-based cohorts from Finland, the Netherlands, and the UK. Correlations of aggressive behavior were high with all other externalizing problems (r: 0.47-0.80) and lower with internalizing problems (r: 0.02-0.39). A negative association was observed with prosocial behavior (r: -0.33 to -0.54). Mean levels of aggressive behavior differed significantly by gender. Despite the higher mean levels of aggressive behavior in boys, the correlations were notably similar for boys and girls (e.g., aggressive-hyperactivity correlations: 0.51-0.75 boys, 0.47-0.70 girls) and did not vary greatly with respect to age, instrument or cohort. Thus, teacher-rated aggressive behavior rarely occurs in isolation; boys and girls with problems of aggressive behavior likely require help with other behavioral and emotional problems. Important to note, higher aggressive behavior is not only associated with higher amounts of other externalizing and internalizing problems but also with lower levels of prosocial behavior.

5.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 182, 2021 03 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33753722

RESUMO

Low-frequency 1q21.1 distal deletion and duplication copy number variant (CNV) carriers are predisposed to multiple neurodevelopmental disorders, including schizophrenia, autism and intellectual disability. Human carriers display a high prevalence of micro- and macrocephaly in deletion and duplication carriers, respectively. The underlying brain structural diversity remains largely unknown. We systematically called CNVs in 38 cohorts from the large-scale ENIGMA-CNV collaboration and the UK Biobank and identified 28 1q21.1 distal deletion and 22 duplication carriers and 37,088 non-carriers (48% male) derived from 15 distinct magnetic resonance imaging scanner sites. With standardized methods, we compared subcortical and cortical brain measures (all) and cognitive performance (UK Biobank only) between carrier groups also testing for mediation of brain structure on cognition. We identified positive dosage effects of copy number on intracranial volume (ICV) and total cortical surface area, with the largest effects in frontal and cingulate cortices, and negative dosage effects on caudate and hippocampal volumes. The carriers displayed distinct cognitive deficit profiles in cognitive tasks from the UK Biobank with intermediate decreases in duplication carriers and somewhat larger in deletion carriers-the latter potentially mediated by ICV or cortical surface area. These results shed light on pathobiological mechanisms of neurodevelopmental disorders, by demonstrating gene dose effect on specific brain structures and effect on cognitive function.


Assuntos
Variações do Número de Cópias de DNA , Esquizofrenia , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Deleção Cromossômica , Cognição , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Esquizofrenia/genética
6.
BMC Genomics ; 22(1): 184, 2021 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33722199

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Aging is a multifactorial process that affects multiple tissues and is characterized by changes in homeostasis over time, leading to increased morbidity. Whole blood gene expression signatures have been associated with aging and have been used to gain information on its biological mechanisms, which are still not fully understood. However, blood is composed of many cell types whose proportions in blood vary with age. As a result, previously observed associations between gene expression levels and aging might be driven by cell type composition rather than intracellular aging mechanisms. To overcome this, previous aging studies already accounted for major cell types, but the possibility that the reported associations are false positives driven by less prevalent cell subtypes remains. RESULTS: Here, we compared the regression model from our previous work to an extended model that corrects for 33 additional white blood cell subtypes. Both models were applied to whole blood gene expression data from 3165 individuals belonging to the general population (age range of 18-81 years). We evaluated that the new model is a better fit for the data and it identified fewer genes associated with aging (625, compared to the 2808 of the initial model; P ≤ 2.5⨯10-6). Moreover, 511 genes (~ 18% of the 2808 genes identified by the initial model) were found using both models, indicating that the other previously reported genes could be proxies for less abundant cell types. In particular, functional enrichment of the genes identified by the new model highlighted pathways and GO terms specifically associated with platelet activity. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that gene expression analyses in blood strongly benefit from correction for both common and rare blood cell types, and recommend using blood-cell count estimates as standard covariates when studying whole blood gene expression.


