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1.
Hum Brain Mapp ; 2020 Oct 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33044802

RESUMO

For many traits, males show greater variability than females, with possible implications for understanding sex differences in health and disease. Here, the ENIGMA (Enhancing Neuro Imaging Genetics through Meta-Analysis) Consortium presents the largest-ever mega-analysis of sex differences in variability of brain structure, based on international data spanning nine decades of life. Subcortical volumes, cortical surface area and cortical thickness were assessed in MRI data of 16,683 healthy individuals 1-90 years old (47% females). We observed significant patterns of greater male than female between-subject variance for all subcortical volumetric measures, all cortical surface area measures, and 60% of cortical thickness measures. This pattern was stable across the lifespan for 50% of the subcortical structures, 70% of the regional area measures, and nearly all regions for thickness. Our findings that these sex differences are present in childhood implicate early life genetic or gene-environment interaction mechanisms. The findings highlight the importance of individual differences within the sexes, that may underpin sex-specific vulnerability to disorders.

2.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; : 1-6, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059787

RESUMO

We compare the power of two different approaches to detect passive genotype-environment (GE) covariance originating from cultural and genetic transmission operating simultaneously. In the traditional nuclear twin family (NTF) design, cultural transmission is estimated from the phenotypic covariance matrices of the mono- and dizygotic twins and their parents. Here, phenotyping is required in all family members. A more recent method is the transmitted-nontransmitted (T-NT) allele design, which exploits measured genetic variants in parents and offspring to test for effects of nontransmitted alleles from parents. This design requires two-generation genome-wide data and a powerful genome-wide association study (GWAS) for the phenotype in addition to phenotyping in offspring. We compared the power of both designs. Using exact data simulation, we demonstrate three points: how the power of the T-NT design depends on the predictive power of polygenic risk scores (PRSs); that when the NTF design can be applied, its power to detect cultural transmission and GE covariance is high relative to T-NT; and that, given effect sizes from contemporary GWAS, adding PRSs to the NTF design does not yield an appreciable increase in the power to detect cultural transmission. However, it may be difficult to collect phenotypes of parents and the possible importance of gene × age interaction, and secular generational effects can cause complications for many important phenotypes. The T-NT design avoids these complications.

3.
Behav Genet ; 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33064246

RESUMO

Type D (Distressed) personality combines negative affectivity (NA) and social inhibition (SI) and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We aimed to (1) validate a new proxy based on the Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment (ASEBA) for Type D personality and its NA and SI subcomponents and (2) estimate the heritability of the Type D proxy in an extended twin-pedigree design in the Netherlands Twin Register (NTR). Proxies for the dichotomous Type D classification, and continuous NA, SI, and NAxSI (the continuous measure of Type D) scales were created based on 12 ASEBA items for 30,433 NTR participants (16,449 twins and 13,984 relatives from 11,106 pedigrees) and sources of variation were analyzed in the 'Mendel' software package. We estimated additive and non-additive genetic variance components, shared household and unique environmental variance components and ran bivariate models to estimate the genetic and non-genetic covariance between NA and SI. The Type D proxy showed good reliability and construct validity. The best fitting genetic model included additive and non-additive genetic effects with broad-sense heritabilities for NA, SI and NAxSI estimated at 49%, 50% and 49%, respectively. Household effects showed small contributions (4-9%) to the total phenotypic variation. The genetic correlation between NA and SI was .66 (reflecting both additive and non-additive genetic components). Thus, Type D personality and its NA and SI subcomponents are heritable, with a shared genetic basis for the two subcomponents.