Assuntos
Envelhecimento , Transcriptoma , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Envelhecimento/genética , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem
7.
Psychiatry Res ; 299: 113837, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721783

RESUMO

ABO blood types and their corresponding antigens have long been assumed to be related to different human diseases. So far, smaller studies on the relationship between mental disorders and blood types yielded contradicting results. In this study we analyzed the association between ABO blood types and lifetime major depressive disorder (MDD). We performed a pooled analysis with data from 26 cohorts that are part of the MDD working group of the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC). The dataset included 37,208 individuals of largely European ancestry of which 41.6% were diagnosed with lifetime MDD. ABO blood types were identified using three single nucleotide polymorphisms in the ABO gene: rs505922, rs8176746 and rs8176747. Regression analyses were performed to assess associations between the individual ABO blood types and MDD diagnosis as well as putative interaction effects with sex. The models were adjusted for sex, cohort and the first ten genetic principal components. The percentage of blood type A was slightly lower in cases than controls while blood type O was more prominent in cases. However, these differences were not statistically significant. Our analyses found no evidence of an association between ABO blood types and major depressive disorder.

8.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 69, 2021 Mar 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731105

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Sleep traits are associated with cardiometabolic disease risk, with evidence from Mendelian randomization (MR) suggesting that insomnia symptoms and shorter sleep duration increase coronary artery disease risk. We combined adjusted multivariable regression (AMV) and MR analyses of phenotypes of unfavourable sleep on 113 metabolomic traits to investigate possible biochemical mechanisms linking sleep to cardiovascular disease. METHODS: We used AMV (N = 17,368) combined with two-sample MR (N = 38,618) to examine effects of self-reported insomnia symptoms, total habitual sleep duration, and chronotype on 113 metabolomic traits. The AMV analyses were conducted on data from 10 cohorts of mostly Europeans, adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index. For the MR analyses, we used summary results from published European-ancestry genome-wide association studies of self-reported sleep traits and of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) serum metabolites. We used the inverse-variance weighted (IVW) method and complemented this with sensitivity analyses to assess MR assumptions. RESULTS: We found consistent evidence from AMV and MR analyses for associations of usual vs. sometimes/rare/never insomnia symptoms with lower citrate (- 0.08 standard deviation (SD)[95% confidence interval (CI) - 0.12, - 0.03] in AMV and - 0.03SD [- 0.07, - 0.003] in MR), higher glycoprotein acetyls (0.08SD [95% CI 0.03, 0.12] in AMV and 0.06SD [0.03, 0.10) in MR]), lower total very large HDL particles (- 0.04SD [- 0.08, 0.00] in AMV and - 0.05SD [- 0.09, - 0.02] in MR), and lower phospholipids in very large HDL particles (- 0.04SD [- 0.08, 0.002] in AMV and - 0.05SD [- 0.08, - 0.02] in MR). Longer total sleep duration associated with higher creatinine concentrations using both methods (0.02SD per 1 h [0.01, 0.03] in AMV and 0.15SD [0.02, 0.29] in MR) and with isoleucine in MR analyses (0.22SD [0.08, 0.35]). No consistent evidence was observed for effects of chronotype on metabolomic measures. CONCLUSIONS: Whilst our results suggested that unfavourable sleep traits may not cause widespread metabolic disruption, some notable effects were observed. The evidence for possible effects of insomnia symptoms on glycoprotein acetyls and citrate and longer total sleep duration on creatinine and isoleucine might explain some of the effects, found in MR analyses of these sleep traits on coronary heart disease, which warrant further investigation.

9.
Ann Neurol ; 89(5): 987-1000, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33583080

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: The present work was undertaken to study the genetic contribution to the start of Alzheimer's disease (AD) with amyloid and tau biomarkers in cognitively intact older identical twins. METHODS: We studied in 96 monozygotic twin-pairs relationships between amyloid-beta (Aß) aggregation as measured by the Aß1-42/1-40 ratio in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF; n = 126) and positron emission tomography (PET, n = 194), and CSF markers for Aß production (beta-secretase 1, Aß1-40, and Aß1-38) and CSF tau. Associations among markers were tested with generalized estimating equations including a random effect for twin status, adjusted for age, gender, and apolipoprotein E ε4 genotype. We used twin analyses to determine relative contributions of genetic and/or environmental factors to AD pathophysiological processes. RESULTS: Twenty-seven individuals (14%) had an abnormal amyloid PET, and 14 twin-pairs (15%) showed discordant amyloid PET scans. Within twin-pairs, Aß production markers and total-tau (t-tau) levels strongly correlated (r range = 0.73-0.86, all p < 0.0001), and Aß aggregation markers and 181-phosphorylated-tau (p-tau) levels correlated moderately strongly (r range = 0.50-0.64, all p < 0.0001). Cross-twin cross-trait analysis showed that Aß1-38 in one twin correlated with Aß1-42/1-40 ratios, and t-tau and p-tau levels in their cotwins (r range = -0.28 to 0.58, all p < .007). Within-pair differences in Aß production markers related to differences in tau levels (r range = 0.49-0.61, all p < 0.0001). Twin discordance analyses suggest that Aß production and tau levels show coordinated increases in very early AD. INTERPRETATION: Our results suggest a substantial genetic/shared environmental background contributes to both Aß and tau increases, suggesting that modulation of environmental risk factors may aid in delaying the onset of AD pathophysiological processes. ANN NEUROL 2021;89:987-1000.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Doença de Alzheimer/genética , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico por imagem , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Biomarcadores/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Depressão/psicologia , Meio Ambiente , Feminino , Genótipo , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Testes Neuropsicológicos , Fragmentos de Peptídeos/líquido cefalorraquidiano , Tomografia por Emissão de Pósitrons , Gêmeos Monozigóticos , Proteínas tau/líquido cefalorraquidiano
10.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2021 Feb 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570244

RESUMO

Age has a major effect on brain volume. However, the normative studies available are constrained by small sample sizes, restricted age coverage and significant methodological variability. These limitations introduce inconsistencies and may obscure or distort the lifespan trajectories of brain morphometry. In response, we capitalized on the resources of the Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium to examine age-related trajectories inferred from cross-sectional measures of the ventricles, the basal ganglia (caudate, putamen, pallidum, and nucleus accumbens), the thalamus, hippocampus and amygdala using magnetic resonance imaging data obtained from 18,605 individuals aged 3-90 years. All subcortical structure volumes were at their maximum value early in life. The volume of the basal ganglia showed a monotonic negative association with age thereafter; there was no significant association between age and the volumes of the thalamus, amygdala and the hippocampus (with some degree of decline in thalamus) until the sixth decade of life after which they also showed a steep negative association with age. The lateral ventricles showed continuous enlargement throughout the lifespan. Age was positively associated with inter-individual variability in the hippocampus and amygdala and the lateral ventricles. These results were robust to potential confounders and could be used to examine the functional significance of deviations from typical age-related morphometric patterns.

11.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2021 Feb 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33595143

RESUMO

Delineating the association of age and cortical thickness in healthy individuals is critical given the association of cortical thickness with cognition and behavior. Previous research has shown that robust estimates of the association between age and brain morphometry require large-scale studies. In response, we used cross-sectional data from 17,075 individuals aged 3-90 years from the Enhancing Neuroimaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis (ENIGMA) Consortium to infer age-related changes in cortical thickness. We used fractional polynomial (FP) regression to quantify the association between age and cortical thickness, and we computed normalized growth centiles using the parametric Lambda, Mu, and Sigma method. Interindividual variability was estimated using meta-analysis and one-way analysis of variance. For most regions, their highest cortical thickness value was observed in childhood. Age and cortical thickness showed a negative association; the slope was steeper up to the third decade of life and more gradual thereafter; notable exceptions to this general pattern were entorhinal, temporopolar, and anterior cingulate cortices. Interindividual variability was largest in temporal and frontal regions across the lifespan. Age and its FP combinations explained up to 59% variance in cortical thickness. These results may form the basis of further investigation on normative deviation in cortical thickness and its significance for behavioral and cognitive outcomes.