4.
JAMA Dermatol ; 2020 Oct 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052394

RESUMO

Importance: Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic, inflammatory skin disease in which genetic factors are considered to play a role, with up to 38% of patients reporting a family history. Variations in the γ-secretase genes are found mainly in familial cases with an autosomal dominant pattern of inheritance. These variations are rare in the general population with hidradenitis suppurativa, even in patients who report a family history of the disease. Objective: To assess the heritability of hidradenitis suppurativa in a nationwide Dutch twin cohort. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cross-sectional study on self-reported hidradenitis suppurativa conducted from 2011 to 2016, data were collected from twins participating in the surveys of the nationwide Netherlands Twin Register. All complete twin pairs answering the question on hidradenitis suppurativa in the survey were included: 978 female monozygotic twin pairs and 344 male monozygotic twin pairs and 426 female dizygotic twin pairs, 167 male dizygotic twin pairs, and 428 dizygotic twin pairs of the opposite sex. Statistical analysis was performed from July to November 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome is the proportion of susceptibility to hidradenitis suppurativa due to additive genetic factors (narrow-sense heritability), dominant genetic factors, common or shared environmental factors, or unshared or unique environmental factors. The main outcome was evaluated prior to data collection. Results: The prevalence of hidradenitis suppurativa among twin pairs was 1.2% (58 of 4686); the mean (SD) age was 32.7 (15.4) years. The narrow-sense heritability of hidradenitis suppurativa was 77% (95% CI, 54%-90%), with the remainder of the variance due to unshared or unique environmental factors based on an age-adjusted model combining additive genetic factors and unshared or unique environmental factors. Conclusions and Relevance: The high heritability found in this study suggests a stronger than previously assumed genetic basis of hidradenitis suppurativa. Environmental factors were also shown to contribute to the susceptibility to hidradenitis suppurativa, supporting a multifactorial cause of the disease. Moreover, the results of this study strongly support the need for a global genome-wide association study in the general population of patients with hidradenitis suppurativa.

5.
Cereb Cortex ; 2020 Oct 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33073292

RESUMO

Children and adolescents show high variability in brain development. Brain age-the estimated biological age of an individual brain-can be used to index developmental stage. In a longitudinal sample of adolescents (age 9-23 years), including monozygotic and dizygotic twins and their siblings, structural magnetic resonance imaging scans (N = 673) at 3 time points were acquired. Using brain morphology data of different types and at different spatial scales, brain age predictors were trained and validated. Differences in brain age between males and females were assessed and the heritability of individual variation in brain age gaps was calculated. On average, females were ahead of males by at most 1 year, but similar aging patterns were found for both sexes. The difference between brain age and chronological age was heritable, as was the change in brain age gap over time. In conclusion, females and males show similar developmental ("aging") patterns but, on average, females pass through this development earlier. Reliable brain age predictors may be used to detect (extreme) deviations in developmental state of the brain early, possibly indicating aberrant development as a sign of risk of neurodevelopmental disorders.

6.
Acta Ophthalmol ; 2020 Oct 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33073531

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Several studies found reduced retinal thickness on optical coherence tomography (OCT) in Alzheimer's disease (AD), even in preclinical stages, labelling this technique of interest as biomarker. In this study, we examine retinal thickness changes in preclinical AD, as defined by cognitively normal individuals with amyloid-beta (Aß) on positron emission tomography (PET). METHODS: For this monocentre study, 145 cognitively healthy monozygotic twins aged ≥ 60 were included from the Netherlands Twin Register taking part in the EMIF-AD PreclinAD study. At baseline, participants underwent [18 F] flutemetamol PET that was visually rated for cortical Aß. Binding potential was calculated as continuous measure for Aß. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) was performed at baseline and after 22 months to assess changes in total and individual inner retinal layer thickness in the macular region (ETDRS circles) and peripapillary retinal nerve fibre layer thickness. Differences in rate of change between amyloid-beta positive and negative individuals and associations between binding potential and change in retinal thickness were evaluated. RESULTS: Sixteen participants (11%) were positive for Aß. Change in retinal thickness did not differ in any region between Aß+ and Aß- individuals. A positive association between binding potential and change in inner plexiform layer thickness was observed in the inner macular ring (beta = 1.708, CI = 0.575 to 2.841, p = 0.003). CONCLUSION: Aß+ individuals did not differ in rate of change of any retinal layer compared to controls, but higher binding potential at baseline was associated with less IPL thinning over time. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a longitudinal screening tool for preclinical AD seems limited, but IPL changes offer leads for further research.

7.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 23(4): 195-203, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885771

RESUMO

Our current society is characterized by an increased availability of industrially processed foods with high salt, fat and sugar content. How is it that some people prefer these unhealthy foods while others prefer more healthy foods? It is suggested that both genetic and environmental factors play a role. The aim of this study was to (1) identify food preference clusters in the largest twin-family study into food preference to date and (2) determine the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to individual differences in food preference in the Netherlands. Principal component analysis was performed to identify the preference clusters by using data on food liking/disliking from 16,541 adult multiples and their family members. To estimate the heritability of food preference, the data of 7833 twins were used in structural equation models. We identified seven food preference clusters (Meat, Fish, Fruits, Vegetables, Savory snacks, Sweet snacks and Spices) and one cluster with Drinks. Broad-sense heritability (additive [A] + dominant [D] genetic factors) for these clusters varied between .36 and .60. Dominant genetic effects were found for the clusters Fruit, Fish (males only) and Spices. Quantitative sex differences were found for Meat, Fish and Savory snacks and Drinks. To conclude, our study convincingly showed that genetic factors play a significant role in food preference. A next important step is to identify these genes because genetic vulnerability for food preference is expected to be linked to actual food consumption and different diet-related disorders.