12.
Transl Psychiatry ; 11(1): 96, 2021 02 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542229

RESUMO

Studies considering the causal role of body mass index (BMI) for the predisposition of major depressive disorder (MDD) based on a Mendelian Randomization (MR) approach have shown contradictory results. These inconsistent findings may be attributable to the heterogeneity of MDD; in fact, several studies have documented associations between BMI and mainly the atypical subtype of MDD. Using a MR approach, we investigated the potential causal role of obesity in both the atypical subtype and its five specific symptoms assessed according to the Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), in two large European cohorts, CoLaus|PsyCoLaus (n = 3350, 1461 cases and 1889 controls) and NESDA|NTR (n = 4139, 1182 cases and 2957 controls). We first tested general obesity measured by BMI and then the body fat distribution measured by waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). Results suggested that BMI is potentially causally related to the symptom increase in appetite, for which inverse variance weighted, simple median and weighted median MR regression estimated slopes were 0.68 (SE = 0.23, p = 0.004), 0.77 (SE = 0.37, p = 0.036), and 1.11 (SE = 0.39, p = 0.004). No causal effect of BMI or WHR was found on the risk of the atypical subtype or for any of the other atypical symptoms. Our findings show that higher obesity is likely causal for the specific symptom of increase in appetite in depressed participants and reiterate the need to study depression at the granular level of its symptoms to further elucidate potential causal relationships and gain additional insight into its biological underpinnings.


Assuntos
Transtorno Depressivo Maior , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Índice de Massa Corporal , Depressão , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/epidemiologia , Transtorno Depressivo Maior/genética , Humanos , Obesidade/epidemiologia , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
13.
Neuroimage ; 231: 117842, 2021 05 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33581291

RESUMO

Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) has an inherently low signal-to-noise ratio largely due to thermal and physiological noise that attenuates the functional connectivity (FC) estimates. Such attenuation limits the reliability of FC and may bias its association with other traits. Low reliability also limits heritability estimates. Classical test theory can be used to obtain a true correlation estimate free of random measurement error from parallel tests, such as split-half sessions of a rs-fMRI scan. We applied a measurement model to split-half FC estimates from the resting-state fMRI data of 1003 participants from the Human Connectome Project (HCP) to examine the benefit of reliability modelling of FC in association with traits from various domains. We evaluated the efficiency of the measurement model on extracting a stable and reliable component of FC and its association with several traits for various sample sizes and scan durations. In addition, we aimed to replicate our previous findings of increased heritability estimates when using a measurement model in a longitudinal adolescent twin cohort. The split-half measurement model improved test-retest reliability of FC on average with +0.33 points (from +0.49 to +0.82), improved strength of associations between FC and various traits on average 1.2-fold (range 1.09-1.35), and increased heritability estimates on average with +20% points (from 39% to 59%) for the full HCP dataset. On average, about half of the variance in split-session FC estimates was attributed to the stable and reliable component of FC. Shorter scan durations showed greater benefit of reliability modelling (up to 1.6-fold improvement), with an additional gain for smaller sample sizes (up to 1.8-fold improvement). Reliability modelling of FC based on a split-half using a measurement model can benefit genetic and behavioral studies by extracting a stable and reliable component of FC that is free from random measurement error and improves genetic and behavioral associations.

14.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2021 Feb 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33615640

RESUMO

The Enhancing NeuroImaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis copy number variant (ENIGMA-CNV) and 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome Working Groups (22q-ENIGMA WGs) were created to gain insight into the involvement of genetic factors in human brain development and related cognitive, psychiatric and behavioral manifestations. To that end, the ENIGMA-CNV WG has collated CNV and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from ~49,000 individuals across 38 global research sites, yielding one of the largest studies to date on the effects of CNVs on brain structures in the general population. The 22q-ENIGMA WG includes 12 international research centers that assessed over 533 individuals with a confirmed 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, 40 with 22q11.2 duplications, and 333 typically developing controls, creating the largest-ever 22q11.2 CNV neuroimaging data set. In this review, we outline the ENIGMA infrastructure and procedures for multi-site analysis of CNVs and MRI data. So far, ENIGMA has identified effects of the 22q11.2, 16p11.2 distal, 15q11.2, and 1q21.1 distal CNVs on subcortical and cortical brain structures. Each CNV is associated with differences in cognitive, neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric traits, with characteristic patterns of brain structural abnormalities. Evidence of gene-dosage effects on distinct brain regions also emerged, providing further insight into genotype-phenotype relationships. Taken together, these results offer a more comprehensive picture of molecular mechanisms involved in typical and atypical brain development. This "genotype-first" approach also contributes to our understanding of the etiopathogenesis of brain disorders. Finally, we outline future directions to better understand effects of CNVs on brain structure and behavior.