8.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 23(4): 214-220, 2020 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32885774

RESUMO

Loneliness is related to mental and somatic health outcomes, including borderline personality disorder. Here, we analyze the sources of variation that are responsible for the relationship between borderline personality features (including four dimensions, affective instability, identity disturbance, negative relationships, self-harm and a total score) and loneliness. Using genetically informative data from two large nonclinical samples of adult twin pairs from Australia and the Netherlands (N = 11,329), we estimate the phenotypic, genetic and environmental correlations between self-reported borderline personality features and loneliness. Individual differences in borderline personality and loneliness were best explained by additive genetic factors with heritability estimates h2 = 41% for the borderline personality total score and h2 = 36% for loneliness, with the remaining variation explained by environmental influences that were not shared by twins from the same pair. Genetic and environmental factors influencing borderline personality (total score and four subscales separately) were also partial causes of loneliness. The correlation between loneliness and the borderline personality total score was rph = .51. The genetic correlation was estimated at rg = .64 and the environmental correlation at re = .40. Our study suggests common etiological factors in loneliness and borderline personality features.

9.
Nat Hum Behav ; 2020 Sep 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989287

RESUMO

Handedness has been extensively studied because of its relationship with language and the over-representation of left-handers in some neurodevelopmental disorders. Using data from the UK Biobank, 23andMe and the International Handedness Consortium, we conducted a genome-wide association meta-analysis of handedness (N = 1,766,671). We found 41 loci associated (P < 5 × 10-8) with left-handedness and 7 associated with ambidexterity. Tissue-enrichment analysis implicated the CNS in the aetiology of handedness. Pathways including regulation of microtubules and brain morphology were also highlighted. We found suggestive positive genetic correlations between left-handedness and neuropsychiatric traits, including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Furthermore, the genetic correlation between left-handedness and ambidexterity is low (rG = 0.26), which implies that these traits are largely influenced by different genetic mechanisms. Our findings suggest that handedness is highly polygenic and that the genetic variants that predispose to left-handedness may underlie part of the association with some psychiatric disorders.

10.
Genome Biol ; 21(1): 220, 2020 Aug 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859263

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: DNA methylation is a key epigenetic modification in human development and disease, yet there is limited understanding of its highly coordinated regulation. Here, we identify 818 genes that affect DNA methylation patterns in blood using large-scale population genomics data. RESULTS: By employing genetic instruments as causal anchors, we establish directed associations between gene expression and distant DNA methylation levels, while ensuring specificity of the associations by correcting for linkage disequilibrium and pleiotropy among neighboring genes. The identified genes are enriched for transcription factors, of which many consistently increased or decreased DNA methylation levels at multiple CpG sites. In addition, we show that a substantial number of transcription factors affected DNA methylation at their experimentally determined binding sites. We also observe genes encoding proteins with heterogenous functions that have widespread effects on DNA methylation, e.g., NFKBIE, CDCA7(L), and NLRC5, and for several examples, we suggest plausible mechanisms underlying their effect on DNA methylation. CONCLUSION: We report hundreds of genes that affect DNA methylation and provide key insights in the principles underlying epigenetic regulation.

11.
Dev Cogn Neurosci ; 45: 100835, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32823179

RESUMO

Behaviors, traits and characteristics are transmitted from parents to offspring because of complex genetic and non-genetic processes. We review genetic and non-genetic mechanisms of intergenerational transmission of psychopathology and parenting and focus on recent methodological advances in disentangling genetic and non-genetic factors. In light of this review, we propose that future studies on intergenerational transmission should aim to disentangle genetic and non-genetic transmission, take a long-term longitudinal perspective, and focus on paternal and maternal intergenerational transmission. We present four large longitudinal cohort studies within the Consortium on Individual Development, which together address many of these methodological challenges. These four cohort studies aim to examine the extent to which genetic and non-genetic transmission from the parental generation shapes parenting behavior and psychopathology in the next generation, as well as the extent to which self-regulation and social competence mediate this transmission. Conjointly, these four cohorts provide a comprehensive approach to the study of intergenerational transmission.