15.
Behav Genet ; 51(3): 237-249, 2021 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523349

RESUMO

The assumption in the twin model that genotypic and environmental variables are uncorrelated is primarily made to ensure parameter identification, not because researchers necessarily think that these variables are uncorrelated. Although the biasing effects of such correlations are well understood, a method to estimate these parameters in the twin model would be useful. Here we explore the possibility of relaxing this assumption by adding polygenic scores to the (univariate) twin model. We demonstrate that this extension renders the additive genetic (A)-common environmental (C) covariance (σAC) identified. We study the statistical power to reject σAC = 0 in the ACE model and present the results of simulations.

16.
Addict Biol ; : e13015, 2021 Feb 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33604983

RESUMO

Risky behaviors, such as substance use and unprotected sex, are associated with various physical and mental health problems. Recent genome-wide association studies indicated that variation in the cell adhesion molecule 2 (CADM2) gene plays a role in risky behaviors and self-control. In this phenome-wide scan for risky behavior, it was tested if underlying common vulnerability could be (partly) explained by pleiotropic effects of this gene and how large the effects were. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP)-level and gene-level association tests within four samples (25 and Up, Spit for Science, Netherlands Twin Register, and UK Biobank and meta-analyses over all samples (combined sample of 362,018 participants) were conducted to test associations between CADM2, substance- and sex-related risk behaviors, and various measures related to self-control. We found significant associations between the CADM2 gene, various risky behaviors, and different measures of self-control. The largest effect sizes were found for cannabis use, sensation seeking, and disinhibition. Effect sizes ranged from 0.01% to 0.26% for single top SNPs and from 0.07% to 3.02% for independent top SNPs together, with sufficient power observed only in the larger samples and meta-analyses. In the largest cohort, we found indications that risk-taking proneness mediated the association between CADM2 and latent factors for lifetime smoking and regular alcohol use. This study extends earlier findings that CADM2 plays a role in risky behaviors and self-control. It also provides insight into gene-level effect sizes and demonstrates the feasibility of testing mediation. These findings present a good starting point for investigating biological etiological pathways underlying risky behaviors.

17.
Gastroenterology ; 160(6): 1970-1985, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33476671

RESUMO

BACKGROUND & AIMS: It is currently unclear whether reported changes in the gut microbiome are cause or consequence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore, we studied the gut microbiome of IBD-discordant and -concordant twin pairs, which offers the unique opportunity to assess individuals at increased risk of developing IBD, namely healthy cotwins from IBD-discordant twin pairs. METHODS: Fecal samples were obtained from 99 twins (belonging to 51 twin pairs), 495 healthy age-, sex-, and body mass index-matched controls, and 99 unrelated patients with IBD. Whole-genome metagenomic shotgun sequencing was performed. Taxonomic and functional (pathways) composition was compared among healthy cotwins, IBD-twins, unrelated patients with IBD, and healthy controls with multivariable (ie, adjusted for potential confounding) generalized linear models. RESULTS: No significant differences were observed in the relative abundance of species and pathways between healthy cotwins and their IBD-twins (false discovery rate <0.10). Compared with healthy controls, 13, 19, and 18 species, and 78, 105, and 153 pathways were found to be differentially abundant in healthy cotwins, IBD-twins, and unrelated patients with IBD, respectively (false discovery rate <0.10). Of these, 8 (42.1%) of 19 and 1 (5.6%) of 18 species, and 37 (35.2%) of 105 and 30 (19.6%) of 153 pathways overlapped between healthy cotwins and IBD-twins, and healthy cotwins and unrelated patients with IBD, respectively. Many of the shared species and pathways have previously been associated with IBD. The shared pathways include potentially inflammation-related pathways, for example, an increase in propionate degradation and L-arginine degradation pathways. CONCLUSIONS: The gut microbiome of healthy cotwins from IBD-discordant twin pairs displays IBD-like signatures. These IBD-like microbiome signatures might precede the onset of IBD. However, longitudinal follow-up studies are needed to infer a causal relationship.