12.
Twin Res Hum Genet ; 23(3): 145-155, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32635965

RESUMO

Metabolites are small molecules involved in cellular metabolism where they act as reaction substrates or products. The term 'metabolomics' refers to the comprehensive study of these molecules. The concentrations of metabolites in biological tissues are under genetic control, but this is limited by environmental factors such as diet. In adult mono- and dizygotic twin pairs, we estimated the contribution of genetic and shared environmental influences on metabolite levels by structural equation modeling and tested whether the familial resemblance for metabolite levels is mainly explained by genetic or by environmental factors that are shared by family members. Metabolites were measured across three platforms: two based on proton nuclear magnetic resonance techniques and one employing mass spectrometry. These three platforms comprised 237 single metabolic traits of several chemical classes. For the three platforms, metabolites were assessed in 1407, 1037 and 1116 twin pairs, respectively. We carried out power calculations to establish what percentage of shared environmental variance could be detected given these sample sizes. Our study did not find evidence for a systematic contribution of shared environment, defined as the influence of growing up together in the same household, on metabolites assessed in adulthood. Significant heritability was observed for nearly all 237 metabolites; significant contribution of the shared environment was limited to 6 metabolites. The top quartile of the heritability distribution was populated by 5 of the 11 investigated chemical classes. In this quartile, metabolites of the class lipoprotein were significantly overrepresented, whereas metabolites of classes glycerophospholipids and glycerolipids were significantly underrepresented.

13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3519, 2020 07 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665587

RESUMO

Estimates from Mendelian randomization studies of unrelated individuals can be biased due to uncontrolled confounding from familial effects. Here we describe methods for within-family Mendelian randomization analyses and use simulation studies to show that family-based analyses can reduce such biases. We illustrate empirically how familial effects can affect estimates using data from 61,008 siblings from the Nord-Trøndelag Health Study and UK Biobank and replicated our findings using 222,368 siblings from 23andMe. Both Mendelian randomization estimates using unrelated individuals and within family methods reproduced established effects of lower BMI reducing risk of diabetes and high blood pressure. However, while Mendelian randomization estimates from samples of unrelated individuals suggested that taller height and lower BMI increase educational attainment, these effects were strongly attenuated in within-family Mendelian randomization analyses. Our findings indicate the necessity of controlling for population structure and familial effects in Mendelian randomization studies.


Assuntos
Análise da Randomização Mendeliana/métodos , Índice de Massa Corporal , Epidemiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Fatores de Risco
14.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 183(6): 309-330, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681593

RESUMO

It is imperative to understand the specific and shared etiologies of major depression and cardio-metabolic disease, as both traits are frequently comorbid and each represents a major burden to society. This study examined whether there is a genetic association between major depression and cardio-metabolic traits and if this association is stratified by age at onset for major depression. Polygenic risk scores analysis and linkage disequilibrium score regression was performed to examine whether differences in shared genetic etiology exist between depression case control status (N cases = 40,940, N controls = 67,532), earlier (N = 15,844), and later onset depression (N = 15,800) with body mass index, coronary artery disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes in 11 data sets from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, Generation Scotland, and UK Biobank. All cardio-metabolic polygenic risk scores were associated with depression status. Significant genetic correlations were found between depression and body mass index, coronary artery disease, and type 2 diabetes. Higher polygenic risk for body mass index, coronary artery disease, and type 2 diabetes was associated with both early and later onset depression, while higher polygenic risk for stroke was associated with later onset depression only. Significant genetic correlations were found between body mass index and later onset depression, and between coronary artery disease and both early and late onset depression. The phenotypic associations between major depression and cardio-metabolic traits may partly reflect their overlapping genetic etiology irrespective of the age depression first presents.