18.
Nat Genet ; 53(1): 35-44, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33414549

RESUMO

Little is known about the genetic architecture of traits affecting educational attainment other than cognitive ability. We used genomic structural equation modeling and prior genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of educational attainment (n = 1,131,881) and cognitive test performance (n = 257,841) to estimate SNP associations with educational attainment variation that is independent of cognitive ability. We identified 157 genome-wide-significant loci and a polygenic architecture accounting for 57% of genetic variance in educational attainment. Noncognitive genetics were enriched in the same brain tissues and cell types as cognitive performance, but showed different associations with gray-matter brain volumes. Noncognitive genetics were further distinguished by associations with personality traits, less risky behavior and increased risk for certain psychiatric disorders. For socioeconomic success and longevity, noncognitive and cognitive-performance genetics demonstrated associations of similar magnitude. By conducting a GWAS of a phenotype that was not directly measured, we offer a view of genetic architecture of noncognitive skills influencing educational success.


Assuntos
Cognição , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagem , Tomada de Decisões , Escolaridade , Fertilidade , Humanos , Inteligência , Transtornos Mentais/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Anotação de Sequência Molecular , Herança Multifatorial/genética , Personalidade , Fenótipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Assunção de Riscos
19.
Nat Genet ; 53(2): 156-165, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33462485

RESUMO

To study the effect of host genetics on gut microbiome composition, the MiBioGen consortium curated and analyzed genome-wide genotypes and 16S fecal microbiome data from 18,340 individuals (24 cohorts). Microbial composition showed high variability across cohorts: only 9 of 410 genera were detected in more than 95% of samples. A genome-wide association study of host genetic variation regarding microbial taxa identified 31 loci affecting the microbiome at a genome-wide significant (P < 5 × 10-8) threshold. One locus, the lactase (LCT) gene locus, reached study-wide significance (genome-wide association study signal: P = 1.28 × 10-20), and it showed an age-dependent association with Bifidobacterium abundance. Other associations were suggestive (1.95 × 10-10 < P < 5 × 10-8) but enriched for taxa showing high heritability and for genes expressed in the intestine and brain. A phenome-wide association study and Mendelian randomization identified enrichment of microbiome trait loci in the metabolic, nutrition and environment domains and suggested the microbiome might have causal effects in ulcerative colitis and rheumatoid arthritis.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiologia , Variação Genética , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Adolescente , Adulto , Bifidobacterium/genética , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Humanos , Lactase/genética , Desequilíbrio de Ligação , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Metabolismo/genética , RNA Ribossômico 16S
20.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 47: 100904, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33434882

RESUMO

The trend toward large-scale collaborative studies gives rise to the challenge of combining data from different sources efficiently. Here, we demonstrate how Bayesian evidence synthesis can be used to quantify and compare support for competing hypotheses and to aggregate this support over studies. We applied this method to study the ordering of multi-informant scores on the ASEBA Self Control Scale (ASCS), employing a multi-cohort design with data from four Dutch cohorts. Self-control reports were collected from mothers, fathers, teachers and children themselves. The available set of reporters differed between cohorts, so in each cohort varying components of the overarching hypotheses were evaluated. We found consistent support for the partial hypothesis that parents reported more self-control problems than teachers. Furthermore, the aggregated results indicate most support for the combined hypothesis that children report most problem behaviors, followed by their mothers and fathers, and that teachers report the fewest problems. However, there was considerable inconsistency across cohorts regarding the rank order of children's reports. This article illustrates Bayesian evidence synthesis as a method when some of the cohorts only have data to evaluate a partial hypothesis. With Bayesian evidence synthesis, these cohorts can still contribute to the aggregated results.

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