15.
PLoS Genet ; 16(6): e1008725, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603359

RESUMO

Risk factors that contribute to inter-individual differences in the age-of-onset of allergic diseases are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify genetic risk variants associated with the age at which symptoms of allergic disease first develop, considering information from asthma, hay fever and eczema. Self-reported age-of-onset information was available for 117,130 genotyped individuals of European ancestry from the UK Biobank study. For each individual, we identified the earliest age at which asthma, hay fever and/or eczema was first diagnosed and performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of this combined age-of-onset phenotype. We identified 50 variants with a significant independent association (P<3x10-8) with age-of-onset. Forty-five variants had comparable effects on the onset of the three individual diseases and 38 were also associated with allergic disease case-control status in an independent study (n = 222,484). We observed a strong negative genetic correlation between age-of-onset and case-control status of allergic disease (rg = -0.63, P = 4.5x10-61), indicating that cases with early disease onset have a greater burden of allergy risk alleles than those with late disease onset. Subsequently, a multivariate GWAS of age-of-onset and case-control status identified a further 26 associations that were missed by the univariate analyses of age-of-onset or case-control status only. Collectively, of the 76 variants identified, 18 represent novel associations for allergic disease. We identified 81 likely target genes of the 76 associated variants based on information from expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) and non-synonymous variants, of which we highlight ADAM15, FOSL2, TRIM8, BMPR2, CD200R1, PRKCQ, NOD2, SMAD4, ABCA7 and UBE2L3. Our results support the notion that early and late onset allergic disease have partly distinct genetic architectures, potentially explaining known differences in pathophysiology between individuals.


Assuntos
Asma/genética , Eczema/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/genética , Adolescente , Adulto , Idade de Início , Idoso , Asma/patologia , Criança , Eczema/patologia , Feminino , Loci Gênicos , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla/métodos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Rinite Alérgica Sazonal/patologia
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32474928

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To conduct a comprehensive assessment of the association between aggression and academic performance in compulsory education. METHOD: We studied aggression and academic performance in over 27,000 individuals from four European twin cohorts participating in the ACTION consortium (Aggression in Children: Unraveling gene-environment interplay to inform Treatment and InterventiON strategies). Individual level data on aggression at ages 7-16 were assessed by three instruments (Achenbach System of Empirically Based Assessment, Multidimensional Peer Nomination Inventory, Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire) including parental, teacher and self-reports. Academic performance was measured with teacher-rated grade point averages (ages 12-14) or standardized test scores (ages 12-16). Random effect meta-analytical correlations with academic performance were estimated for parental ratings (in all four cohorts) and self-ratings (in three cohorts). RESULTS: All between-family analyses indicated significant negative aggression-academic performance associations with correlations ranging from -.06 to -.33. Results were similar across different ages, instruments and raters and either with teacher-rated grade point averages or standardized test scores as measures of academic performance. Meta-analytical r's were -.20 and -.23 for parental and self-ratings, respectively. In within-family analyses of all twin pairs, the negative aggression-academic performance associations were statistically significant in 14 out of 17 analyses (r = -.17 for parental- and r = -.16 for self-ratings). Separate analyses in monozygotic (r = -.07 for parental and self-ratings), same-sex dizygotic (r's = -.16 and -.17 for parental and self-ratings) and opposite-sex dizygotic (r's = -.21 and -.19 for parental and self-ratings) twin pairs suggested partial confounding by genetic effects. CONCLUSIONS: There is a robust negative association between aggression and academic performance in compulsory education. Part of these associations were explained by shared genetic effects, but some evidence of a negative association between aggression and academic performance remained even in within-family analyses of monozygotic twin pairs.

17.
Hypertension ; 76(1): 195-205, 2020 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520614

RESUMO

We conducted an epigenome-wide association study meta-analysis on blood pressure (BP) in 4820 individuals of European and African ancestry aged 14 to 69. Genome-wide DNA methylation data from peripheral leukocytes were obtained using the Infinium Human Methylation 450k BeadChip. The epigenome-wide association study meta-analysis identified 39 BP-related CpG sites with P<1×10-5. In silico replication in the CHARGE consortium of 17 010 individuals validated 16 of these CpG sites. Out of the 16 CpG sites, 13 showed novel association with BP. Conversely, out of the 126 CpG sites identified as being associated (P<1×10-7) with BP in the CHARGE consortium, 21 were replicated in the current study. Methylation levels of all the 34 CpG sites that were cross-validated by the current study and the CHARGE consortium were heritable and 6 showed association with gene expression. Furthermore, 9 CpG sites also showed association with BP with P<0.05 and consistent direction of the effect in the meta-analysis of the Finnish Twin Cohort (199 twin pairs and 4 singletons; 61% monozygous) and the Netherlands Twin Register (266 twin pairs and 62 singletons; 84% monozygous). Bivariate quantitative genetic modeling of the twin data showed that a majority of the phenotypic correlations between methylation levels of these CpG sites and BP could be explained by shared unique environmental rather than genetic factors, with 100% of the correlations of systolic BP with cg19693031 (TXNIP) and cg00716257 (JDP2) determined by environmental effects acting on both systolic BP and methylation levels.

18.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 213: 108102, 2020 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32585418

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The use of illicit substances is correlated, meaning that individuals who use one illicit substance are more likely to also use another illicit substance. This association could (partly) be explained by overlapping genetic factors. Genetic overlap may indicate a common underlying genetic predisposition, or can be the result of a causal association. METHODS: Polygenic scores for lifetime cannabis use were generated in a sample of Dutch participants (N = 8348). We tested the association of a PGS for cannabis use with ecstasy, stimulants and a broad category of illicit drug use. To explore the nature of the relationship: (1) these analyses were repeated separately in cannabis users and non-users and (2) monozogytic twin pairs discordant for cannabis use were compared on their drug use. RESULTS: The lifetime prevalence was 24.8 % for cannabis, 6.2 % for ecstasy, 6.5 % for stimulants and 7.1 % for any illicit drug use. Significant, positive associations were found between PGS for cannabis use with ecstasy use, stimulants and any illicit drug use. These associations seemed to be stronger in cannabis users compared to non-users for both ecstasy and stimulant use, but only in people born after 1968 and not significant after correction for multiple testing. The discordant twin pair analyses suggested that cannabis use could play a causal role in drug use. CONCLUSIONS: The genetic liability underlying cannabis use significantly explained variability in ecstasy, stimulant and any illicit drug use. Further research should further explore the underlying mechanism to understand the nature of the association.

19.
Behav Genet ; 50(4): 273-288, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32529491

RESUMO

We estimated the genetic covariance matrix among four inattention (INATT) and four hyperactivity (HYP) measures in the classical twin design. Data on INATT and HYP symptom counts were obtained in mono- and dizygotic twin pairs (N = 1593) with an average age of 12.2 years (sd = .51). We analyzed maternal ratings of INATT and HYP based on the Conners' Parent Rating Scale (CPRS), the Strengths and Weaknesses of ADHD-symptoms and Normal-behavior (SWAN), and teacher ratings based on the Conners' Teacher rating scale (CTRS) and the ASEBA Teacher Rating Form (TRF). Broad-sense heritabilities, corrected for the main effects of sex and for random teacher rater effects, were large (ranging from .658 to .912). The results reveal pervasive and strong broad-sense genetic effects on INATT and HYP phenotypes with the phenotypic covariance among the phenotypes largely due to correlated genetic effects. Specifically between 79.9 and 99.9% of the phenotypic covariance among the HYP measures, and between 81.0 and 93.5% of the INATT measures are attributable to broad-sense genetic effects. Overall, the present results, pertaining to the broad-sense heritabilities and shared genetic effects, support the current genome-wide association meta-analytic approach to identifying pleiotropic genetic variants.

20.
Addict Behav ; 108: 106421, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497976

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Ecstasy is one of the most commonly used illicit substances in Western countries. The aim of this study is to identify characteristics of ecstasy users in a large population-based sample of adults aged 18-45 years. METHOD: With generalized estimating equation models we explored the association between self-reported lifetime ecstasy use and urbanicity, educational attainment, health, wellbeing, stress, other substance use, personality traits and psychopathology in a Dutch twin sample (N = 9578, 66.8% female, 18-45 years). We also explored the nature of the association (underlying genetic factors, shared environmental factors or a causal relationship) with the co-twin control method. RESULTS: Lifetime ecstasy users (N = 945, 9.9%) were more often male, younger, living more often in urban areas, higher educated, less satisfied with life and more stressed than non-users. Ecstasy users scored differently on most personality and psychopathology scales compared to non-users and were more likely to have used every other substance we investigated. Whereas smoking tobacco and alcohol use often preceded first use of ecstasy, first ecstasy use often preceded first use of other illicit substances. A combination of scenarios (both causal and environmental/genetic) explained the strong associations between ecstasy and substance use. CONCLUSIONS: Ecstasy users differ on many characteristics from non-users, and especially on illicit substance use. Our results indicate that causal effects may play a role in explaining the relationship between ecstasy use and other illicit substance use.

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